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Marker training - (10)

(2009-09-04 16:54:07)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 训犬资料

Using "GOOD" to Link Components of an Exercise
使用“GOOD”连接训练的各个组成部分

 

The concept of random rewards should be in place when handlers begin to link or chain behaviors together to form a finished exercise.
当训练员开始把动作连接或串连在一起,组成一项完整的训练时,使用随机奖励是合适的。

 

The beauty of the word GOOD is that it also lets you tell your dog that he just successfully completed a portion of a LINKED exercise. It tells him that he is doing a good job and is going to get a reward if he continues to do what you expect.
单词“GOOD”的妙处是可以让你告诉你的狗:它刚才成功的完成了一部分连接起来的训练。还会告诉它们,它们干的很棒,如果它们继续做出你期待的动作就会得到一份奖励。

 

Good can also be used to link component parts of an exercise. It goes like this:
GOOD也能被用来连接训练的各个部分。就像这样:

The dog is asked to perform the first linked behavior.
狗被命令作出第一个要被连接的动作。

The dog performs the behavior.
狗服从了命令。

The dog is told GOOD.
狗被告知GOOD。

The dog is then asked to perform the next behavior in the chain.
然后狗被命令作出下一个连锁动作。

 

When used in this manner the word GOOD becomes a powerful tool to communicate with your dog. The beauty is that it can be used at a distance to tell the dog he is doing a good job.
如果照这样使用,单词GOOD就会变成一件与狗交流的有力工具。妙处是可以用来站在远处告诉狗儿:它作的很棒。


Using Food with "GOOD"
随着“GOOD”使用食物

 

Lets use the example of a down-stay in which the final MARK is rewarded with a game of tug.
让进行一个卧下的例子,最终标记后的奖励是拔河游戏。

 

When a dog is asked to down it is expected to stay down until released. After a handler gives the down command and the dog complies, the handler can say GOOD and offer multiple food rewards.
当狗被要求卧下时,期待的是卧下,直到释放口令。在训练员给出卧下口令,狗完成了,训练员可以说GOOD,并给出数份食物奖励。

 

By jack potting a food reward along with multiple GOOD commands we encourage the dog to stay down. The exercise is not yet over because he has not marked the exercise as being finished. The dog remains down until the handler is satisfied with compliance and gives the MARK (YES) and presents the tug toy and a session of tug.
除了多次GOOD口令,我们还使用额外的食物大奖来鼓励狗卧下。然而训练还没有结束,因为他还没有标记这项训练作为结束。狗会保持卧下,直到训练员满意狗儿的动作,然后做出标记(YES),再拿出玩具与狗儿进行拔河游戏。


Allowing Your Dog to Make Mistakes Creates Dogs that are Problem Solvers
允许你的狗犯错误可以让狗变成问题解决者

 

One of the harder skills new trainers must learn is that there will be times when you have to allow your dog time to offer behaviors and sometimes you have to allow your dog to make a mistake. Dogs become problem solvers when allowed to work through problems.
一个初级训练员必须要学会的困难技能是:有时你必须给狗时间,让它主动作出动作;有些时候你必须允许狗儿犯错误。当被允许解决问题时,狗儿会变成问题解决者。

 

Many people look at confusion in their dogs as a problem. These are often people who come from old school dog training where they always want their dog to perform the exercise the correct way every time.
遇到难题时许多人认为他们的狗是糊涂的。来自传统训犬学校的人经常想让他的狗每次都正确的完成训练。

 

When a dog looks confused or makes a mistake the natural instinct is to step in and rescue the dog, try and lure it through an exercise. When in reality the dog should be given time to try and problem solve. That's how dogs learn.
当狗看起来迷惑或犯错误时,自然反应是干涉、帮助狗,尽力诱导它完成训练。实际上在那个时候应该给狗儿时间去尝试、解决问题。那是狗儿学习的方式。

 

When this work is done correctly your dog will see value in performing. It is you job to allow your dog to make choices and if you have built enough value for the behavior the dog will want to perform correctly.
当任何正确的完成后你的狗会认识到服从的价值。你的职责是允许作出选择,如果你已经为动作赋予了足够的价值,狗会乐于正确的服从。

