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《中国生态文明建设》(中英对照)连载之二十六:生态农场告别农业六害

(2018-04-19 23:49:56)
分类: 建言新农村

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之二十六

生态农场告别农业六害

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明

3.2.2生态农场,告别农田六害

3.2.2 Ecological farm gets rid of the “6 curses”

                                                

2013年中秋节,山东平邑县蒋家庄村,一群农民围着中科院的一些女研究生买苹果。

In the mid-autumn festival of 2013, a crowd of farmers are gathering around some female postgraduates to buy their apples in the village of Jiangjiazhuang in Shandong.

 

村民们互相转告:“研究生种的苹果,没有打农药的,快来买。”

Villagers told each other: “Their apple trees use no pesticide, so come and buy some.”

 

蒋家庄村里有一个五岁的小女孩,吃了研究生的苹果后,再也不愿意吃普通的苹果了,整天闹着让爷爷到农场买好吃的苹果。

In the village, a five-year-old girl no longer wanted to eat other apples once she tried those apples sold by the postgraduates, telling her grandfather to buy only from this farm.

 

这些被农民们评价为“不好看,但好吃”的苹果,就来自于弘毅生态农场。

The apples (“not good-looking, but with good taste”—the comments by the local farmers) were from Hongyi ecological farm.

 

农场给当地带来的可不只是好吃的苹果,农场的整片土地甚至当地的生态都发生了重大变化。

This farm not only supplies delicious apples to the local people, but also brings great changes to the farmland and even the local ecology.

 

以生态农场为中心,小鸟多了起来,害虫少了。

In and around the ecological farm, birds have increased in number but pests are on the wane.

 

化肥用量少了,土壤变得又黑又湿润了。

As the amount of fertilizers used has dwindled, the soil has become dark and wet.

 

有机果园里20厘米土壤表层内每立方米蚯蚓近2000条,而农民的果园只有几十条甚至干脆灭绝了。农场的耕地生态恢复了。

In the organic orchard, there are nearly 2,000 earthworms per cubic meter in the top 20 centimeters of soil, while in the orchards of local farmers there are only dozens of earthworms or even none at all. The farmland has revitalized its ecology.

 

其实弘毅农场很小,是从40亩起步的,目前也只有150亩左右,投入的资金可以说大部分是我个人筹措的。20067月,它在中国科学院植物研究所的弘毅生态农业科研团队的努力下成立了。经过几年的摸索,弘毅农场成为了中国首个真正实现生态循环农业,彻底告别“农业六害”的农场。农场的一切生产活动都遵循生态循环思路,摒弃农药、化肥、除草剂、农膜、添加剂、转基因6项不可持续技术,增加生物多样性,从秸秆、“害”虫、“杂”草综合开发利用入手,种植、养殖、加工相结合,实现了农田内的元素循环与能量流动,生产出了纯正有机食品,实现了耕地固碳。农场低投入、零污染、高产出,闯出了一条生态循环农业之路。

In fact, Hongyi Organic Farm is very small in scale. Its area has enlarged from 40 mu to only 150 mu. I raised the initial fund to invest in the farm. It was set up in July 2006 with the efforts of Hongyi research team of ecological agriculture under the CAS Institute of Botany. After several years of research, it became the first farm in China to realize circular ecological farming and to get rid of the “6 curses on the farmland”, namely, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, herbicides, agricultural film, additives and GMO (gen modified organisms). They are all unsustainable technologies. In fact, all farming activities hinge on the concept of circular ecology. We have increased biodiversity, and through comprehensively utilizing straw “pests” and “weeds” and combining planting, breeding and processing, we have brought about the biogeochemical cycle and energy flow. We have succeeded in producing pure organic food and achieving carbon sequestration. With low cost, zero pollutants, and high yield, we have found an effective way to circular ecological agriculture.

 

弘毅生态农场用秸秆和杂草养牛,充分利用了种植业的副产品(秸秆)和废物(杂草),牛吃了田地里的废物,产生的牛粪通过堆肥,形成优质有机肥,取代了化肥,解决了农田的化肥污染问题。

Hongyi Organic Farm feeds cattle with straw and weeds, the by-product of farming and the waste of the land respectively. Feeding on these wastes in the field, cows can produce a lot of dung which is turned into high-quality organic fertilizer. By using this type of organic fertilizer to replace chemical fertilizer, the pollution problem has been removed.

