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Marker training - (11)

(2009-09-15 11:28:35)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 训犬资料

Corrections and Marker Training
纠正和响片训练

 

In my opinion there is no such thing as an all motivational system of dog training. Just as there is no such thing as an all force (or compulsion) system of dog training.

If you want to become an effective dog trainer you will have to learn how and when to employ corrections in your training. I wrote an article titled THE THEORY OF CORRECTION IN DOG TRAINING. You may want visit this eBook.
如果你想要成为一名真正的训犬帅,你必须学习在什么时候、如何在你的训练中使用纠正。我写过一篇题为“THE THEORY OF CORRECTION IN DOG TRAINING”的文章。你可以参考。

 

Purists will argue with me when I say there are applications for using corrections in the marker training system. Most of the time these are people who either lack experience; or only work with a very compliant non-dominant type of dog: or do not handle their dog in highly distracting environments; or are not involved with very high drive dogs in demanding dog sports; or they are not involved with competitive dog sports that require precise exercises.
纯粹的响片训练者对我在响片训练中使用纠正会有争论。绝大多数时候人们缺乏其中的一种经验。或者只带那种非常温顺、没有统治欲的狗;或者不能在复杂的环境里控制他们的狗;或者是在犬运动比赛中没有带极高动力的狗;或者是在犬竞技比赛中狗没有经过周密的训练。

 

One thing to keep in mind when thinking about corrections is the use of the leash. When people first start this work they should NEVER use the leash as a tool to correct until after the dog has progressed to through touch pads and learning positions. The only use for the leash is to keep the dog with the handler. In other words to stop the dog from leaving.
在考虑纠正时有一点需要记住:就是牵引带的用法。除非狗已经进展到触垫子训练和学习位置,否则人们一开始进行这项训练时不该把牵引带当作纠正工具使用。唯一的用法就是把狗置于主人的控制之下。换句话说就是阻止狗离开。

 

I recommend that initial training be done in a harness. This eliminates the handler making the mistake of giving leash correction.
我建议最初的训练使用肩带来完成,以免主人错误地给予纠正。

 

In more advanced training (IE heeling) the dog will be trained to give to leash pressure. There is a very specific way to teach a dog to give to pressure. This will be covered in my DVD title TRAINING A COOMPETTION HEELING DOG with Michael Ellis. Give to pressure is not a correction based skill but it could be confusing to a dog that had earlier been trained with collar corrections. Hence - do your initial training with a harness.
在更高级的训练中(例如随行)狗会学会顺从牵引带的压力。教狗顺从压力有非常特别的方法。在我的DVD“TRAINING A COOMPETTION HEELING DOG with Michael Ellis”中包含有这部分内容。顺从压力不是纠正的基础技能,但是如果过早的使用项圈纠正进行训练会把狗搞糊涂。因此,用肩带来进行最初的训练。

 

The application of corrections in marker training should never be taken lightly. When corrections are used incorrectly there is always the risk of changing the relationship between the dog and handler. Especially on soft dogs.
响片训练中从来不应该轻易使用纠正。如果错误的使用了纠正就有破坏主人和犬关系的风险。尤其是软狗。

 

Corrections should only be used in later training when you are 100% sure the dog understands the behavior you want and he is refusing to offer this behavior. This is past the point in training where commands have been added to the behavior. We need to see the dog consistently performing exercise without handler signals.
只有在你100%的确定狗理解你想要动作,但是却拒绝服从时才能使用纠正。这个时候应该在给动作加入口令之后。我们必须看到狗在没有手势的情况下一贯的完成训练。

 

If we determine that the dog knows what we are asking and he is being disobedience then he either needs a negative reinforcer or he needs to be put away or he needs to get a correction. The correction on young dogs does not necessarily mean - take the dogs head off with a level 10 correction. More often than not its a slight tap of the leash that mean "Look you know better and you have to pay attention."
如果我们确定狗明白我想要的却就是不服从,那么它可能需要一个否定刺激,或者是被关起来一会儿,或者是一个纠正。在年轻的狗身上使用纠正不是必须的,意思是要杜绝使用10级的纠正。往往只是牵引带轻轻的抖动一下,意思是“看,你是懂事的,必须专注些。”

 

In most sport dog training, corrections are a finishing tool. They are used to proof a dog to show him that he must work with us in every location, under every distraction every time. The more work a handler does on training engagement in the face of environmental stressors less problems they have. (see the full chapter in my DVD on THE POWER OF TRAINING DOGS WITH FOOD)
在绝大多数竞技犬训练中,纠正是最后的工具。他们习惯于让狗明白:在任何地方、任何时候、任何干扰下我们都必须一起工作。训练员在训练中更多的工作是保证他们在面对环境刺激时有较少问题。

 