 

Negative Markers
否定标记

 

When a dog learns a behavior to the point where that behavior can be put on cue (most of the time this means with a command but it could also be a hand signal) the handler can start to use a negative marker if the dog does not perform the behavior.
当狗儿学会一个动作,达到可以加入提示的程度时(绝大多数时候是口令,也可以是手势),如果狗不服从口令训练员可以开始使用否定标记。

 

A negative maker is "NOPE" or "No." It is important to understand that this is not a correction. It's said in a tone that implies "look you can do a better job lets do it again."
否定标记是“NOPE”或“NO”。理解这不是纠正是重要的。要使用一致的语气说,暗示着“瞧,你可以做得更棒的,再来一次”。

 

Handlers should never sound mad when they say "NO." Sounding mad turns a negative marker into a correction and that's not what we want. "NO" is simply a word that tells the dog that he has not performed a behavior correctly and he has to do it again.
当训练说“NO”的时候永远不应该使用疯狂的声音。疯狂的声音会把否定标记变成纠正,这不是我们想要的。“NO”仅仅是一个单词,用来告诉狗儿它没有正确的服从命令,需要再来一次。

 

The beauty of using "NO" or "NOPE" is we can use it to identify the exact instant the dog makes a mistake. Unlike a physical correction, which often takes drive out of the dog, a negative marker often has the opposite effect, it can add drive.
使用“NO”或“NOPE”的妙处在于,我们可以把狗犯错误的那一刻精确的识别出来。不像物理纠正,会降低狗的动力;否定标记经常具备积极的效果,它可以增加动力。

 

Now here is something to think about. With positive markers the reward must come within a short period of time after the mark. How long is a factor of the dog, it's training and experienced. But dogs should get a reward within several second of the mark if the reward is to be associated with the behavior and mark.
现在有些事情需要回顾一下。正面标记作出后很段的时间内,必须给予奖励。多长时间是个要素,这需要练习和经验。但是如果想把奖励和动作、标记联系在一起,狗儿应该在标记后几秒钟内得到奖励。


Only say "NO" one time
只说一次“NO”

 

If your dog makes a mistake and you say "NO" one time and immediately have the dog repeat the exercise or immediately put the dog away.
如果你的犯了错误,你说一次“NO”,然后立即让狗重复训练或立即把狗带走。

 

A negative marker can be looked at in the same manner as a positive marker (YES). The dog takes a mental snap shot in his mind of exactly what it was doing when it got the negative makers. If the trainer is consistent and only says "NO" one time the dogs catch on quickly.
可以使用和正面标记(YES)同样的方法来看待否定标记。当狗儿听到否定标记时在它脑海里有一系列它正在进行行为的快照。如果训练员总是只说一次“NO”,狗很快就能理解。

 

When a trainer repeats "NO" several times this only confuses the dog because he must determine which mental snap shot you are referring to.
训练员多次重复“NO”只会把狗弄糊涂,因为它必须确定脑子里哪个画面才是你针对的。

 

So just as you don't say "YES YES YES" when you mark a behavior you don't say "NO NO NO" when you give a negative reinforcer.
因此正像你不能在作正面标记时多次说“YES”一样,你也不能在作否定标记时多次说“NO”。

 

In addition you don't wait before making the dog repeat the behavior, you do it immediacy. Waiting too long will result in the dogs mind wandering off and he will not associate the negative behavior with repeating the exercise.
另外,在让狗重复练习之前你不能等待,你直接开始。等得太久会让狗变得糊涂,并且它将不能把否定标记和重复训练联系起来。

 

If a dog continues to make mistakes and does not seem to be concentrating and your pretty sure the dog understands the cue then rather than repeat the exercise the dog is given a time-out and put in his crate for a few minutes (or even end the training session).
如果狗持续犯错误,似乎不能集中注意力,并且你相当确定狗理解指令,与其重复练习还不如让它暂停一下,把它关进笼子里几分钟(或者直接结束训练)。

 