 

原来收获季节,蒋家庄农民们也烧秸秆,狼烟四起。现在,农场给秸秆找到了出路,附近农民会开上拖拉机,推上手推车,把自己的秸秆卖给生态农场。通过畜牧业与农业结合,轻松解决了区域秸秆焚烧问题。

In previous harvest seasons, farmers in Jiangjiazhuang burned straw, thus producing heavy smoke. Now, Hongyi Organic Farm has found a way to recycle straw. The farmers nearby will come and sell their straw to our farm with the aid of their tractors and with trolleys. Through the combination of animal husbandry and farming, the problem of straw burning in the area has been easily solved.

 

农场综合利用物理方式和生物方式控制农田虫害。物理方式为利用脉冲式杀虫灯;生物方式包括饲养鸭、鸡、鹅等家禽,以及培育健康生态,进而恢复了天敌昆虫和野生鸟类,从而使农场彻底摆脱了农田的农药危害。

Our farm controls the damage by pests through comprehensive use of physical and biological methods. The physical methods include the use of an impulse-type insecticidal lamp, while the biological methods are executed through the raising of poultry like ducks, chickens and geese, and the cultivation of healthful ecology. The natural enemies of pests, like insects and wild birds, have returned to our farm, helping us get rid of harmful pesticides.

 

农场通过秸秆过腹还田、堆肥等方式,避免了化肥对土地的伤害,加上摆脱农药、除草剂等农田毒药,使农田生物多样性增加,土壤生态系统得以恢复;农场的土地由最初的劣质土壤变为了肥沃土壤,由低产田600公斤/变成吨粮田1028公斤/)。玉米、小麦周年产量超过一吨。自2009年起,农场已经全面实现盈利,每年能够盈利约93万元,涉及农业生产方面的投入已全部收回成本。生态循环农业在改善了当地生态环境的同时,生产力超过化学农业,盈利状况良好,展现出生态循环农业的美好前景。

By manure fertilizer treatment, composting, etc, we managed to avoid the harm of chemical fertilizer done to the farm. Poisonous pesticides and herbicides have dropped out of use. These are all reasons why the biodiversity in the farmland has been enhanced and why the soil ecosystem restored. Infertile soil has regained life; grain production has increased from 600 kg/mu to 1,028 kg/mu. The annual production of corn and wheat exceeds 1 ton per mu. Since 2009, our farm has become profitable and all the costs have been recovered with an annual profit of 930,000 Yuan. Developing agriculture of ecological cycle improves the local ecology helps exceed chemical agriculture in productivity and promotes the profitability of the farm. In a word, the agriculture of ecological cycle will have a beautiful future.

 

无论是化学农业还是生态农业,当然都是在优质的农田上收成更好。但是,生态农业能够在获得高产量的同时,改善耕地质量。中国有18亿亩耕地,如果拿出其中的6亿亩劣质农田,前期下决心投入,发展生态循环农业,有机种植,生态养殖,将获得很多好处:第一,优质的农产品,如果能够获得市场认可,获得足够的经济收入,就可以吸引农民回到农村,增加农村劳动力,从而挽救严重衰败的乡村经济和乡村文化。第二,农村劳动力充足,将更有利于中国告别“农业六害”,缓解日趋严重的农业面源污染。第三,告别“农业六害”的乡村,会自然恢复为生活空间适宜的乡村生态,可以发展观光生态旅游和乡村养老产业,促进城乡和谐。第四,大量的生态农业可以为中国城乡居民提供健康的食品,改善中国人的健康状况,支持中国的民生建设和可持续发展。更重要的是,经过几年生态循环农业耕作的土地,会由劣质农田渐渐转化为优质耕地,土地资源可以获得长久的、持续的利用,这正是中华民族永续发展所要求的。

