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Marker training - (10)

(2009-09-04 16:54:07)


分类: 训犬资料

Using "GOOD" to Link Components of an Exercise


The concept of random rewards should be in place when handlers begin to link or chain behaviors together to form a finished exercise.


The beauty of the word GOOD is that it also lets you tell your dog that he just successfully completed a portion of a LINKED exercise. It tells him that he is doing a good job and is going to get a reward if he continues to do what you expect.


Good can also be used to link component parts of an exercise. It goes like this:

The dog is asked to perform the first linked behavior.

The dog performs the behavior.

The dog is told GOOD.

The dog is then asked to perform the next behavior in the chain.


When used in this manner the word GOOD becomes a powerful tool to communicate with your dog. The beauty is that it can be used at a distance to tell the dog he is doing a good job.

Using Food with "GOOD"


Lets use the example of a down-stay in which the final MARK is rewarded with a game of tug.


When a dog is asked to down it is expected to stay down until released. After a handler gives the down command and the dog complies, the handler can say GOOD and offer multiple food rewards.


By jack potting a food reward along with multiple GOOD commands we encourage the dog to stay down. The exercise is not yet over because he has not marked the exercise as being finished. The dog remains down until the handler is satisfied with compliance and gives the MARK (YES) and presents the tug toy and a session of tug.

Allowing Your Dog to Make Mistakes Creates Dogs that are Problem Solvers


One of the harder skills new trainers must learn is that there will be times when you have to allow your dog time to offer behaviors and sometimes you have to allow your dog to make a mistake. Dogs become problem solvers when allowed to work through problems.


Many people look at confusion in their dogs as a problem. These are often people who come from old school dog training where they always want their dog to perform the exercise the correct way every time.


When a dog looks confused or makes a mistake the natural instinct is to step in and rescue the dog, try and lure it through an exercise. When in reality the dog should be given time to try and problem solve. That's how dogs learn.


When this work is done correctly your dog will see value in performing. It is you job to allow your dog to make choices and if you have built enough value for the behavior the dog will want to perform correctly.


Negative Markers


When a dog learns a behavior to the point where that behavior can be put on cue (most of the time this means with a command but it could also be a hand signal) the handler can start to use a negative marker if the dog does not perform the behavior.


A negative maker is "NOPE" or "No." It is important to understand that this is not a correction. It's said in a tone that implies "look you can do a better job lets do it again."


Handlers should never sound mad when they say "NO." Sounding mad turns a negative marker into a correction and that's not what we want. "NO" is simply a word that tells the dog that he has not performed a behavior correctly and he has to do it again.


The beauty of using "NO" or "NOPE" is we can use it to identify the exact instant the dog makes a mistake. Unlike a physical correction, which often takes drive out of the dog, a negative marker often has the opposite effect, it can add drive.


Now here is something to think about. With positive markers the reward must come within a short period of time after the mark. How long is a factor of the dog, it's training and experienced. But dogs should get a reward within several second of the mark if the reward is to be associated with the behavior and mark.

Only say "NO" one time


If your dog makes a mistake and you say "NO" one time and immediately have the dog repeat the exercise or immediately put the dog away.


A negative marker can be looked at in the same manner as a positive marker (YES). The dog takes a mental snap shot in his mind of exactly what it was doing when it got the negative makers. If the trainer is consistent and only says "NO" one time the dogs catch on quickly.


When a trainer repeats "NO" several times this only confuses the dog because he must determine which mental snap shot you are referring to.


So just as you don't say "YES YES YES" when you mark a behavior you don't say "NO NO NO" when you give a negative reinforcer.


In addition you don't wait before making the dog repeat the behavior, you do it immediacy. Waiting too long will result in the dogs mind wandering off and he will not associate the negative behavior with repeating the exercise.


If a dog continues to make mistakes and does not seem to be concentrating and your pretty sure the dog understands the cue then rather than repeat the exercise the dog is given a time-out and put in his crate for a few minutes (or even end the training session).


Putting a dog in a crate is a mental break for a dog. While some dogs may look at a time-out as punishment others need the break to allow them to refocus.

Screw up Cookies


The beauty of MARKER work is it’s pretty hard to hurt your dog if you make a mistake. Missing a mark is not like giving a prong collar correction at the wrong time. Give a soft dog a prong collar correction and the dog will shut down and quit trying. Miss a mark on the same soft dog and you have not hurt the dogs temperament. Oh in marker training he may be confused but you don't shut the dog down.


Earlier in this article I talked about "screw up cookies" Ann Braue introduced me to "screw up cookies" and I love the concept.


There may come a time when your dog simply doesn't offer the behavior you want no matter how long you wait.


This usually indicates one of the following:

1 - The dog got tired and just slowed up or stopped trying.

2 - The dog does not have that good of a relationship with the owner.

3 - The exercise was not SPLIT into small enough pieces for the dog to understand what you wanted (you lumped the exercise).

4 - The reward is not a high enough value.

5 - The dog is not hungry enough.

5- You have not shown enough patience and allowed the dog time to work out the problem.


When your training and your dog doesn't give you the behavior you want you need to get out of the training session in a manner that still allows the dog to feel like he is still learning. YOU ALWAYS NEED TO MAKE THE DOG FEEL LIKE HE IS A LEARNER.


Just because the dog fell short of YOUR GOALS does not mean that you should jeopardize your relationship with the dog to achieve your goals. Relationships should always come first over goals.


One option that allows this to happen is to use a "screw up cookie." Here is how it works; the dog stops working, you realize the problem is one of the above, rather than give a correction or walk away you simply use a screw up cookie.
允许这种情况发生的一种选择是使用一个"screw up cookie."它是这样工作的:狗停止工作,你认识到问题是上面列出的之一,与其纠正它或离开,倒不如使用"screw up cookie"。


Using a screw up cookie means asking the dog to do something very simple that we are 100% sure he enjoys doing (IE a hand touch). When you use a "screw up cookie" you should use it two, three or 4 times in a row.
使用"screw up cookie"的意思是让狗做一些非常简单的、我们有100%把握它喜欢的事情。当你使用"screw up cookie"的时候你应该一下使用2、3、4遍。


Screw up cookie not only get you out of a problem they redirect the dogs mind away from a frustrating incident. They redirect the dog onto a task that leads to a reward and then allows you to stop your training and put your dog away on a positive note. Once that's done you can go sit down and figure out what went wrong.
“Screw up cookie”不能让你解决问题,它只是改变狗的心理,从挫败中走出来。它转而给狗一个简单的任务,完成后最终可以领到奖励,然后允许你停止训练,给狗留下一个正面的记忆。一旦完成了这些,你就可以坐下来,弄明白错误出在哪里。


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