Putting a dog in a crate is a mental break for a dog. While some dogs may look at a time-out as punishment others need the break to allow them to refocus.
被关进笼子对狗来说是心理的间歇。然而一些狗可能会把暂停看作处罚,其它狗则需要暂停来重新集中注意力。


Screw up Cookies
弄糟的“小甜饼”

 

The beauty of MARKER work is it’s pretty hard to hurt your dog if you make a mistake. Missing a mark is not like giving a prong collar correction at the wrong time. Give a soft dog a prong collar correction and the dog will shut down and quit trying. Miss a mark on the same soft dog and you have not hurt the dogs temperament. Oh in marker training he may be confused but you don't shut the dog down.
响片训练的妙处是,即使你犯了错误也很难伤害到狗儿。弄错一次标记不像在错误的时间用带刺项圈纠正那样后果严重。使用带刺项圈纠正一头“软狗”会把它吓坏并停止尝试。在同样“软”的狗身上弄错一次标记不会伤害它的性格。响片训练可能会把狗弄糊涂,但是不会伤害到它。

 

Earlier in this article I talked about "screw up cookies" Ann Braue introduced me to "screw up cookies" and I love the concept.

 

There may come a time when your dog simply doesn't offer the behavior you want no matter how long you wait.
可能会有时候,不管怎样狗都不作出你期待的动作。

 

This usually indicates one of the following:
通常有以下几种情况:

1 - The dog got tired and just slowed up or stopped trying.
     狗疲倦了,刚刚慢下来或停止尝试。

2 - The dog does not have that good of a relationship with the owner.
     狗儿与主人之间没有良好的关系。

3 - The exercise was not SPLIT into small enough pieces for the dog to understand what you wanted (you lumped the exercise).
     练习没有拆分到足够小,以便狗儿理解你期待的。

4 - The reward is not a high enough value.
     奖励的价值不够高。

5 - The dog is not hungry enough.
     狗不够饿。

5- You have not shown enough patience and allowed the dog time to work out the problem.
    你没有足够的耐心,给狗儿足够时间去解决问题。

 

When your training and your dog doesn't give you the behavior you want you need to get out of the training session in a manner that still allows the dog to feel like he is still learning. YOU ALWAYS NEED TO MAKE THE DOG FEEL LIKE HE IS A LEARNER.
当在训练中狗儿不按你的想法做出动作时你需要改变训练方法,让狗有正在学习的感觉。你总是应该让狗感觉它是个学生。

 

Just because the dog fell short of YOUR GOALS does not mean that you should jeopardize your relationship with the dog to achieve your goals. Relationships should always come first over goals.
即使狗没有领会你们的目标,也不意味着你为了达到目标就可以损害你和犬的关系。关系才应该是第一目标。

 

One option that allows this to happen is to use a "screw up cookie." Here is how it works; the dog stops working, you realize the problem is one of the above, rather than give a correction or walk away you simply use a screw up cookie.
允许这种情况发生的一种选择是使用一个"screw up cookie."它是这样工作的:狗停止工作,你认识到问题是上面列出的之一,与其纠正它或离开,倒不如使用"screw up cookie"。

 

Using a screw up cookie means asking the dog to do something very simple that we are 100% sure he enjoys doing (IE a hand touch). When you use a "screw up cookie" you should use it two, three or 4 times in a row.
使用"screw up cookie"的意思是让狗做一些非常简单的、我们有100%把握它喜欢的事情。当你使用"screw up cookie"的时候你应该一下使用2、3、4遍。

 

Screw up cookie not only get you out of a problem they redirect the dogs mind away from a frustrating incident. They redirect the dog onto a task that leads to a reward and then allows you to stop your training and put your dog away on a positive note. Once that's done you can go sit down and figure out what went wrong.
“Screw up cookie”不能让你解决问题,它只是改变狗的心理,从挫败中走出来。它转而给狗一个简单的任务,完成后最终可以领到奖励,然后允许你停止训练,给狗留下一个正面的记忆。一旦完成了这些,你就可以坐下来,弄明白错误出在哪里。

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