The level of correction used is a factor of the dogs temperament (a hard dog vs a soft dog), the drive level of the dog and the distractions he is faced with and what kind of infraction the dog made. Obviously unwarranted human aggression would receive a stronger correction than not getting completely into heel position when asked.
使用什么等级的纠正是由狗的性格(硬狗或软狗)、狗的动力水平和它面对的干扰,以及不服从的种类所决定。显然,没有理由的攻击人类会得到比听到命令时没有完全回到随行位置更严厉的纠正。

 

A rule of thumb on obedience corrections is that we want the dog to be able to take food and play with us after a correction. If the dog will not do either of those things we have corrected too hard. That information needs to be tucked in your mind to remember next time out.
根据经验,恰当的纠正是我们想要狗在受到纠正后能够进食并与我们一起玩耍。如果狗不能进行上述两者任何一样就说明纠正太严厉了。下次遇到这种情况时就要记着这次的经验了。

 

Many times new dog trainers get ahead of themselves. They don't have the patience to let a young dog grow up. Trainers need to recognize the fact that corrections are self-reinforcing for the handler. This means they fulfill the desire to make the dog comply. When in fact that are often better ways to make a dog want to comply.
很多时候新训犬员超越了他们自己。他们没有足够的耐心等待狗长大。训练员需要承认事实:纠正是训练员自我意志的增强。意思是说他们靠实现自己的愿望来使狗服从。然而事实上,经常有更好的方法使狗愿意服从。


Corrections - Extinguishing a Behavior - Dominant Dogs
纠正 - 禁止 - 高统治欲的狗

 

There is a difference between being disobedience and the need to EXTINGUISH A BEHAVIOR.
不服从和禁止是不同的。

 

There are some things that dogs do that are self rewarding, like chase rabbits or squirrels. No amount of redirection or marker training is going to change my dogs desire to chasing squirrels. You can't take the fun out of the chase. Even though they seldom if ever catch a squirrel they derive pleasure from the chase. Therefore the solution is that the fun needs to be taken out of the chase.
狗会做一些自我娱乐的事情,例如追逐兔子或松鼠。不管怎么纠正、通过响片训练也无法改变我的狗追逐松鼠的渴望。你不能去掉追逐的乐趣。即使只是偶尔能抓到松鼠,它们也能从追逐得到快乐。因此解决方法就是去除追逐的乐趣。

 

Dogs need to be corrected for self rewarding behaviors. There are many ways to accomplish this but in my opinion the best solution is with a remote collar. I have done a training DVD titled REMOTE COLLAR TRAINING FOR THE PET OWNER.
应该纠正狗自我奖励的行为。有很多方法可以实现这点,但是在我看来最佳方法是使用遥控项圈。

 

The beauty of the marker system is that because the training is so black and white the level of correction used to get compliance is much less than what's needed in other old school methods of training. Because it is so black and white there is also less conflict with the handler.
响片训练体系的妙处在于训练是如此的清晰,使狗服从的纠正等级比传统训练要低得多。因为是清晰的,所以也较少与训练员起冲突。

 

Corrections vs Compulsion
纠正 VS 强迫

 

There is also a difference between trainers who train with compulsion (IE forced tracking) and trainers who use corrections. Corrections involve fixing a mistake. Compulsion means the dog offers the behavior to avoid a correction (yank and crank training).
使用强迫进行训练的训练员和使用纠正的训练员也是不同的。纠正需要校正犯错。强迫意味着狗作出动作以避免纠正。

 

While this may seem like mincing words, there is in fact a profound difference. People who plan on training dog sports and doing so with a level of consistency are going to have to introduce obedience correction in their training. The beauty of marker training is that the level; of corrections are usually much lower than in other forms of training - especially forced compulsion training.
虽然这点不同看起来像咬文嚼字,但实际上存在着深奥的区别。计划训练竞技犬的人们将不得不在训练中引入纠正。响片训练的妙处在于,纠正的等级通常要比其它形式的训练低,尤其是强迫训练。

 

Anyone who has trained dogs as long as I have has trained with compulsion. When I started training there were no motivational dog training methods. Frankly I think back and feel sorry for my old dogs. Many were so good and I was so unfair. It's sad. They deserved so much more than I gave them. Maybe in some small way this article and my marker DVDs are a way saying I am sorry.
任何训过犬的人都使用过强迫。当我开始训犬的时候有许多没有动力的训犬方法。坦率地说,回想以前我对原来的那些狗感到抱歉。许多狗是很优秀的,而我那样的不公平。真是糟糕。它们应该得到的远超过我给予它们的。或许这篇文章和我的DVD是我道歉的方式。


How Long Do You Use Food Rewards
使用食物奖励多长时间

 

One of the arguments that inexperienced trainers expound on is to say that you eventually have to stop using food. When people say this it only confirms they do not understand the system or the power of marker training.

