加载中…
个人资料
bigdog101
bigdog101
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:11,413
  • 关注人气:18
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

Marker training - (4)

(2009-07-17 17:15:49)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 训犬资料

TARGETING
触靶

 

While marker training can be used to train virtually any behavior you need to start someplace and we like to start with targeting. We use a targeting stick with a YES markers (although our targeting stick does have a built in clicker).
实际上在响片训练中,可以利用触靶来训练任何行为。(部分内容未翻译

 

It is a simple concept. Extend the stick and hold it out away from your side. When the dog looks at it Mark the moment (only one mark) and reward the dog. The reward can be delivered at the little ball on the end of the stick.
方法很简单。伸出棒子,当狗看棒子的瞬间标记并奖励它。奖励可以是棒子未端的小球。

 

Repeat the process until your dog knows to look at the stick when you hold it out.
重复这个过程,直到你一伸出棒子,狗儿就知道看着棒子。

 

When the dog takes one step toward the stick, mark and reward the the step (making sure these two events do not happen at the same instant). Then mark two steps and then the dog sniffing the end and finally touching the end of the stick with his nose.
当狗向棒子走一步的时候,标记并奖励这一步(确保这两件事没有同时发生)。然后再标记两步,然后狗会继续查看直到最终它用鼻子碰到棒子未端。

 

Targeting the end of a stick may seem like a useless behavior but in fact it has many applications. We can use the same concept to teach our dogs to go to their bed, to go into their dog crate. It can be one part of a learned chain of behaviors to trim the dogs nails or clean his ears.
碰到棒子未端这个行为看似没有什么价值,但实际上这个动作有许多实际的应用。我们可以使用这样的方法教狗儿去它的床上,回狗笼。还可以用来帮助给狗修剪趾甲或清洗眼睛。

 

We like to expand the targeting into a hand touch command. This then becomes a fun game to play with our dogs but also a behavior we ask for to re-direct or dog away from dogs and people while on walks or when it's getting into something we don't want him to mess with.
我们喜欢把触靶练习扩展成触手口令。这也会成为一个与狗一起玩耍的好游戏,同时这也是一个可以用来改变狗儿行为的动作。

Marker <wbr>training <wbr>- <wbr>(4)

 

Timing of the Reward
奖励的时机

 

For a reward to have the best results it must come within 1/2 second of the behavior you want to encourage. Some people say that the reward must come quicker than a second; others say the reward must come within 1 1/2 seconds.
为了使奖励有最佳效果,必须在出现你想要鼓励的行为后1/2秒内实施奖励。一些人说奖励不能超过1秒,还有人说奖励必须在1又1/2秒内。

 

No matter how good you are you are not going to consistently be able to get a reward your dog in under a 1/2 of a second. You may occasionally do it but you will never get it done 100% of the time. Markers allow you to instantly mark a behavior and when the dog understands that a reward follows the mark you can take several seconds to reward the mark. This results in the dog learning much faster.
无论如何坚持每次在1/2秒内给狗儿奖励是对的。你可以偶尔不这样做,但是不应该总是不守时。当狗儿明白你会在标记后几秒钟内给它奖励时,你可以用响片立即标记一个行为。

 

People who don't train with markers don't have that luxury. The longer they delay between the behavior and the reward the less chance their dog associates the behavior with the reward. If praise is delayed by 2 or 3 seconds after a behavior there is an excellent chance that the dog will associate the reward with a behavior that is different than what the handler wanted to reward.
不使用响片训练的人不会有那样的乐趣。延长行为和奖励之间的时间,将减少狗儿把行为与奖励联系起来的机会。如果在某个行为发生后推迟赞扬2、3秒的时间,那么很可能狗会把并不是主人想要鼓励的行为与奖励联系起来。

 

This is why timing the Mark is so important in dog training and why marker training is so effective.
这就是为什么训犬时标记的时机是那么重要,为什么响片训练是如此有效。

 

Through repetition and experience your dog will quickly realize that when he hears the mark he knows he is going to get a reward for what he just did. It may take a few seconds but he knows the reward is coming and he knows what he did to earn it. It becomes crystal clear to the dog.
经过重复练习,狗很快就会明白:当它听到标记的时候,它会因为刚才的行为受到奖励。可能要稍等几秒钟,但是它知道奖励就要来了,并且它知道它为什么会得到奖励。这一切对狗来说变得非常清楚。

 

During your marker training you do not have to jump to rush the the reward. When the dog understands that a reward is coming after the mark, the delivery of the reward becomes part of the satisfaction. Compare it to eating out at a nice restaurant. Watching the waiter as he brings you food and puts it on the table is part of the fine dining experience.
在响片训练中你不必急于奖励。当狗明白听到标记后会有奖励的时候,奖励过程也会变成享受的一部分。举一个在一家美妙的餐厅吃饭的例子:观察侍者把食物放在桌子上也会变成美餐的一部分。

 

This concept becomes even more important when we are working on exercises where our dog is some distance from us. It allows us the time we need to get to the dog and reward him and still have him understand why he is getting the reward.
当远距离指挥狗进行训练的时候这一点非常重要。这样就可以让狗儿明白为何被奖励的情况下,我们有时间走过去奖励狗。

 

Learning to Time the Mark

 学习标记时机


New dog handlers must learn the correct timing on when they give the actual mark during training. The easiest way to understand how this works is to think like a dog. In a way your dog takes a mental picture of exactly what he is doing at the instant you mark a behavior. They relate the reward to that mental snap shot they took when they heard the word YES.
初学训练的人必须要学会在训练中什么时候才是做标记的正确时机。站在狗的立场思考可以很容易理解这一点。狗儿心里清楚的知道它被你标记那一刻在做什么,当听到“YES”时它会把奖励与刚才的动作联系起来。

