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Marker training - (9)

(2009-08-31 10:11:33)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 训犬资料

The Problem with Adding Commands Too Soon
太早加入口令产生的问题

 

The first and most obvious problem of adding a command before the dog knows the behavior is we run the risk of confusing our dog or turning the command into background noise.
在狗儿理解动作之前加入口令,第一个最明显的问题就是我们会把狗儿弄迷糊,或者把口令变成噪音。

 

Our goal is to make the command part of the chain of events that leads to a reward. To accomplish this the training needs to be black and white. Adding a command before the dog understands a behavior is not black and white.
我们的目标是把口令变成一系列导致奖励事件的一部分。要实现这点训练必须是清晰的。在狗儿理解动作之前加入口令是不清楚的。

 

When we initially give a command we follow it with the signal we used to get the dog to perform the behavior. That signal is looked at as help. In training we help the dog with signals until we reach a point where we can stop using the signal and only use the command.
当我们最初给出口令后,会跟着给一个手势,以便狗儿服从命令、作出动作。手势被看作是帮助。在训练中我们使用手势帮助狗,直到我们达到可以停止使用手势,仅仅使用口令的程度。

 

When we name an exercise we need to be prepared to do something to help the dog if it doesn't perform the behavior.
当我们命名一项训练时我们需要做一些准备,以便当狗当儿不服从命令时我们可以做一些事情帮助狗。

 

You have your own tool box of possible options to consider when this happens:
当这种情况发生的时候你可以考虑的选择:

1 - You can ignore "offered behaviors" until he gets it right.
     你可以忽略它主动作出的动作,直到它作对。

2 - You can help the dog and by offering a signal or signals.
     你可以通过发出信号或手势帮助犬。

3 - We can say "NOPE" in an upbeat voice - not a MAD VOICE.
     我们可以用积极、鼓励的声音说“NOPE”。

4 - If the dog refuses to perform a behavior you need to ask yourself if the reward you are using is a high enough value to motivate the dog and make him want to work.
     如果狗拒绝执行命令,你需要问自己:你正在使用的奖励是否足够激发狗的动力,以便它渴望工作。

Only you and your dog can answer that question.
只有你和狗才能回答这个问题。

5 - If the dog won't work off the signal then we need to re-uate our training plan. We could be lumping the training steps and the dog really doesn't understand the behavior we want. So go back to splitting.
     如果狗不能在没有信号的情况下工作,那么我们就需要重新评估我们的训练计划。我们的训练步骤太大了,狗不能真正理解我们想要的动作。返回进行拆分。

6 - If we know for sure that the dog knows the command, if he is being insubordinate we can put him back in his dog crate or dog kennel for a time out. Dog crates are better for time outs.
     如果我们确定狗儿明白口令,如果它拒绝服从,我们就可以把关狗笼里一段时间。狗笼是暂停休息的好地方。

Do this enough times and the dog learns a time out means something. I didn't used to think this worked. I was wrong, it works. With many dogs it becomes a motivator. It frustrates the dog and frustration builds drive.
这样做足够的次数后,狗儿就会明白暂停意味着什么。我过去常常认为这样做没有什么作用。我错了,这样做是有效的。用这种方法许多狗变得很有动力。这样做让狗受挫折,挫败可以培养动力。

If you have a second dog, get that dog out and work it in front of the crated dog. Use a little jealousy.
如果你拥有第二条狗,让那条狗出来,在狗笼前进行训练。使用一点妒忌。

7 - As the LAST RESORT if we know the dog absolutely knows the command and is simply refusing to do it we can correct the dog.
     作为最后的选择:如果我们知道狗儿完全地明白口令,但就是不服从,我们可以纠正它。

Marker <wbr>training <wbr>- <wbr>(9)
Flow Chart on Dog Not Performing Behavior

 

The bottom line is when the dog doesn't perform a behavior you need to uate why this happened. There is no set rule of what to do every time. It will always vary according the circumstance.
根本的意思是,当狗儿不服从时,你需要评估为什么会发生这种情况。每次该怎么做没有标准,总是需要根据环境而改变。

 

Naming Component Parts of an Exercise
命名一项训练的各个部分

 

Something that new trainers can think about when they split an exercise is to name the component parts of the exercise.
初学训练的人会思考当拆分一项训练时如何命名。

 

An example of this can be seen in the Heel exercise. One of the component parts of the heel command is to teach the behavior of the dog LOOKING up at your face. Once the dog has learned the look up at your face behavior you can name it with "LOOK."
举个随行训练的例子。随行训练的一部分就是教狗儿看着你的脸。一旦狗已经学会了看你的脸,你就能够用“LOOK”来命名。

 

Then when you link all the components of Heeling and the dog gets a little distracted and is not paying attention you simply say "LOOK." This identifies an exact behavior to a dog. If the dog doesn't comply you simply say "Nope - LOOK" and start all over again.
然后当你把随行的所有部分连接在一起的时候,如果狗有些慌乱、注意力不集中,你就可以简单的说“LOOK”。这就可以让狗联系起正确的动作。如果狗不服从,你只用说“NOPE - LOOK”,然后重新进行完整的训练。

 

In other words this allows you to pin point with a great deal of accuracy what is expected in training.
换句话说,这样可以让你在训练中固定大量想要的精确动作。

 

Adding duration to an exercises by using "GOOD"
使用“GOOD”增加训练持续的时间

 

Up to this point we have not expected a dog to add duration of time to any exercises. This means we don't expect a dog to perform a sit-stay or down-stay.
直到这一步,我们还没有在任何训练中期待狗儿增加持续的时间。这就意味着我们没有期待狗坐着别动或卧下别动。