 

Intermittent food rewards can be used throughout the life of the dog. At the beginning of this article I wrote that dogs can be rewarded with a food reward, a toy reward or handler praise. It's a handlers prerogative to determine what his dog needs at any one point in time. But to insinuate that you would stop using food is foolish.
贯穿狗的一生都可以使用间歇的食物奖励。这篇文章的一开始我写过:可以使用食物、玩具或训练员的赞扬奖励狗。及时确定在某个时刻狗需要什么是训练员的特权。同时也暗示你,停止使用食物是愚蠢的。


Do You Ever Stop Marker Training?
究竟在什么时候停止响片训练?

 

There are several parts of this question.
这个问题有几个部分。

 

Marker training is a method of communication with your dog. It's not just used to teach new behaviors and exercises. Once dogs understand the 5 core words of the marker system they will always be used (throughout the life of the dog) to communicate with the dog.
响片训练是与狗交流的一种方法。不仅仅用于教给狗新的动作。一旦狗理解了响片训练体系的5个关键词,就可以一直用于与狗交流。


Don't Be Afraid to Scrap Your Training Plan
不要害怕废弃你的训练计划

 

The best way to approach handler mistakes is to first accept the fact that mistakes are a normal part of dog training.
解决训练员错误最好的方法就是首先要接受错误是训犬的正常部分。

 

Mistakes in training need to be looked at as learning experiences on the path to training your dog. They don't always necessarily need to be a bad thing.
训练中的错误可以被看作你训犬的经验。它并不一定是坏事。

 

The best trainers always look for points in training where they hit a wall and the dog just doesn't seem to understand what you are trying to teach him. This usually means your getting ahead of yourself in training steps. You need to back up the work and split the exercise into smaller pieces.
最好的训练员总是在寻找某个他们遇到挫折的时刻,那时狗似乎不能理解你想要教给它的。通常这就意味着你训练的进度太快了。你需要退回去,把训练拆分得更小一些。

 

Inexperienced trainers on the other hand always blame the dog and say that "THE DOG KNEW BETTER."
没有经验的训练员则总是责怪狗,并宣称“狗懂的更多。”


Retraining Adult Dogs; Dealing with Dominant Dogs; Retraining Puppies and Pack Structure Training

 

In my opinion marker training is the perfect system to start training adult dogs. It is especially effective for dominant dogs or for people who adopt rescue dogs because it is stress free.

 

Marker training is the perfect way to interact with dominant dogs in a positive manner that will not cause a conflict. It's a way to show a dominant dog that you can be interesting and fun.

 

A perfect example of the power of marker training is teaching a dog to down. The down exercise is a difficult exercise for a dominant dog. They resent being forced into different positions. When a dog downs in front of you it's an example of submission, not something a dominant dog cares to do. In fact many owners of dominant dogs get dog bit when they try and force their down into a down position.

 

But by training the down with a high value food reward and shaping the exercise we can easily train a very dominant dog that there are benefits for him to down.

 

Don't misunderstand what I am saying her. Marker training doesn't eliminate dominance in dogs. It's only a method to interact with a dominant dog with very little risk of getting bit. Because there is no conflict there isn't a reason for a dominant dog to feel like you are challenging his rank within your pack. In the early stages of marker training there are no corrections so the dominant dog does not feel threatened.

 

With that said marker training is a way (through "NO MARKS" or "negative reinforcers") to show a dog that you do have rules.

 

Owners of dominant dogs should take their dog through my pack structure program before they reach the point in marker training where they add corrections. Some people with seriously dominant dogs should get the DVD I produced titled Dealing with Dominant and Aggressive Dogs.

 

Rescue Dogs and Marker Training

 

As a general rule dogs that have been turned into rescue organizations have some form of behavioral problem. If these dogs have had any training it has been old school "yank and crank" methods that have used avoidance methods to train their dogs. In most cases this has not worked which is why the dogs were turned into the shelters. The dogs therefore come with emotional baggage.

 

Rescue dogs often require patience when new owner try to work with markers. Because of their previous avoidance training they are afraid to try new things. This is because they have learned that if they make a mistake they get a correction. Thee will often just stand and look at you because they are waiting for you to show them what you want. They are afraid to experiment.

 

The new owners need to be patient. They need to mark the slightest movements. These dogs really need to have behaviors split into tiny little parts. When they stop and stair it's not because they are being stubborn. It's because they are stuck. They either don't understand what they are expected to do and are concerned about a correction - so use a screw up cookie.

When the light bulb goes off in the dogs head that they are being reward for trying, their true personality will come shining through. With effort you can bring true joy to these dogs’ lives.

 

What Exercises Can Markers Be Used For?
响片训练法可以用于哪些训练?

 

There is no limit to what exercises or parts of exercise that can be trained with markers. You are only limited by your imagination.
响片训练法是没有限制的。你只会被你的想像力所限制。

 

You can use it for things as simple as giving you eye contact on voice command (a very important thing for people who compete in dog sports) to something as complicated as teaching a police service dog or a Schutzhund dog correct positioning to bark at a suspect or bark at a helper.

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