Either the chemical agriculture or the ecological agriculture is expected to reap a good harvest from high-quality farmland. But ecological agriculture can improve land quality as well as get a high yield. There are 1.8 billion mu of farmland in China. If the 600 million mu of infertile farmland are invested with organic planting and ecological breeding in earlier stage to develop agriculture of ecological cycle, many benefits will be gained. First, if high-quality agriculture products are accepted by the market and make enough profit, farmers will be attracted back to their villages instead of looking for jobs in the urban areas, so as to boost the declining rural economy and culture. Second, sufficient rural labor will help China get rid of the “six curses on the farmland”, and alleviate the increasingly serious problem of rural non-point pollution. Third, the villages that get rid of the “six curses on the farmland” will gradually restore the former habitable space, and ecological tourism and care of the aged in rural areas can be developed as an industry to improve the harmony between urban and rural areas. Fourth, developing ecological agriculture on a large-scale can provide healthy food for national wellbeing, and support China’s livelihood construction and sustainable development. More importantly, after years of developing ecological agriculture, infertile farmland has gradually been changed into fertile farmland. Protracted and consistent use of farmland is what the sustainable development of China requires.

 

弘毅农场在生态循环农业上取得的成功,获得了广泛的社会影响力。人民日报、新华社、中央电视台、中央人民广播电台等20家新闻媒体,香港大公报、英国卫报、泰晤士报、中外对话、美国洛杉矶时报、德国明镜周刊、法国电视二台等境外媒体,以及绿色和平国际组织、乌有之乡网、大学网、互动百科网、搜狐网、北京绿牛农庄、绿家园等,都对生态农场进行过采访报道。来自中国科学院、中国农业科学院、清华大学等近十所名牌科研院校以及美国的哈佛大学、普林斯顿大学、波士顿大学,德国亚申大学,韩国首尔大学等海外高校的40多名中外研究人员,先后来到农场开展科学研究。农业部、科技部、环保部、山东省科技厅、农业厅、国务院参事等领导,多次组织专家现场考察指导。

Hongyi Organic Farm’s success has exerted widespread influence. 20 Chinese media have covered it, such as People’s Daily, Xinhua News Agency, CCTV, China National Radio, etc. And foreign media have also shown interest, such as Ta Kung Pao in Hong Kong, the Guardian, The Times, Chinadialogue, Los Angeles Times, Der Spiegel and France 2. Some web-media reported the farm, too, such as Greenpeace, Wyzxsx.com, Haodaxue.net, Baike.com, Sohu.com, Beijing Green Cow Organic Farm and Green Earth. Nearly 10 famous scientific research institutions in China like Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Tsinghua University sent researchers there. More than 40 foreign researchers have come from foreign universities like Harvard, Princeton and Boston University in the US, RWTH Aachen in Germany, and Seoul National University in Korea. What’s more, leaders of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Department of Science & Technology and the Department of Agriculture of Shandong Province and consultants of the State Council have organized experts for on-site research and instruction.

 

在弘毅生态农场的带动下,山东省平邑乡蒋家庄的很多农民,走上了生态循环农业的道路。其中,有10户农民开展秸秆养牛,达到160头,使当地秸秆持续资源化。在蒋家庄以及周围村镇,很多农民加入到立体循环养殖业中,其中,林下养鸡达30000只,养蛋鸭达300只,养笨猪达150头。在能源升级方面,带动蒋家庄建设户用沼气130户,整治文明村庄街道900米。

Inspired by Hongyi Organic Farm, many farmers in the village of Jiangjiazhuang (Pingyi County, Shandong province) have embarked on the way of developing ecological agriculture. Among the farmers, 10 families are using straw to raise 160 heads of cattle, thus marking straw a continuous resource of the local place. In and around the village, many farmers have begun to adopt methods of vertical circulation breeding. The number of chickens raised in the forest has reached 30,000; the numbers of laying ducks and pigs have amounted to 300 and 150 respectively. With the help of the ecological farm, 130 families have begun to use biogas, thus further upgrading the energy supply of the village. And 900 meters of village streets have been transformed under its guidance.

 

除此之外,农场的科研示范作用也得到了充分的发挥,在弘毅生态农场的示范、带动和指导下,山东、河南、河北、内蒙古、甘肃、浙江、江苏、广东、辽宁等多地企业家、农民、军人,加入到有机农业产业队伍中,在全国累计推广有机农(草)业面积约14.5万亩。

In addition, the farm fully played its role as a research model by providing guidance and demonstration to other places. Many entrepreneurs, farmers, and veterans coming from the provinces of Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Liaoning provinces, etc. have joined the team to develop an organic agricultural industry, Hongyi Organic Farm has helped expand organic farmland or grassland to a total area of about 145,000 mu in China.




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-475-1109674.html 

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