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Meditations_9-1

(2009-02-24 13:19:41)
标签:

book

meditations

杂谈

沉思录

分类: Books
Book Nine(Part 1)
 

HE WHO acts unjustly acts impiously. For since the universal nature has made rational animals for the sake of one another to help one another according to their deserts, but in no way to injure one another, he who transgresses her will, is clearly guilty of impiety towards the highest divinity. And he too who lies is guilty of impiety to the same divinity; for the universal nature is the nature of things that are; and things that are have a relation to all things that come into existence. And further, this universal nature is named truth, and is the prime cause of all things that are true. He then who lies intentionally is guilty of impiety inasmuch as he acts unjustly by deceiving; and he also who lies unintentionally, inasmuch as he is at variance with the universal nature, and inasmuch as he disturbs the order by fighting against the nature of the world; for he fights against it, who is moved of himself to that which is contrary to truth, for he had received powers from nature through the neglect of which he is not able now to distinguish falsehood from truth. And indeed he who pursues pleasure as good, and avoids pain as evil, is guilty of impiety. For of necessity such a man must often find fault with the universal nature, alleging that it assigns things to the bad and the good contrary to their deserts, because frequently the bad are in the enjoyment of pleasure and possess the things which procure pleasure, but the good have pain for their share and the things which cause pain. And further, he who is afraid of pain will sometimes also be afraid of some of the things which will happen in the world, and even this is impiety. And he who pursues pleasure will not abstain from injustice, and this is plainly impiety. Now with respect to the things towards which the universal nature is equally affected- for it would not have made both, unless it was equally affected towards both- towards these they who wish to follow nature should be of the same mind with it, and equally affected. With respect to pain, then, and pleasure, or death and life, or honour and dishonour, which the universal nature employs equally, whoever is not equally affected is manifestly acting impiously. And I say that the universal nature employs them equally, instead of saying that they happen alike to those who are produced in continuous series and to those who come after them by virtue of a certain original movement of Providence, according to which it moved from a certain beginning to this ordering of things, having conceived certain principles of the things which were to be, and having determined powers productive of beings and of changes and of such like successions.
那不正当地行动的人也是在不虔诚地行动。因为既然宇宙本性为相互合作的目的造就了理性动物,要他们根据他们的应分彼此帮助,而不要相互损害,那么违反他意志的人,就显然对最高的神意犯有不敬之罪。那说谎的人也对同样的神意犯有不敬之罪,因为宇宙本性就是那存在的各种事物的本性,那存在的各种事物与所有进入存在的事物都有一种联系。此外,这一宇宙本性是名为真理的,是所有真实事物的主要原因。这样,那有意说谎的人就因为他说谎的不正当行为而犯有不敬之罪,那不自觉说谎的人就因为他与宇宙本性的矛盾,因为他通过反对世界本性而扰乱了秩序而犯有不敬之罪,由于他反对世界本性,他就把自己推到与真理对立的地位,由于他是通过这种无知而从自然中接受力量,他现在就不能辨别真伪。的确,那把快乐作为善追求,把痛苦作为恶避免的人亦是犯了不敬之罪。因为这样的人必然经常对宇宙本性不满,声称宇宙本性没有按照善人和恶人的应分分配给他们东西,因为恶人常常享受快乐,拥有产生快乐的事物,而善人却有痛苦作为他们的份额,拥有那引起痛苦的事物。此外,那害怕痛苦的人有时也将害怕那发生在世界上的某些事情,而这种害怕甚至也是一种不敬。追求快乐的人将不会戒除不义,而这显然也是不敬。至于那些宇宙本性同等地感受的事物-因为除非它是同等地感受这两种事物,否则就不会创造它们了-对于这些事物,那些愿意遵循本性的人将与之同心,也同等地地感受这两种事物。那么,由于苦乐、生死和荣辱都是宇宙本性同等利用的事物,无论谁不同等地感受它们就显然是不虔诚了。我是说宇宙本性同等地利用它们,而不是说它们同样地发生于那些在连续的系列中产生的人和那些在他们之后通过神意的某种原初运动而产生的人,这一运动按照神意从某一开端向这一事物系列运动,孕育着某些将要存在的事物原则,决定着产生存在、变化和这样一种连续系列的力量。

It would be a man's happiest lot to depart from mankind without having had any taste of lying and hypocrisy and luxury and pride. However to breathe out one's life when a man has had enough of these things is the next best voyage, as the saying is. Hast thou determined to abide with vice, and has not experience yet induced thee to fly from this pestilence? For the destruction of the understanding is a pestilence, much more indeed than any such corruption and change of this atmosphere which surrounds us. For this corruption is a pestilence of animals so far as they are animals; but the other is a pestilence of men so far as they are men.
辞别人世而从未有过说谎、虚伪、奢侈和骄傲的嗜好,是一个人最幸福的命运。然而如俗话所说,当一个人拥有足够的这些事情时,立即结束自己的生命则是仅次于最好的一次旅行。而你决定顺从恶吗,还没有引导自己从这种瘟疫逃开的经验吗?因为理智力的毁灭就是一场瘟疫,比围绕着我们的大气的任何腐败和变化都更是一种瘟疫。因为那种腐败就它们是动物而言是动物的瘟疫;而这另一腐败就他们是人而言是人的瘟疫。

