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“THE GROUND WORK”--基础训练--(3)

(2009-07-07 09:49:17)
分类: 训犬资料

KIDS AND DOGS
小孩子和狗


I have written very detailed articles on HOW TO PREVENT DOG BITES IN CHILDREN. This section is a very short over-view.

我写过一篇非常详细的文章:HOW TO PREVENT DOG BITES IN CHILDREN。这篇文章只是简单的概述。

 

My position on dogs and children is that kids as young as 9 can learn to handle (not train) a dog that is already trained but it should only be in the presence and under the supervision of the primary trainer (husband or wife).
我关于狗儿和孩子的态度是:至少9岁大的孩子才可以学习控制(不是训练)一只已经受过训练的狗,并且主要的训练员(丈夫或妻子)必须在场监督。


Children younger than 7 are not mature enough to assume the responsibility for handling any dog. They can play around a dog but only in the presence of an adult pack leader.

不到7岁的孩子承担不起控制任何狗的责任。在一个合格的狗主人面前,他们可以与狗一起玩耍。

 

Dogs must learn that babies and very young children are ALWAYS off limits. Dogs are not allowed near them and are certainly never allowed to play with them. It’s too easy for accidents to happen and when accidents happen with adult dogs and small children they are usually traumatic.
狗儿必须学会婴儿和小孩子总不可以接触的。狗儿不可以靠近他们,并且需要清晰的知道从来不允许同他们一起玩儿。意外太容易发生了,一旦成年狗和小孩子之间发生了意外,后果通常是非常痛苦的。


So my words of advice are to err on the side of safety and follow these guidelines.

我的忠告是不要在安全方面犯任何错误,坚持原则。

 

Children as young as 11 can learn to train a dog but the training should be in the presence of an experienced trainer.

11岁大的孩子可以学习训练狗了,不过训练必须由一个有经验的训犬师在旁边指导。

 

The question often comes up by new pet owners about how to teach the new dog that the small child is a higher rank in the family pack.

常见的问题是没有经验的狗主人们经常不知道如何教会狗儿明白:小孩子在家里的等级是比较高的。

 

My answer is that you don’t try do that. As pack leader you simply establish a rule that the dog is not allowed near the young child, and if it breaks that rule it suffers serious consequences.

我的回答是你什么都不需要做。作为领袖,你只要直接的建立规则,就是狗儿不允许靠近小孩子,一旦它违犯了规则它就必须承担严重的后果。

 

I know it’s hard to tell children that they cannot have contact with a new dog, but with this said, the dog has to make its bond with you before it makes its bond with the rest of the family.

我知道让孩子们明白不可以接触刚得到的狗是困难的。如上所述,在狗儿与其它家人建起制度之前,它必须先与你建立起制度。

 

In my Basic Dog Obedience DVD I explain the rules on how to introduce dogs to children.

在我的基本服从训练DVD中,我讲解了如何把狗儿介绍给孩子们。

 

NON-FAMILY MEMBERS PETTING MY DOGS

非家庭成员抚拍狗儿

 

I seldom allow people from outside my immediate family to touch or pet my dog.
我从少允许刚从外面来到家里的客人接触或抚拍我的狗。


These people are not pack members and as such my dog has no need to be petted by them. I wrote an article and did a podcast titled WHO PETS MY PUPPY, you may want to read or listen to it. The same applies to my adult dogs.
这些人不是群体成员,按照他们的身份,我的狗不需要被他们抚拍。我写过另外一篇文章:WHO PETS MY PUPPY,你可以参考一下。里面的方法对于我们的成年狗依然有效。


I get many emails from people who misunderstand this concept. They mistakenly think I am saying to keep the dog away from people. That’s not the case. Dogs need to be socialized around people. They just don’t need to be petted and fawned over by strangers.
我收到很多邮件,这些人误会了我的想法。他们错误的认为我的意思是让狗儿远离人们。实际情况不是这样的,狗儿们需要同人类交往,它们只是不需要被陌生人抚拍或讨好。