 

As far as we are concerned - and as far as the dog is concerned - in the SIT exercise as soon as a dogs butt touches the ground or as soon as the dogs belly touches the ground in the DOWN exercise we say YES and the exercise is over. The dog is released to come and get his reward.
一直以来我们关心的,和狗儿关心的,就是在坐的训练中狗一碰到地面,或在卧下训练中狗的肚子一碰到地面,我们就说“YES”,然后训练结束。狗儿被放开、走过来得到奖励。

 

We don't think about adding duration to any exercise until a dog is consistently performing that exercises. When the time comes to extend an exercise we simply delay the mark. We remain calm and say GOOD in a soothing tone and when the exercise is over we mark the moment with YES and have a party.
除非狗儿可以一贯熟练的进行练习,否则我们不会考虑在任何练习中加入持续时间。当延续某项练习的时机来到时,我们只需要简单的推迟标记。我们保持平静,用安抚的语气说“GOOD”,当练习结束时我们使用“YES”标记那个时刻,然后开始游戏。

 

Good is NEVER used as a release to end an exercise!
“GOOD”从来不被用作结束练习的口令。

 

During the period when we begin extending an exercise we can say "GOOD" multiple times and jack pot the rewards - one right after another. This helps a dog to understand what you expect. Unlike the MARK (which is only said one time) the duration command can be said over and over depending on what the dog is doing.
在这个时期,当我们开始延续训练时我们可以多次说“GOOD”,正确的动作依次出现后还可以给犬额外的大奖。这样可以帮助犬理解我们的想法。与标记(每次只说一遍)不同,延续口令可以随狗儿的行为反复说。

 

You can "charge the word GOOD" command as the god grows up by saying GOOD when you pet him, or saying GOOD when you feed him. This is a similar concept to charging the mark - only we are adding a good feeling to the word "Good." The end result is the dog knows when we say "Good" he feels good.
当犬作出恰当的行为时,你边抚拍它边说“GOOD”,或者在喂食时说“GOOD”,使用这样方法就可以让犬明白“GOOD”的含意。这与建立标记信号相类似。我只是给单词“GOOD”加入好感。最终的结果是犬明白:当它听到我们说“GOOD”时,它会感觉很舒服。

 

Duration in time is extended for random periods starting in seconds and not getting to minutes for a long time. In the beginning we only extend the time by 2 or 3 seconds and then MARK the behavior and end the exercise. Then we go 5 seconds and MARK; then 2 seconds and then 10 seconds etc. With puppies we don't recommended going beyond 15 to 20 seconds.
延续训练应该从随机的几秒钟开始,而不是直接从几分钟到更长时间开始。在一开始,我们仅仅延续2、3秒的时间就标记动作,结束训练。然后我们可以进行长达5秒的训练,然后是2秒和10秒等的训练。训练幼犬时,我们不建议进行超过15到20秒的延缓训练。


Random Rewards in Marker Training
在响片训练中随机奖励

 

"When do I stop using a food reward for a command?" This is an excellent question and an important part of marker training.
什么时候我可以为一个口令停止使用食物奖励?这是一个杰出的问题,也是响片训练的重要部分。

 

The goal for every dog trainer is to reach a point of variable reinforcement.
每一位训犬者的目标是达到可变的正增强。

 

It is unrealistic to think that trainers will give a food reward every time they ask their dog to perform a behavior for the rest of the dogs life. For one thing people can't walk around with a bait bag for the rest of their lives. Although my Corgi that's lying at my feet right now thinks that would be the best thing that ever happened to her.
让训练者在狗儿余生里每次服从口令后都给出食物奖励是不切实际的。首先人们不可能总是戴着食物包散步。尽管如此,此刻卧在我脚边的Corgi还是会认为,最美好的事情有时会发生在它的身上。

When we start marker training we reward for the smallest of efforts. We reward for looking at a hand in a hand touch. When the dog knows and understands a behavior and will perform the behavior correctly 8 out of 10 times for a signal or a command the handler can begin to reward randomly.
在我们刚开始进行响片训练的时候,我们会奖励最细微的成就。在触手训练中我们会因为它看着手而奖励它。当狗儿知道、理解了动作后,10次中有8次可以随着手势或口令正确地作出动作,我们就可以开始随机的奖励它。

 

A behavior needs to be put on a random reward schedule before that behavior is linked to a second split behavior, When you stop and think about that statement it makes sense. If a dog expects a reward every time it performs a behavior and then you totally stop rewarding for that behavior the dog could shut down.
在一个动作和另外一个拆分过的动作连接在一起之前,这个动作就需要开始随机奖励计划。如果我们暂停下来,考虑一下这段陈述,就会懂得其中的道理。如果狗每次服从命令后都期待一份奖励,那么你完全停止奖励某个动作时,狗就会完全停下来。

 

So the way around this problem is to establish random rewards.
因此,解决问题的方法就是建立随机奖励机制。

 

Back in 2001 my brother (who is a psychologist in Canada) wrote an article for my web site titled "USING INTERMITTENT REWARDS IN TRAINING - THE CONEPT OF DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT." You may want to visit this article.

 

As a handler and the dog gain fluency in an exercise they can go longer and longer in between rewards. This becomes a factor of experience and a feeling for what works and what doesn't work.
为了训练员和犬在训练中增加流畅度,他们可以逐渐增加奖励之间的间隔。这会成为经验要素和感觉(为什么运转以及为什么不运转)。

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