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比尔.克林顿《我的生活》中英对照 第七章 (2)

(2009-06-08 07:06:32)
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克林顿

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分类: 学习

Miss Warneke took our small class on a field trip to Newton County, my first trip into the heart of the Ozarks in north Arkansas, our Appalachia. Back then it was a place of breathtaking beauty, hardscrabble poverty, and rough, all-consuming politics. The county had about six thousand people spread over more than a couple of hundred square miles in hills and hollows. Jasper, the county seat, had a little more than three hundred people, a WPA-built courthouse, two cafes, a general store, and one tiny movie theater, where our class went one night to watch an old Audie Murphy western. When I got into politics I came to know every township in Newton County, but I fell in love with it at sixteen, as we navigated the mountain roads, learning about the history, geology, flora, and fauna of the Ozarks. One day we visited the cabin of a mountain man who had a collection of rifles and pistols dating back to the Civil War, then explored a cave the Confederates had used for munitions storage. The guns still fired, and remnants of the arsenal were still in the cave, visible manifestation of how real a century-old conflict was in places where time passed slowly, grudges died hard, and handed-down memories hung on and on. In the mid-seventies, when I was attorney general, I was invited to give the commencement address at Jasper High School. I urged the students to keep going in the face of adversity, citing Abraham Lincoln and all the hardships and setbacks he’d overcome. Afterward, the leading Democrats took me out into a bright starlit Ozark night and said, Bill, that was a fine speech. You can give it down in Little Rock anytime. But don’t you ever come up here and brag on that Republican President again. If he’d been that good, we wouldn’t have had the Civil War! I didn’t know what to say.

沃奈克小姐领着我们这个小班去牛顿县进行了一次校外考察。这是我第一次来到阿肯色州北部欧扎克山区的心脏地带——相当于我们的阿巴拉契亚山(阿巴拉契亚山脉位于美国东部,是北美洲东部的一座山系。南起美国的亚拉巴马州,北至加拿大的纽芬兰和拉布拉多省,连绵数千公里)。当时,那里是一个极其优美却极度贫困的地方,同时政治环境也混乱不堪。该郡人口6000左右,散居于几百平方英里的群山与盆地之中。郡政府所在地贾斯珀只有300人。镇上有一个美国公共事业振兴署建造的县政府大楼,两家咖啡屋,一个综合百货店和一家小型影院。一天晚上,我们全班还去影院看了一场由奥迪.默菲主演的老西部片。进入政坛后,我渐渐了解了牛顿县的所有乡镇,但早在16岁那年便已爱上了那里。我们在山间小道艰难行进,了解欧扎克山区的历史、地理、动植物等等。一天,我们造访了一位山里人的小木屋。他收藏着自美国内战以来的各种长短枪。我们还考察了当年联邦军队囤积军火的一个岩洞。枪还能开得了火,剩余的军火也仍然留在洞中。在这里,仿佛时间过得缓慢,嫌隙难以消失,代代相传的记忆仍然弥漫在空中,洞中的一切把一个世纪前的冲突真真切切地展现出来。70年代中期,我当检察长时曾受邀为贾斯伯高中的毕业典礼作演讲。我鼓励学生要迎着困难前进,并且引用了林肯的例子,列举了他所克服的种种艰难与挫折。演讲完后,当地民主党领导人送我出来,在星光灿烂的欧扎克的夜晚。他对我说:“比尔,讲得好。你什么时候都可以在小石城再讲一遍。不过下次再来的话,不要再滔滔不绝地讲那位共和党总统的好话了。他要真那么好,我们也不会打什么内战!”我不知说什么好。

 

In Ruth Sweeney’s senior English class, we read Macbeth and were encouraged to memorize and recite portions of it. I made it through a hundred lines or so, including the famous soliloquy that begins, Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day, to the last syllable of recorded time and ends, Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage and then is heard no more. It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. Almost thirty years later, when I was governor, I happened to visit a class in Vilonia, Arkansas, on a day the students were studying Macbeth, and I recited the lines for them, the words still full of power for me, a dreadful message I was always determined would not be the measure of my life.