I expect my dog to be aloof to strangers. I want to be the center of my dog's universe. If my dog tries to run up and get petted I correct it, if it is in any way aggressive to strangers it is immediately corrected. The level of correction is firm enough that the dog remembers the next time it thinks about acting stupid.
我希望陌生人疏远我的狗。在我的狗儿心里我是绝对的核心。我会纠正狗儿想要跑过去获得抚拍。如果狗儿对陌生人表现出攻击性,它们会立即被纠正。纠正的严厉程度取决于狗儿下次能记得这种无聊的行为。


If people come up and pet my dog I politely always ask them to stop. If they ignore that request I get very firm. I am not trying to make friends when I walk my dog, I am trying to become a pack leader for my dog, so if someone's feelings are hurt, tough.
如果有人走过来抚拍我的狗,我会客气请他停下来。如果他们忽略我的话,我会坚决拒绝对方。当我带狗散步的时候不想要交朋友,我在尝试成为狗儿的领袖,因此可能有人会感到受了伤害。


This also goes for dogs that are going to be trained for personal protection or police service work. The pack leader determines who and when to fight, not lower ranking pack members. It would do new trainers well to remember that very important concept.

ALL UNWARRENTED AGGRESSION IS DEALT WITH BY A CORRECTION!

 

EXERCISE
运动


A very important part of the solution to almost all behavior problems is an appropriate exercise program. So with this said exercise needs to be an important part of every ground work program.
恰当的运动是解决大多数行为问题的重要方法。也就是说,运动也是第一个GW的重要组成部分。


An adult dog that is getting exercised is not a bored dog that has time to worry about getting into trouble or worry about being in his dog crate.
一只有运动的成年狗不会觉得无聊,在它的狗箱子里也不会觉得担忧、烦闷。


We do need to be a little careful with dogs younger that 12 months of age. Young adults should not go out jogging until they are 14 to 15 months old.
对于不超过12个月大的狗,我们必须小心照顾它。年轻的成年犬不应该外出慢跑,直到他们14、15个月大。


Over exercising a young adult is one of the leading causes (along with over feeding) of hip dysplasia and other skeletal failures.
年轻的成年犬进行过量运动(除了过度喂食)是引起髋关节疾病和其它骨骼问题的重要原因。


Owners that have adult dogs with a ton of energy can often use a weighted dog vest when they walk their dogs. These vests give them more bang for their buck when they take a walk.

 

By far the best form of exercise is swimming with long walks coming in second.

 

TAKING DOGS FOR WALKS
带狗儿散步


When I walk a new dog it is usually wearing a dominant dog collar with or with out a prong collar. These collars will self correct a dog when it pulls into the leash.

 

A dog that always pulls on the leash does not respect his owner as a pack leader, so I put a stop to it with a prong collar.
狗儿经常拉牵引带,不把主人作为领袖来尊重。这种情况下我会使用带刺的项圈来让狗儿停下来。


I have written an article titled THE THEORY OF CORRECTIONS IN DOG TRAINING. If you want to learn about the kinds of corrections and levels of corrections to use with your dog, I recommend that you read this article.
我写过一篇文章“在训练中纠正狗儿的原理”。如果你想要学习纠正狗儿的种类和等级,我推荐你读一下这篇文章。


Most dogs will wear a prong collar without problem. It is important that a prong be properly fit. I always recommend dogs wear a dominant dog collar along with a prong collar.

 

I have seen too many cases where prong comes apart when the handler gives a hard correction. If the dog has a second collar on at the time, the owner will not find himself trying to catch his dog at a time of high distraction (which is usually the case if you are correcting your dog).

 

MEETING OTHER DOGS ON WALKS
散步时遇到其它狗

 

When I walk my dogs I never allow them to socialize with other dogs that we meet along the way. Read the article I wrote on DOG PARKS and how stupid they are.
当我在散步的路上遇到其它狗儿时,我从来不允许我的狗与其它狗交往。(部分内容未翻译


Dogs are pack animals and strange dogs are not part of our family pack. In addition the pack rules are clear. It is the pack leader's job is to drive non-pack members away. If he needs help from lower ranking pack members he asks for it.
狗儿是群居动物,陌生狗不是我们家庭群体的一员。另外,群体规则是清晰的。驱赶不属于群体的成员是领袖的一项工作,如果领袖想要从低等级的成员获得帮助只会自讨苦吃。


