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Meditations_9-2

(2009-02-24 13:22:24)
标签:

book

meditations

杂谈

沉思录

分类: Books

Book Nine(Part 2)

Hasten to examine thy own ruling faculty and that of the universe and that of thy neighbour: thy own that thou mayest make it just: and that of the universe, that thou mayest remember of what thou art a part; and that of thy neighbour, that thou mayest know whether he has acted ignorantly or with knowledge, and that thou mayest also consider that his ruling faculty is akin to thine.
抓紧时间去考察你自己的支配能力、宇宙的支配能力和你的邻人的支配能力。对于你自己的支配能力,你可以使它正直;对于宇宙的支配能力,你可以记住你是它的一部分;对于邻人的支配能力,你可以认识他是地知还是有知地行动,你也可以考虑他的支配能力是类似于你的。

As thou thyself art a component part of a social system, so let every act of thine be a component part of social life. Whatever act of thine then has no reference either immediately or remotely to a social end, this tears asunder thy life, and does not allow it to be one, and it is of the nature of a mutiny, just as when in a popular assembly a man acting by himself stands apart from the general agreement.
由于你自己是一个社会体系的构成部分,你也要让你的每一行为都成为社会生活的一个构成部分。那么,你的所有跟社会目的没有直接或间接关联的不论什么行为,就都会分裂你的生命,打破它的统一,就都有一种叛逆的性质,正像在公共集会上,一个人脱离普遍的协议而我行我素。

Quarrels of little children and their sports, and poor spirits carrying about dead bodies, such is everything; and so what is exhibited in the representation of the mansions of the dead strikes our eyes more clearly.
小孩子们的争吵,他们的运动,可怜的携带着死去的身体的精神,一切都是这样。所以,在死者宅第的描绘中所展现的东西,更清楚地映入我们的眼帘。
Examine into the quality of the form of an object, and detach it altogether from its material part, and then contemplate it; then determine the time, the longest which a thing of this peculiar form is naturally made to endure.
洞察一个对象的形式的性质,把它同它的质料部分完全分开,然后沉思它,然后判断时间,即这一特殊形式的事物自然要持续的最长时间。

Thou hast endured infinite troubles through not being contented with thy ruling faculty, when it does the things which it is constituted by nature to do. But enough of this.
当你的支配能力做出它天生要做的事时,你由于对它不满意而忍受了无数的苦恼。但这已经够了。
 
When another blames thee or hates thee, or when men say about thee anything injurious, approach their poor souls, penetrate within, and see what kind of men they are. Thou wilt discover that there is no reason to take any trouble that these men may have this or that opinion about thee. However thou must be well disposed towards them, for by nature they are friends. And the gods too aid them in all ways, by dreams, by signs, towards the attainment of those things on which they set a value.
当另一个人谴责你或仇恨你时,或者当人们谈论伤害你的事情时,去接近他们可怜的灵魂,深入其中,看他们是什么性质的人。你将发现没有理由因这些人可能对你有这种或那种意见而发生苦恼。无论如何你必须好好待他们,因为他们天生就是你的朋友。神灵在各方面能过梦、通过征淦帮助他们达到那些他们所重视的事情。

The periodic movements of the universe are the same, up and down from age to age. And either the universal intelligence puts itself in motion for every separate effect, and if this is so, be thou content with that which is the result of its activity; or it puts itself in motion once, and everything else comes by way of sequence in a manner; or indivisible elements are the origin of all things.- In a word, if there is a god, all is well; and if chance rules, do not thou also be governed by it.
宇宙的周期运动是同样的,从一个时代到另一个时代往返不已。或者是宇宙的理智力自身运动产生各种各样的效果,如果是这样,你要满足于它活动的结果;或者是它一旦推动,别的一切事物就以一种连续的方式来到;再不就是不可分割的元素是所有事物的根源。-总之,如果有一个神,就一切都好;如果是偶然性的统治,你也不要受它的支配。
  