在露丝.斯威尼的四年级英语课上,我们学了《麦克白》一剧,老师鼓励我们记住并背诵其中一些段落。我背了约一百句台词,包括那段著名的独白,从“明天,明天,再一个明天,一天接着一天地慢慢蹑步前进,直到最后一秒钟”开始,一直到结尾“人生不过是一个在行走的影子,一个在舞台上装模作样消磨时间的戏子,演艺高潮过后,不再有人为其喝彩;它是一个愚人所讲的故事,充满了大吵大闹,却找不到一点意义”。将近30年后,我已当上了州长,我去阿肯色州维罗尼亚市视察,观摩一个班级的课堂。学生们碰巧在学习《麦克白》,我便为他们背诵了那些台词,那些词句对我而言仍然气壮山河。这是一段令人感到害怕的独白,我总是努力使它不要成为我生活的一部分。

 

The summer after my junior year, I attended the annual weeklong American Legion Boys State program at Camp Robinson, an old army camp with enough primitive wooden barracks to house a thousand sixteen-year-old boys. We were organized by cities and counties, divided equally into two political parties, and introduced as candidates and voters to local, county, and state politics. We also developed platforms and voted on issues. We heard addresses from important figures, from the governor on down, and got to spend one day at the state Capitol, during which the Boys State governor, the other elected officials and their staffs, and the legislators actually got to occupy the state offices and legislative chambers.

高中三年级后的那个夏天,我参加了一年一度在罗宾逊营地举行的为期一周的美国军团“少年之州”活动。那是一个旧军营,里面有许多简陋的木制营房,足够容纳1千名16岁的男孩子。我们按所在的市县编组,平均地分成两个政党,然后作为候选人和选民,将当地、县和州的政治活动介绍给我们知道。我们还起草施政纲领,并对一些问题进行投票表决。我们聆听了自州长而下的重要人物的讲话,还在州议会大厦度过了一天。其间,“少年之州”的州长以及其他当选官员和他们的幕僚,还有立法者等,真地使用了州府各办公室和议会各会议室。

 

At the end of the week, both parties nominated two candidates for the Boys Nation program, to be held toward the end of July at the University of Maryland in College Park, near the nation’s capital. An election was held, and the top two vote-getters got to go as Arkansas senators. I was one of them.

到了周末,两党要提名两位候选人参加“少年之国家”活动。该活动将于7月底在离国家首都不远的马里兰大学学院公园分校内举行。我们举行了一次选举,得票最多的两人将作为“阿肯色州议员”前去参加全国活动。我便是其中之一。

 

I went to Camp Robinson wanting to run for Boys Nation senator. Though the most prestigious post was governor, I had no interest in it then, or in the real job itself, for years thereafter. I thought Washington was where the action was on civil rights, poverty, education, and foreign policy. Besides, I couldn’t have won the governor’s election anyway, since it was, in the Arkansas vernacular, saucered and blowed—over before it started. My longtime friend from Hope, Mack McLarty, had it in the bag. As his school’s student-council president, a star quarterback, and a straight-A student, he had begun lining up support all across the state several weeks earlier. Our party nominated Larry Taunton, a radio announcer with a wonderful silken voice full of sincerity and confidence, but McLarty had the votes and won going away. We were all sure he would be the first person our age to be elected governor, an impression reinforced four years later when he was elected student body president at the University of Arkansas, and again just a year after that when, at twenty-two, he became the youngest member of the state legislature. Not long after that, Mack, who was in the Ford business with his father, devised a then-novel leasing scheme for Ford trucks, which eventually made him and Ford Motor Company a fortune. He gave up politics for a business career that led him to the presidency of Arkansas-Louisiana Gas Company, our largest natural gas utility. But he stayed active in politics, lending leadership and fund-raising skills to many Arkansas Democrats, especially David Pryor and me. He stayed with me all the way to the White House, first as chief of staff, then as special envoy to the Americas. Now he is Henry Kissinger’s partner in a consulting business and owns, among other things, twelve car dealerships in So Paulo, Brazil.