If I am on a walk and a stray dog approaches I verbally drive the stray away. If the stray continues to approach I get physical with the offender.
如果我在散步时一只流浪狗靠近了,我会立即用口头把它赶走。如果这只狗继续靠近,我就对这个冒犯者付诸武力。


Don’t for one minute think that your dog does not see what’s going on. Remember, our dogs are very intuitive and they miss nothing.
不要有妄想你的狗儿会看不到什么在接近。记着,狗儿的直觉是非常可靠的。


When you drive strays away, or put yourself between your dog and a second dog he instinctively recognizes this as the actions of a pack leader.
当你把流浪狗赶走,或者是挡在你的狗和流浪狗之间,狗儿会本能的认出这是领袖的行为。


Once you have set your leadership position a strong dog will defer to your rank and allow you to deal with an intruder as a matter of respect. When people have dogs that go crazy at the sight of another dog, that owner's rank has not been properly established with their dog.
一旦你确立了你的领袖地位,流浪狗也会尊重你的地位,并且允许你处理闯入者。那些看见其它狗就变得很疯狂的狗,它们的主人肯定没有正确的处理好和狗儿的等级关系。


People who follow the policy will also have dogs that are less inclined to fight with another dog they accidentally meet when off leash.
使用这种方法,不使用牵引带时狗儿也会较少与其它狗发生打斗行为。


I never allow my dogs to socialize with strange dogs. Those people who think they need to socialize their dogs with other dogs are drop dead wrong. These are truly people who don’t understand pack structure and rank drive.
我从来不允许我的狗与其它狗有交往。那些认为他们的狗需要同其它狗交往的人是完全错误的。他们不懂得种群和等级动力。

 

DEALING WITH STRAY DOGS

处理流浪狗

 

If you do live in an area where there are stray dogs carry pepper spray(bear spray)and gas a dog if it comes close. You can buy it on the internet.

 

I would also carry a stout walking stick if I had problems with stray dogs.

如果我和流浪狗遇到麻烦,我会使用一根粗壮的手杖。

 

If the owners of these stray dogs stand there like a deer in the headlights I tell them that I warned them to get their dog under control.

如果流浪狗的主人呆站着,我会警告他们把自己控制好。

 

I warn them that they need to keep their dog on leash if they don’t want this to happen again. I also tell them that I would be happy to tell the police that their dog tried to attack me and my dog and that I was simply protecting myself because I feared for my personal safety. Trust me, police officers always relate to that language.


GATES DOORS AND STAIRS
门口和楼梯

 

Going through doors or gates or coming down a set of stairs before your dog is an important part of demonstrating pack leadership. It may not seem like much to us humans but it is a big thing in terms of respect to a dog
在狗的前面穿过门口或下楼梯是建立种群秩序的重要部分。对人类来说这可能不算什么,但是在狗的社会里,这可是件大事。


This is why I NEVER allow a dog to go through a door or gate before I do. I also never allow them to charge down stairs ahead of me.
这就是为什么我从来不允许狗儿在我前面过门或楼梯。


When I have a dog that charges through the doors, I set them up to fail. I open the door just wide enough for the dog's head to get through.
当狗儿冲向门口的时候,我会让它停下来,把门只打开刚够它的头穿过。


When he tries to force his body through the opening, I have a firm hold on the door and I don’t allow the door to swing open wide enough for him to pass. I close the door to the point of trapping the dog's head so he can’t pull it out and he can’t push his body through the opening. In effect I trap him.
当试图用力把身体也穿过时,我会牢牢的控制着门不被打开让狗儿穿过。我把门关上刚好够控制住狗的头部,使它不能逃跑,也不能把身体穿过。有效的控制住它。


I don’t slam his head in the door. In fact I don’t put one bit of pressure on the dog's head. All I have to do is hold him in place so he can't go through the door but he also cannot pull his head back out.
我没有用门猛夹狗儿的头部。实际上,我没有在狗儿的头部增加任何压力。我只是用一点空间控制住狗儿,不让它穿过门也不让它的头可以退回去。


When you do this the dog will have a panic attack. You don’t have to say one word here. Just hold his head for a few seconds.
当你这样做的时候狗儿可能感觉害怕。你不要说任何话。只是控制着他的头部几秒钟。