Soon will the earth cover us all: then the earth, too, will change, and the things also which result from change will continue to change for ever, and these again for ever. For if a man reflects on the changes and transformations which follow one another like wave after wave and their rapidity, he will despise everything which is perishable.
大地不久就要掩埋我们所有的人,然后这大地也会变化,从变化中产生的事物将继续永远变化,如此循环往复不已。因为如果一个人思考那像波浪一样一个接一个的变化和变形,思考这种变化的迅速性,他将看不起这一切会衰朽的东西。

The universal cause is like a winter torrent: it carries everything along with it. But how worthless are all these poor people who are engaged in matters political, and, as they suppose, are playing the philosopher! All drivellers. Well then, man: do what nature now requires. Set thyself in motion, if it is in thy power, and do not look about thee to see if any one will observe it; nor yet expect Plato's Republic: but be content if the smallest thing goes on well, and consider such an event to be no small matter. For who can change men's opinions? And without a change of opinions what else is there than the slavery of men who groan while they pretend to obey? Come now and tell me of Alexander and Philip and Demetrius of Phalerum. They themselves shall judge whether they discovered what the common nature required, and trained themselves accordingly. But if they acted like tragedy heroes, no one has condemned me to imitate them. Simple and modest is the work of philosophy. Draw me not aside to indolence and pride.
宇宙的本原就像一道冬天的激流,它把所有东西都带着和它一起走。但是所有那些介入政治事务却自以为在扮演哲学家角色的可怜的人们是多么无价值啊!还有所有的驱赶者。那么好,人啊,做本性现在所要求的事吧。如果你有力量,就投入行动,不要环顾左右看是否有什么人将注意它,也不要期望柏拉图的理想国。而只是满足于只要最小的事情进行得很好,考虑这样一件事也决非小事。因为谁能改变人们的意见呢?不改变意见又怎么能摆脱那种在装作服从时又发出呻吟的奴隶状态呢?现在来给我讲亚历山大、菲力浦和菲勒内姆的迪米特里厄斯。他们自己将判断他们是否发现了共同本性所要求的事情,因而相应地训练自己。但如果他们行动得像悲剧中英雄,那么就没有人能谴责我模仿他们。朴素和谦虚是哲学的工作。不要使我偏离到懒惰和骄傲。

Look down from above on the countless herds of men and their countless solemnities, and the infinitely varied voyagings in storms and calms, and the differences among those who are born, who live together, and die. And consider, too, the life lived by others in olden time, and the life of those who will live after thee, and the life now lived among barbarous nations, and how many know not even thy name, and how many will soon forget it, and how they who perhaps now are praising thee will very soon blame thee, and that neither a posthumous name is of any value, nor reputation, nor anything else.
俯视那无数的人群,他们无数的庄严仪式,和无限变化的在风暴或宁静中的航行,俯视那些诞生出来,一起生活,然后死去的人们中的种种差异。也考虑那些过去时代的人们的生命,将在你之后生活的人们的生命,现正在野蛮民族中生活的人们的生命,有多少人甚至不知道你的名字,有多少人将马上忘掉它,考虑那些现在也许在赞扬你的人很快又要谴责你,那么,一种死后的声名就决无价值,名望亦是,其他亦是。

Let there be freedom from perturbations with respect to the things which come from the external cause; and let there be justice in the things done by virtue of the internal cause, that is, let there be movement and action terminating in this, in social acts, for this is according to thy nature.
让你在来自外部原因的事物的打扰中保持自由吧,让你在根据内在原因所做的事情中保持正义吧,换言之,让你的行为和活动限定于有益社会的行为,因为这符合你的本性。

Thou canst remove out of the way many useless things among those which disturb thee, for they lie entirely in thy opinion; and thou wilt then gain for thyself ample space by comprehending the whole universe in thy mind, and by contemplating the eternity of time, and observing the rapid change of every several thing, how short is the time from birth to dissolution, and the illimitable time before birth as well as the equally boundless time after dissolution.
你能从那些烦扰你的事物中把许多无用的东西从这条路上清除出去,因为它们完全在于你的意见,你将如此为自己得到广阔的空间:即通过在你心里思考整个的宇宙,思考永恒的时间,观察每一事物的瞬息万变,观察从生到死的短暂以及在生之前和死之后的时间的无限深渊。