我参加罗宾逊营地的活动是想要竞选“少年之国家”参议员。尽管最具声望的职位是州长,可我当时对此并没有兴趣,此后多年,即使对那个真正的州长职位我也不感兴趣。在我看来,华盛顿是处理民权、贫困、教育、外交政策等国家政策的地方。此外,我也不可能赢得州长选举,因为用阿肯色州的土话来说,这是“把咖啡倒上碟子上吹冷后就可以喝了”——早就已成定局了。我多年的霍普镇老乡麦克.麦克拉蒂实际已稳操胜券。他在学校就是学生会主席,此外还是明星四分卫和全优生。几周前他已开始在全州争取支持。我们党提名了拉里.汤顿。他是位电台播音员,有一副圆润的好嗓子,听起来既诚恳又自信。但麦克拉蒂得到了多数选票,并胜出一大截。我们都很肯定,他准会是我们同龄人中第一个当选州长的。四年后,他当选为阿肯色大学学生会主席,使得我们更加确定这点。仅仅一年后他以22岁的年龄成为州议会中最年轻的一员。不久以后,和父亲同在福特公司工作的麦克为福特牌卡车构思出了一个在当时相当新颖的租车方案。这个方案最终为他和福特公司都带来了不少财富。他因此放弃了政治,专心经商,最后成为阿肯色—路易斯安那煤气公司的总裁。该公司是我们最大的天然气公用事业公司。但他在政治方面仍很积极,为许多阿肯色州民主党人,特别是戴维.普赖尔和我贡献了领导和筹款技巧。他一直伴随着我走向白宫,先是作为办公厅主任,后来作为派往美洲国家的特使。现在他和亨利.基辛格是一家咨询公司的合伙人。不说别的,光在巴西的圣保罗就有12个汽车特许经营店。

 

Though he lost the governors race, Larry Taunton got a big consolation prize: as the only boy besides McLarty with 100 percent name recognition, he was a lock cinch for one of the two Boys Nation slots; he had only to file. But there was a problem. Larry was one of two stars in his hometown delegation. The other was Bill Rainer, a bright, handsome multi-sport athlete. They had come to Boys State agreeing that Taunton would run for governor, Rainer for Boys Nation. Now, though both were free to run for Boys Nation, there was no way two boys from the same town were going to be elected. Besides, they were both in my party and I had been campaigning hard for a week. A letter I wrote to Mother at the time recounts that I had already won elections for tax collector, party secretary, and municipal judge, and that I was running for county judge, an important position in real Arkansas politics.

尽管没有赢得州长选举,拉里.汤顿得到了一个很大的安慰奖:作为除麦克拉蒂以外惟一获得百分之百认可率的少年,他已稳稳当当地占据了“少年之国家”的两个议员的位置之一,只要提出申请即可。但这里有个问题。拉里是其家乡代表团的两位“明星”之一。另一位明星是比尔.雷纳,一个聪明、英俊的多项全能运动员。他们来参加“少年州”时曾有约让汤顿竞选州长,雷纳则竞选“少年之国家”的议员。现在尽管他俩都有竞选“少年国家”议员的自由,但来自同一地方的两个男孩不可能都当选。此外,他们和我同属一个党派,而我已经辛苦竞选了一个星期。当时我给母亲写了封信,说我已经赢得了税收官、党书记、市法官等选举,现在正在竞选县法官,这是在现实中,阿肯色州政治舞台上的一个重要位置。

 

At the last minute, not long before the party met to hear our campaign speeches, Taunton filed. Bill Rainer was so stunned he could hardly get through his speech. I still have a copy of my own speech, which is unremarkable, except for a reference to the Little Rock Central High turmoil: We have grown up in a state ridden with the shame of a crisis it did not ask for. I did not approve of what Faubus had done, and I wanted people from other states to think better of Arkansas. When the votes were counted, Larry Taunton finished first by a good margin. I was second with a pretty good cushion. Rainer finished well back. I had come to really like Bill, and I never forgot the dignity with which he bore his loss.

