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Marker training - (9)

(2009-08-31 10:11:33)


分类: 训犬资料

The Problem with Adding Commands Too Soon


The first and most obvious problem of adding a command before the dog knows the behavior is we run the risk of confusing our dog or turning the command into background noise.


Our goal is to make the command part of the chain of events that leads to a reward. To accomplish this the training needs to be black and white. Adding a command before the dog understands a behavior is not black and white.


When we initially give a command we follow it with the signal we used to get the dog to perform the behavior. That signal is looked at as help. In training we help the dog with signals until we reach a point where we can stop using the signal and only use the command.


When we name an exercise we need to be prepared to do something to help the dog if it doesn't perform the behavior.


You have your own tool box of possible options to consider when this happens:

1 - You can ignore "offered behaviors" until he gets it right.

2 - You can help the dog and by offering a signal or signals.

3 - We can say "NOPE" in an upbeat voice - not a MAD VOICE.

4 - If the dog refuses to perform a behavior you need to ask yourself if the reward you are using is a high enough value to motivate the dog and make him want to work.

Only you and your dog can answer that question.

5 - If the dog won't work off the signal then we need to re-uate our training plan. We could be lumping the training steps and the dog really doesn't understand the behavior we want. So go back to splitting.

6 - If we know for sure that the dog knows the command, if he is being insubordinate we can put him back in his dog crate or dog kennel for a time out. Dog crates are better for time outs.

Do this enough times and the dog learns a time out means something. I didn't used to think this worked. I was wrong, it works. With many dogs it becomes a motivator. It frustrates the dog and frustration builds drive.

If you have a second dog, get that dog out and work it in front of the crated dog. Use a little jealousy.

7 - As the LAST RESORT if we know the dog absolutely knows the command and is simply refusing to do it we can correct the dog.

Marker <wbr>training <wbr>- <wbr>(9)
Flow Chart on Dog Not Performing Behavior


The bottom line is when the dog doesn't perform a behavior you need to uate why this happened. There is no set rule of what to do every time. It will always vary according the circumstance.


Naming Component Parts of an Exercise


Something that new trainers can think about when they split an exercise is to name the component parts of the exercise.


An example of this can be seen in the Heel exercise. One of the component parts of the heel command is to teach the behavior of the dog LOOKING up at your face. Once the dog has learned the look up at your face behavior you can name it with "LOOK."


Then when you link all the components of Heeling and the dog gets a little distracted and is not paying attention you simply say "LOOK." This identifies an exact behavior to a dog. If the dog doesn't comply you simply say "Nope - LOOK" and start all over again.
然后当你把随行的所有部分连接在一起的时候,如果狗有些慌乱、注意力不集中,你就可以简单的说“LOOK”。这就可以让狗联系起正确的动作。如果狗不服从,你只用说“NOPE - LOOK”,然后重新进行完整的训练。


In other words this allows you to pin point with a great deal of accuracy what is expected in training.


Adding duration to an exercises by using "GOOD"


Up to this point we have not expected a dog to add duration of time to any exercises. This means we don't expect a dog to perform a sit-stay or down-stay.


As far as we are concerned - and as far as the dog is concerned - in the SIT exercise as soon as a dogs butt touches the ground or as soon as the dogs belly touches the ground in the DOWN exercise we say YES and the exercise is over. The dog is released to come and get his reward.


We don't think about adding duration to any exercise until a dog is consistently performing that exercises. When the time comes to extend an exercise we simply delay the mark. We remain calm and say GOOD in a soothing tone and when the exercise is over we mark the moment with YES and have a party.


Good is NEVER used as a release to end an exercise!


During the period when we begin extending an exercise we can say "GOOD" multiple times and jack pot the rewards - one right after another. This helps a dog to understand what you expect. Unlike the MARK (which is only said one time) the duration command can be said over and over depending on what the dog is doing.


You can "charge the word GOOD" command as the god grows up by saying GOOD when you pet him, or saying GOOD when you feed him. This is a similar concept to charging the mark - only we are adding a good feeling to the word "Good." The end result is the dog knows when we say "Good" he feels good.


Duration in time is extended for random periods starting in seconds and not getting to minutes for a long time. In the beginning we only extend the time by 2 or 3 seconds and then MARK the behavior and end the exercise. Then we go 5 seconds and MARK; then 2 seconds and then 10 seconds etc. With puppies we don't recommended going beyond 15 to 20 seconds.

Random Rewards in Marker Training


"When do I stop using a food reward for a command?" This is an excellent question and an important part of marker training.


The goal for every dog trainer is to reach a point of variable reinforcement.


It is unrealistic to think that trainers will give a food reward every time they ask their dog to perform a behavior for the rest of the dogs life. For one thing people can't walk around with a bait bag for the rest of their lives. Although my Corgi that's lying at my feet right now thinks that would be the best thing that ever happened to her.

When we start marker training we reward for the smallest of efforts. We reward for looking at a hand in a hand touch. When the dog knows and understands a behavior and will perform the behavior correctly 8 out of 10 times for a signal or a command the handler can begin to reward randomly.


A behavior needs to be put on a random reward schedule before that behavior is linked to a second split behavior, When you stop and think about that statement it makes sense. If a dog expects a reward every time it performs a behavior and then you totally stop rewarding for that behavior the dog could shut down.


So the way around this problem is to establish random rewards.


Back in 2001 my brother (who is a psychologist in Canada) wrote an article for my web site titled "USING INTERMITTENT REWARDS IN TRAINING - THE CONEPT OF DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT." You may want to visit this article.


As a handler and the dog gain fluency in an exercise they can go longer and longer in between rewards. This becomes a factor of experience and a feeling for what works and what doesn't work.


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