All that thou seest will quickly perish, and those who have been spectators of its dissolution will very soon perish too. And he who dies at the extremest old age will be brought into the same condition with him who died prematurely.
所有你看到的事物都将迅速地衰朽,那些目击其分解的人们不久也将逝去。活得最长的人将被带到和早夭者同样的地方。

What are these men's leading principles, and about what kind of things are they busy, and for what kind of reasons do they love and honour? Imagine that thou seest their poor souls laid bare. When they think that they do harm by their blame or good by their praise, what an idea!
这些人的指导原则是什么,他们忙碌于何种性质的事情,他们因什么理由喜爱和尊重这些事情?设想你看到了他们的赤裸中的可怜的灵魂。他们以为通过他们的谴责做出了损害或通过他们的赞扬带来了利益时,这是一种多么奇怪的观念啊!
 
Loss is nothing else than change. But the universal nature delights in change, and in obedience to her all things are now done well, and from eternity have been done in like form, and will be such to time without end. What, then, dost thou say? That all things have been and all things always will be bad, and that no power has ever been found in so many gods to rectify these things, but the world has been condemned to be found in never ceasing evil?
损失只不过是变化。而宇宙的本性欢喜变化,通过服从于它,所有事物现在都进行得很好,自古以来一直是以类似的方式进行,在无尽的未来也将是如此进行。那么,你说什么呢?难道你说所有事物一直是也将始终是坏的,在如此多的神灵中还没有发现什么力量来修正这些事物,而世界注定要以不停止恶的方式确立么?

The rottenness of the matter which is the foundation of everything! Water, dust, bones, filth: or again, marble rocks, the callosities of the earth; and gold and silver, the sediments; and garments, only bits of hair; and purple dye, blood; and everything else is of the same kind. And that which is of the nature of breath is also another thing of the same kind, changing from this to that.
那为一切事物基础的物质的腐烂!水、灰尘、骨头、垃圾,或者是:大理石-土的 硬 化;金银-冲积物;衣服-只是一些毛皮;染织的紫袍-血;其他一切也都是同一性质。那具有呼吸本性的一个事物也是具有同样本性的另一个事物,从这一个变化到另一个。

Enough of this wretched life and murmuring and apish tricks. Why art thou disturbed? What is there new in this? What unsettles thee? Is it the form of the thing? Look at it. Or is it the matter? Look at it. But besides these there is nothing. Towards the gods, then, now become at last more simple and better. It is the same whether we examine these things for a hundred years or three.
够了,这种悲惨的生命、呻吟和愚蠢的诡计。你为什么烦恼呢?在这里有什么新的东西没有呢?有什么使人不安吗?是事物的形式吗?注意它。或者是质料?观察它。而在这些之外一无所有。那么,朝向神吧,现在终于变得更简朴、更好了。我们无论是花100年还是花300年考察这些事物,结论都是一样的。

If any man has done wrong, the harm is his own. But perhaps he has not done wrong.
如果有什么人做了错呈,那么损害是对他自己的。但也许他并没有做错事。

Either all things proceed from one intelligent source and come together as in one body, and the part ought not to find fault with what is done for the benefit of the whole; or there are only atoms, and nothing else than mixture and dispersion. Why, then, art thou disturbed? Say to the ruling faculty, Art thou dead, art thou corrupted, art thou playing the hypocrite, art thou become a beast, dost thou herd and feed with the rest?
或者是所有东西都来自一个理智的本原,在一个身体中结为一体,那么部分就不应不满于为了整体的利益所做的事情;或者只有原子存在,除了原子的混合与分解别无他物。那你为什么烦恼呢?要对支配的能力说:你已经死了吗?你衰朽了吗,你正在扮演虚伪者的角色吗?你要变成一头野兽吗,你与其他人群集在一起并对他们不满吗?