在最后一刻,就在召集党派会议听取我们的竞选演说前不久,汤顿提出了竞选申请。比尔.雷纳大为震惊,他的演讲差点儿没有进行下去。我还保存着我当时的演讲稿副本,除了提到小石城中心高中的骚乱外,并无突出之处。文章提到:“我们所成长的这个州经历了一个危机,这个危机为我们带来了耻辱,但这个危机是没有必要的。我不赞同福伯斯(担任了6届阿肯色州州长)的所作所为,希望其他州的人对阿肯色州有更高的评价。”计票后,拉里.汤顿得票遥遥领先。我名列第二,也得到不少票数。雷纳则远远落在了后面。我已经逐渐真的喜欢上了比尔。我永远记得,他很有风度地接受了自己的失败。

  

Because of my friendship with Bill Rainer and my more liberal views on civil rights, I had a tense relationship with Larry Taunton the whole week of Boys Nation. I’m glad that, after I became President, I got to meet the grown-up Larry Taunton and his children. He seemed to be a good man who’d built a good life.

由于我和比尔.雷纳的友谊,由于我在民权问题上比较左倾的观点,在整个一周的“少年之国家”活动中,我和拉里.汤顿的关系都很紧张。让我高兴的是,在我成为总统后,有机会见到了成年的拉里.汤顿和他的子女。他看上去是个好人,有着自己的美好人生。

 

On Monday, July 22, we visited the Capitol, took pictures on the steps, and met our states senators. Larry and I had lunch with J. William Fulbright, chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, and John McClellan, chairman of the Appropriations Committee. The seniority system was alive and well, and no state had more power from it than Arkansas. In addition, all four of our congressmen held important positions: Wilbur Mills was chairman of the Ways and Means Committee; Oren Harris, chairman of the Commerce Committee; Took Gathings, ranking member of the Agriculture Committee; and Jim Trimble, who had been in Congress only since 1945, a member of the powerful Rules Committee, which controls the flow of legislation to the House floor. Little did I know that within three years I would be working for Fulbright on the Foreign Relations Committee staff. A few days after the lunch, Mother got a letter from Senator Fulbright saying that he had enjoyed our lunch and that she must be proud of me. I still have that letter, my first encounter with good staff work.

7月22日那天,是周一,我们参观了国会大厦,在台阶上照了相,并见到了我们州的两位参议员。我和拉里跟外交关系委员会主席J,威廉.富布赖特和拨款委员会主席约翰.麦克莱伦共进了午餐。论资排辈制依然存在,在所在州中,阿肯色州由此所获得的权势最大。此外,我们所有的四位众议员都占据着重要职位:威尔伯.米尔斯是众议院筹款委员会主席;奥伦.哈里斯是商业委员会主席;“托克”.加辛斯是农业委员会的高级委员;吉姆.特林布尔“仅仅是”自1945年才开始当众议员,却已经是权力很大的规则委员会委员,控制着提交众议院表决的立法提案的数量。我怎么也没想到,不到三年我就将作为外交关系委员会的工作人员为富布赖特工作。那次午餐后的几天,母亲收到富布赖特参议员写来的一封信,说他跟我们一起吃饭很开心,还说她一定会为我感到自豪。我还保留着那封信,那是我第一次见识优秀的幕僚的文采。

 

On Wednesday, July 24, we went to the White House to meet the President in the Rose Garden. President Kennedy walked out of the Oval Office into the bright sunshine and made some brief remarks, complimenting our work, especially our support for civil rights, and giving us higher marks than the governors, who had not been so forward-leaning in their annual summer meeting. After accepting a Boys Nation T-shirt, Kennedy walked down the steps and began shaking hands. I was in the front, and being bigger and a bigger supporter of the Presidents than most of the others, I made sure I’d get to shake his hand even if he shook only two or three. It was an amazing moment for me, meeting the President whom I had supported in my ninth-grade class debates, and about whom I felt even more strongly after his two and a half years in office. A friend took a photo for me, and later we found film footage of the handshake in the Kennedy Library.

7月24日周三那天,我们前往白宫,到玫瑰园与总统见面。肯尼迪总统走出白宫办公厅,在灿烂的阳光下作了简短的讲话,赞扬了我们所做的工作,特别是我们对民权的支持;给我们打的分比给州长们打的还高。在那年夏季的会议中,州长们太过于保守。在大家各自接受了一件“少年之国家”的T恤衫后,肯尼迪走下台阶,开始和我们握手。我站在前排,个子较大,而且比多数人都更坚定地支持肯尼迪总统。我要确保自己和总统握上手,哪怕他只是和两三个人握手。早在九年级课堂辩论中,我就支持肯尼迪,在他担任总统两年半后更是如此。此刻真的见到了他,对我来说,这是个毕生难忘的时刻。一位朋友为我拍了张照片,后来我在肯尼迪图书馆发现了这组握手的电影胶片。