 

A visual method to help you learn timing is to ask a friend to use a digital camera and go out with you when you train. Have them take a photo of your dog every time you say the word YES. Tell them not to focus on what the dog is doing but only listen to your voice.
一个帮助你掌握时机的可见方法,是训练的时候叫上一个朋友带着数码相机。每次你说“YES”的时候就让他给狗拍张照片。告诉他不要注意狗在做什么,只要注意听你的声音就行了。

 

So every time you say YES they need to push the shutter button. This is an easy way to uate what is going through your dogs mind when he hears the mark and what he thinks he is being rewarded for. You may be surprised what the results are here.
就这样每次你说“YES”时他都按下快门。这是评估狗儿听到标记时的想法,以及它觉得为何被奖励的简单方法。你可能会为这样做的结果而震惊。

 

The correct time to mark is the instant the dog meets the criteria of the particular training step or exercise
正确的标记时机是狗刚好满足某个训练标准的那一瞬间。

 

For example, when teaching the hand touch, where the dog is expected to touch his nose to your hand when you hold your hand out - if it is the step where the dog is finally touching the hand with his nose. The point to mark is the "very instant" the dog's nose touches the hand. Not 3 or 4 seconds after the fact.
例如在进行触手训练的时候,准确的标记时机就是狗儿用鼻子碰到手的那一瞬间,而不是这个行为发生后3、4秒。

 

If you are training the sit - the mark should come the instant the dogs but touches the ground, not 2 seconds later.
如果你在训练“坐”,就应该在狗儿刚接触地板时发出标记,而不是2秒后。

 

If you are training the Down the time to mark the Down is the instant the dogs belly touches the ground - not 5 seconds after he has been down.
如果你在训练“卧”,正确的标记时机是狗肚子刚接触地板的瞬间,而不是它已经卧下5秒后。

 

If you mark the down 5 seconds after the dogs belly has touched the ground the dog thinks he is being rewarded for staying down and not the actual movement of laying. When trainers consistently reward the Down with poor timing of the mark we see dogs that go down slower and slower because the dogs see the exercise as lying down and staying there. They know that the reward is going to come at some time in the future and not when they lay down.
如果你在已经狗儿已经卧下5秒之后标记,狗就会认为它是因为卧着不动才被奖励,而不是卧下那个动作。当训练者总是在不正确的标记后奖励狗,我们会发现狗儿卧下的越来越慢,因为它们认为这个训练目的就是卧下别动。他们知道一会儿就会有奖励了,而不是一卧下就有奖励。

 

Successful trainers understand that "the act of going down" and "duration in the down exercises" are two independent exercises that are trained separately. When dogs realize that the trigger to get the reward in the Down exercises is to get your belly on the ground you will see then drop like a stone. We will talk about extending the duration of the down later when we discuss training with the word Good.
成功的训练者理解“发生行为”和“持续行为”是两个应该分开进行的独立训练。当狗儿理解是卧下这个动作才引发奖励以后,你会发现卧下的像落下的石头那样迅速。我们会在后面讨论“GOOD”时说到“持续行为”。


The relationship between the Mark and the Reward:
标记和奖励之间的关系

 

I have already mentioned that it is critical to never move the hand or arm that delivers the reward until after we say YES. I want to revisit that issue now so you understand why this is so important.
我已经说到过在说“YES”之前不要晃动手或手臂是很关键的。我再次说到这个问题是因为现在你还不能理解这样做的重要性。

 

Dogs are visual animals. While they may watch you all the time they don't naturally listen to the words that come out of our mouth. The fact is they don't understand most of what we say.
狗是可视的动物。尽管它总是看着你,但是它不能天生的听从我们嘴里说出的话。实际上,它们不能理解我们说的大部分话。

 

Dogs always react to physical cues over verbal cues. When trainers give the verbal cue and physical cue at the same time the dog will always follow the physical cue. This means when you mark the exercise and move the arm at the same time - the movement of the arm is the cue your dog is following and not your verbal cue.
相对口头信号,狗总是对身体信号作出反应。当训练员同时给出口令和手势时,狗总是执行手势。这就意味着如果你标记的同时移动手臂,那么狗儿关注将会是移动手臂这个信号,而不是你的口令。

 

This concept was discovered by Pavlov a long time ago. He kept his dogs in cages and when it came time to feed a bell would ring followed food dropping into food bowls. Pavlov noticed dogs would start to salivate when they heard the bell.
这种情况是很久以前巴甫洛夫发现的。(部分内容未翻译)

 

He then did some experiments. He would ring the bell after the food had dropped and while the dogs were eating. Those dogs never salivated to the sound of a bell. The bell meant nothing to them.

 

The moral of this story is DON'T REWARD AT THE SAME TIME THAT YOU MARK an exercise.
这个故事的道理就是标记的同时不要奖励。

Marker <wbr>training <wbr>- <wbr>(4)

 

Unfortunately it's not natural for people to have a pause between the YES and giving the food reward. Every new trainer reaches for food at the same instant that they say YES. Every new trainer needs to learn the skill of adding a pause in between the MARK and the movement of the reward hand. This is a very simple concept to understand and a very difficult discipline to learn. Those trainers who approach this as a learned skill get quicker results.
遗憾的是人们普遍没有在“YES”和给食物奖励之间加入停顿的习惯。第一位初学训练的人都会在说“YES”的同时伸手够食物,他们应该学习在标记和奖励动作之间加入停顿的技巧。这是个很容易理解并学会的概念。那些学会这个技巧的人很快就见到效果。

 

To improve your timing video tape training sessions and then study your work. This is a great way to gauge your work.
为了提高训练水平研究自己的训练录像,是评估你的工作的好方法。

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有