Either the gods have no power or they have power. If, then, they have no power, why dost thou pray to them? But if they have power, why dost thou not pray for them to give thee the faculty of not fearing any of the things which thou fearest, or of not desiring any of the things which thou desirest, or not being pained at anything, rather than pray that any of these things should not happen or happen? for certainly if they can co-operate with men, they can co-operate for these purposes. But perhaps thou wilt say, the gods have placed them in thy power. Well, then, is it not better to use what is in thy power like a free man than to desire in a slavish and abject way what is not in thy power? And who has told thee that the gods do not aid us even in the things which are in our power? Begin, then, to pray for such things, and thou wilt see. One man prays thus: How shall I be able to lie with that woman? Do thou pray thus: How shall I not desire to lie with her? Another prays thus: How shall I be released from this? Another prays: How shall I not desire to be released? Another thus: How shall I not lose my little son? Thou thus: How shall I not be afraid to lose him? In fine, turn thy prayers this way, and see what comes.
神灵要末有力量要末没有力量,那么,如果他们没有力量,你为什么向他们祷告呢?而如果他们有力量,你为什么不向他们祷告,祈求给你这种不畏惧任何你所畏惧的事物,或者不欲望任何你所欲望的事物,或不为任何事痛苦的能力呢?而反要祈求这些事发生或不发生呢?因为肯定,如果他们能与人合作,他们也能在这些方面合作。但也许你要说,神灵已把这些能力放在你的力量范围之内。那么好,像一个自由人一样运用在你力量范围内的事物不比一种奴性和下贱的方式欲望那不在你力量范围内的事物更好吗?谁告诉你说神灵甚至在我们力量范围内的事情上也不帮助我们呢?那么,去为这样的事情祷告吧,正如你所见,当一个人那样祷告:我怎样才能与那个妇人同床共枕呢?而你却要这样祷告:我如何才能使自己不抱这种欲望呢?当别人那样祷告说:我怎样才能不丧失我的幼子呢?而你要如此祷告:我怎样才能做到不害怕失去他呢?总之,要以这样的方式祷告,然后再看看结果。
Epicurus says, In my sickness my conversation was not about my bodily sufferings, nor, says he, did I talk on such subjects to those who visited me; but I continued to discourse on the nature of things as before, keeping to this main point, how the mind, while participating in such movements as go on in the poor flesh, shall be free from perturbations and maintain its proper good. Nor did I, he says, give the physicians an opportunity of putting on solemn looks, as if they were doing something great, but my life went on well and happily. Do, then, the same that he did both in sickness, if thou art sick, and in any other circumstances; for never to desert philosophy in any events that may befall us, nor to hold trifling talk either with an ignorant man or with one unacquainted with nature, is a principle of all schools of philosophy; but to be intent only on that which thou art now doing and on the instrument by which thou doest it.
伊壁鸠鲁说,我在病中的谈话并不涉及我身体的痛苦,我不对拜访我的人谈这一话题,而是继续像先前一样讨论事物的性质,保持着这一主题:即心灵在分担可怜的肉体中进行的运动时,怎样免受扰乱、坚持它恰当的善。他说,我不给医生以机会做出一幅庄严的神情,仿佛他们正做着什么伟大的事情,而我的生命正平静和幸福地运行。那么,如果你病了,也做他在病中和任何别的场合所做的同样的事吧,因为在任何降病于我们的事情中都决不可放弃哲学,而所有哲学派别的一个主要原则就是:不同一个无知的人或不谙自然的人做无谓的交谈,而是仅仅注意你现在正做的事情和所用的手段。