 

Much has been made of that brief encounter and its impact on my life. My mother said she knew when I came home that I was determined to go into politics, and after I became the Democratic nominee in 1992, the film was widely pointed to as the beginning of my presidential aspirations. I’m not sure about that. I have a copy of the speech I gave to the American Legion in Hot Springs after I came home, and in it I didn’t make too much of the handshake. I thought at the time I wanted to become a senator, but deep down I probably felt as Abraham Lincoln did when he wrote as a young man, I will study and get ready, and perhaps my chance will come.

那次简短的会见及其对我人生道路的影响意义很大。母亲说,我回到家后,她便知道,我已决定进入政坛,1992年我被提名为民主党总统候选人后,那卷电影胶片被广泛地认为是我渴望得到总统宝座的萌芽。对于这一点,我并不确定。我保存了自己从华盛顿回来后在温泉城对美国军团所做的演讲。演讲中并没有对那次握手进行过多渲染。那时我认为自己想当个参议员,但可能在心灵深处,我也许像亚伯拉罕.林肯年轻时写下的那样:“我要学习,做好准备,我的机会也许会到来。”

 

I had some success in high school politics, getting elected president of the junior class, and I wanted to run for president of the student council, but the accrediting group that oversaw our high school decided that Hot Springs students were not allowed to be involved in too many activities and ordered restrictions. Under the new rules, since I was the band major, I was ineligible to run for student council or class president. So was Phil Jamison, the captain of the football team and the odds-on favorite to win.

我在高中的政治活动中也取得了一些成绩。我被选为三年级年级长,我还想参加学生会主席的竞选,但负责监督我们高中的鉴定小组却做出决定,不允许温泉城高中的学生参与太多活动,并下达了限制令。根据这个新规定,由于我已是乐队的主乐手,便失去了参加学生会或年级级长的竞选资格。菲尔.贾米森,橄榄球队队长,一个很有希望胜出的竞选者也是如此。

  

In one of the dumber political moves of my life, I allowed my name to be put up for senior class secretary by a friend who was angry about the new activity restrictions. My next-door neighbor Carolyn Yeldell defeated me handily, as she should have. It was a foolish, selfish thing for me to do, and proof positive of one of my rules of politics: Never run for an office you don’t really want and don’t have a good reason to hold.

一位朋友对新的活动限制十分气愤,因此将我的名字添加到毕业班书记的竞选名单上,我也同意了。这是我生活中犯的比较低级政治错误之一。我的隔壁邻居卡罗琳.耶尔德尔轻而易举地击败了我,她也应该赢。我出于私心干了件傻事,同时这也证明了我的一个政治原则:如果不是真想得到某个职位,如果没有足够的理由待在那个位置上,那就坚决不要去争。

 

Notwithstanding the setbacks, sometime in my sixteenth year I decided I wanted to be in public life as an elected official. I loved music and thought I could be very good, but I knew I would never be John Coltrane or Stan Getz. I was interested in medicine and thought I could be a fine doctor, but I knew I would never be Michael DeBakey. But I knew I could be great in public service. I was fascinated by people, politics, and policy, and I thought I could make it without family wealth, or connections, or establishment southern positions on race and other issues. Of course it was improbable, but isn’t that what America is all about?

尽管遭到了那次挫折,在我16岁那年的某个时候,我还是决定想竞选成为一名政府官员,进入公共视线中。我喜爱音乐,也觉得自己会在音乐上很有前途,但我明白,自己永远成不了约翰.考尔特兰或斯坦.盖茨。我对医学很感兴趣,觉得自己能当个好医生,但我明白,自己永远成不了迈克.德巴基。但我清楚,在公共服务领域我可以出类拔萃。我最感兴趣的是人,是政治,是政策,而且我认为不靠家庭财富,不靠关系,不靠南方所看重的种族或其他根基,自己也能做到这一点。当然这种可能性不大,然而,美国的特别之处不就在于从不可能中做出可能的“美国梦”吗?

 

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