You only have to do this 2 or 3 times and they will respect the door as your space not their space.
你只需要这样做2、3次,狗儿就会明白门口是你的地盘,而不是它的。


I teach our dogs that they have to sit before they go through the door to go outside and then sit while I come out, turn and close the door.
我教狗儿们明白,它们必须坐着等待我穿过门出去,然后再关上门。


This is a BLACK AND WHITE exercise for the dog. They clearly understand that they must go to the door and sit before they are allowed out of the house or sit before they are allowed back into the house (or car).
这是狗儿的黑&白训练。狗儿们可以清楚的理解:在被允许穿过门口门前,它们必须乖乖坐下等着。


I even occasionally open the door before they sit and offer them the opportunity to stick their head in the door opening. They will always look at me and if dogs could talk they would say “OH NO, I KNOW THAT SILLY GAME.”
我甚至偶尔在狗儿们坐下前主动打开门,让它们有机会把头伸进开着的门里。它们总是会看着我,好像在说“哦,不。我知道这是个蠢的动作。”


This work is demonstrated in my Basic Dog Obedience DVD.

 

LOOSE IN THE HOUSE
房间里的自由


It can take weeks or even months for a dog to accept “your home” as “his home.”
让狗儿接受“你的家”,而不是“它的家”,这个过程可能要花费几周甚至几个月的时间。


I have noticed it take a longer period of time to settle in for adult dogs that are being re-homed the first time. Dogs that have been in two or more homes adjust much faster.
我已经注意到狗儿第一次在一个新家里安顿下来要花很少一段时间。那些有超过2个家的狗儿会适应的快一些。


We never allow a new dog to be unattended and loose in our home when we are gone until it has been with us for a long, long time--like months. In fact we own dogs that are never left unattended in our home.
我从来不允许一只刚到家的狗在没有人的家里独自散步,除非它已经跟我们一起生活了很长一段时间。实际上,我的狗从来不会被独自留在家里。


This does not mean we lock them in a crate for 4 years. It just means that I control our dogs in the home 100% of the time. They start off in the crate and graduate to a dog leash in the home.
这并不意味着我把狗儿在箱子里锁上4年之久。我的意图是要在家里要100%的控制着狗儿。在家里,狗儿们从箱子和牵引带开始它们的生活。


So the dog is either in his crate, on leash, or, after formal training, loose in the house. When that happens my eyes are on the dog 100% of the time.

 

This may fly in the face of other advice you get. But I will be the first person to say “I TOLD YOU SO” when your dog chews up your favorite couch or pees on your brand new carpet while you run down the the corner grocery for a gallon of milk.
你可能会听到一些截然相反的建议。但是当你的狗儿咬坏你喜爱的沙发,或在你的新地毯上小便的时候,你会明白我是第一个这样对你说的人。


I will always remember back to 1972. I had a 1 year old dog that dug her way through the sheet rock in my apartment while I was gone (for 30 minutes). She was well on her way to making an outside doggy door in the siding of the apartment building when I got home.

 

People who allow dogs out of their crates too soon, or people who bring their new dogs into their homes and don’t KEEP THEIR EYES on their new dogs are the people who send me emails with behavioral problems.
那些允许狗儿过早离开箱子,或不时刻监视着刚到家的狗的主人经常会询问我有关狗的行为问题。


So our approach is to have our crate in the family area. This allows the dog to watch the family going about their daily lives. This seems to speed up the process of teaching the dog that it is now part of our family pack. It also gives the dog a chance to recognize WHO OUR FAMILY IS. That’s very important.
我的办法是在家里为狗准备一个箱子。这样狗儿可以观察家人每天的日常生活。这好像可以加快教会狗儿明白它是家庭中的一员。这样还可以让狗有机会认出家里都有谁。这一点非常重要。


Through observation the dog learns about our style of living.
通过观察,狗儿学会了我们的生活方式。


If your new dog is a little shy and over reacts to family members walking by the crate it’s a good idea to leave a bowl of all-natural dog treats sitting on top of the crate. When a family member goes by they can drop a dog a treat through the front grate in the door of the crate.

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