When thou art offended with any man's shameless conduct, immediately ask thyself, Is it possible, then, that shameless men should not be in the world? It is not possible. Do not, then, require what is impossible. For this man also is one of those shameless men who must of necessity be in the world. Let the same considerations be present to thy mind in the case of the knave, and the faithless man, and of every man who does wrong in any way. For at the same time that thou dost remind thyself that it is impossible that such kind of men should not exist, thou wilt become more kindly disposed towards every one individually. It is useful to perceive this, too, immediately when the occasion arises, what virtue nature has given to man to oppose to every wrongful act. For she has given to man, as an antidote against the stupid man, mildness, and against another kind of man some other power. And in all cases it is possible for thee to correct by teaching the man who is gone astray; for every man who errs misses his object and is gone astray. Besides wherein hast thou been injured? For thou wilt find that no one among those against whom thou art irritated has done anything by which thy mind could be made worse; but that which is evil to thee and harmful has its foundation only in the mind. And what harm is done or what is there strange, if the man who has not been instructed does the acts of an uninstructed man? Consider whether thou shouldst not rather blame thyself, because thou didst not expect such a man to err in such a way. For thou hadst means given thee by thy reason to suppose that it was likely that he would commit this error, and yet thou hast forgotten and art amazed that he has erred. But most of all when thou blamest a man as faithless or ungrateful, turn to thyself. For the fault is manifestly thy own, whether thou didst trust that a man who had such a disposition would keep his promise, or when conferring thy kindness thou didst not confer it absolutely, nor yet in such way as to have received from thy very act all the profit. For what more dost thou want when thou hast done a man a service? Art thou not content that thou hast done something conformable to thy nature, and dost thou seek to be paid for it? Just as if the eye demanded a recompense for seeing, or the feet for walking. For as these members are formed for a particular purpose, and by working according to their several constitutions obtain what is their own; so also as man is formed by nature to acts of benevolence, when he has done anything benevolent or in any other way conducive to the common interest, he has acted conformably to his constitution, and he gets what is his own.
当什么人的无耻行为触犯你时,直接问自己,这世界上没有无耻的人存在是可能的吗?这是不可能的。那么,别要不可能的事吧。因为这个触犯你的人也是那些必然要在这世界上不存在的无耻的人中的一个。当你碰到骗子、背信弃义的人以及一切以某种方式行恶的人时,也使同样的思想在你心中呈现,因为这样你马上可以提醒自己,不存在这种人是不可能的,你将变得对每一个人的态度都更为和善。在这种时候,马上领悟到这一点也是有用的:即想想自然赋予那对立于一切邪恶行为的人以什么德性。因为自然给了人某种别的力量,作为一种抵制愚蠢的人、疯狂的人以及另一种人的解毒剂。在任何情况下,你都有可能通过劝导迷路的人而纠正他们,因为每个做错事的人都是迷失了他的目标,走上了歧途。此外你还有什么地方被损害了呢?因为你将发现在那些触犯你的人当中,没一个人做了能使你的心灵变坏的事情,而那对你是恶的东西和损害只是在心灵里才有其基础。如果没有受教育的人做出一个无教养的人的行为,那么产生了什么伤害呢?或者有什么值得奇怪的呢?考虑一下是否你还不如谴责自己,因为你没有预先就料到这种人会以这种方式犯错误。因为你本来有理智给予的手段去假设他犯这种错误,而你却忘记了使用,还奇怪他所犯的错误。在大多数你谴责一个人是背信弃义或忘恩负义的场合,都可以转而这样责备自己。因为这错误显然是你自己的,你或者是相信了一个有这种倾向的人将遵守他的诺言;或者是你在赐予你的善意时并没有绝对地赐予,也不是以那种你将仅仅从你的行为中获得所有利益的方式赐予,当你为某人做出某种服务时还想得到更多的东西吗?你不满足于你做了符合你本性的事情,而还想寻求对它的酬报吗?就像假如眼睛要求给观看以酬报,脚要求给行走以酬报一样吗?因为这些身体的部分是因为某种特殊目的而造就的,通过按照它们的各自结构工作而获得属它们自己的东西;所以人也先天就是为仁爱行为而创造的,当他做了仁爱的行为或者别的有助于公共利益的行为时,他就是符合他的结构而行动的,他就得到了属他自己的东西。


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