Do not despise death, but be well content with it, since this too is one of those things which nature wills. For such as it is to be young and to grow old, and to increase and to reach maturity, and to have teeth and beard and grey hairs, and to beget, and to be pregnant and to bring forth, and all the other natural operations which the seasons of thy life bring, such also is dissolution. This, then, is consistent with the character of a reflecting man, to be neither careless nor impatient nor contemptuous with respect to death, but to wait for it as one of the operations of nature. As thou now waitest for the time when the child shall come out of thy wife's womb, so be ready for the time when thy soul shall fall out of this envelope. But if thou requirest also a vulgar kind of comfort which shall reach thy heart, thou wilt be made best reconciled to death by observing the objects from which thou art going to be removed, and the morals of those with whom thy soul will no longer be mingled. For it is no way right to be offended with men, but it is thy duty to care for them and to bear with them gently; and yet to remember that thy departure will be not from men who have the same principles as thyself. For this is the only thing, if there be any, which could draw us the contrary way and attach us to life, to be permitted to live with those who have the same principles as ourselves. But now thou seest how great is the trouble arising from the discordance of those who live together, so that thou mayest say, Come quick, O death, lest perchance I, too, should forget myself.
不要蔑视死亡,而是正常地表示满意,因为这也是自然所欲的一件事情。因为像年青,变老,接近和达到成熟,长牙齿,长胡子和白发,怀孕、生子和抚养,以及所有别的你生命的季节所带来的自然活动都是这样的事物,分解消亡也不例外。那么,这就是和一个反思的人一致的:即不要轻率或不耐烦地对待或蔑视死亡,而是要把它作为自然的一个活动静候它。就像你现在等待着孩子从你妻子的子宫里娩出一样,也准备着你的灵魂脱出这一皮囊的时刻来临。但如果你也要求一种将接触到你心灵的通俗的安慰,那么通过观察你将要与之分手的物体,观察你的灵魂将不再与之同在的那些人的道德,你将变得最顺从死亡。因为,因人们的过错而发怒决不是正确的,关心他们、静静地忍受他们才是你的义务;但也要记住你并不是要从跟你持有同样原则的人们那里离去。因为如果有什么使我们转念的事情的话,这是惟一能使我欠转而依恋生命的事情:那就是允许我们跟那些持有和我们同样原则的人一起生活。而现在你看到:从那些生活在一起的人们的不和中产生的苦恼是多么大啊,以致你可以说:快来吧,死记,妈免我或许也可能迷失自己。

He who does wrong does wrong against himself. He who acts unjustly acts unjustly to himself, because he makes himself bad.
那作恶者也是对自己行恶。那做不义之事的人也是对自己行不久,因为他使自己变坏。

He often acts unjustly who does not do a certain thing; not only he who does a certain thing.
不仅做某种事的人常常是不正当地行动,而且不做某种事的人也常常是在不正当地行动。

Thy present opinion founded on understanding, and thy present conduct directed to social good, and thy present disposition of contentment with everything which happens- that is enough.
你使自己现在的意见以理解为基础,使你现在的行为指向社会利益;使你现在的性情满足于一切发生的事情-这就足够了。

Wipe out imagination: check desire: extinguish appetite: keep the ruling faculty in its own power.
驱散想像,克制欲望,消除嗜好,把支配能力保持在它自己的力量范围之内。

Among the animals which have not reason one life is distributed; but among reasonable animals one intelligent soul is distributed: just as there is one earth of all things which are of an earthy nature, and we see by one light, and breathe one air, all of us that have the faculty of vision and all that have life.
一种生命是分布在没有理性的动物之中的,而一种理性的灵魂是分布在理性动物之中的,正像有一个其中所有事物都是土性的大地一样,我们借助同一种光观看,呼吸同一种空气,我们每个人都有视力,每个人都有生命。
All things which participate in anything which is common to them all move towards that which is of the same kind with themselves. Everything which is earthy turns towards the earth, everything which is liquid flows together, and everything which is of an aerial kind does the same, so that they require something to keep them asunder, and the application of force. Fire indeed moves upwards on account of the elemental fire, but it is so ready to be kindled together with all the fire which is here, that even every substance which is somewhat dry, is easily ignited, because there is less mingled with it of that which is a hindrance to ignition. Accordingly then everything also which participates in the common intelligent nature moves in like manner towards that which is of the same kind with itself, or moves even more. For so much as it is superior in comparison with all other things, in the same degree also is it more ready to mingle with and to be fused with that which is akin to it. Accordingly among animals devoid of reason we find swarms of bees, and herds of cattle, and the nurture of young birds, and in a manner, loves; for even in animals there are souls, and that power which brings them together is seen to exert itself in the superior degree, and in such a way as never has been observed in plants nor in stones nor in trees. But in rational animals there are political communities and friendships, and families and meetings of people; and in wars, treaties and armistices. But in the things which are still superior, even though they are separated from one another, unity in a manner exists, as in the stars. Thus the ascent to the higher degree is able to produce a sympathy even in things which are separated. See, then, what now takes place. For only intelligent animals have now forgotten this mutual desire and inclination, and in them alone the property of flowing together is not seen. But still though men strive to avoid this union, they are caught and held by it, for their nature is too strong for them; and thou wilt see what I say, if thou only observest. Sooner, then, will one find anything earthy which comes in contact with no earthy thing than a man altogether separated from other men.
所有分享一种共同东西的事物都倾向于它们同类的事物,所以土性的事物都倾向于大地,液体的事物都倾向于一起流动,气体的事物也是如此,以致它们要求某种力量把它们分开。火的炎上的确是由于元素的炎,但它是如此准备和所有在此的火一起燃,烧,以致想燃着一切稍许干燥、容易着炎的物体,因为这些物体含有较少的阻止燃烧的东西。所以相应地,每一分享共同理性的存在也以同样的方式倾向于与它同类的存在,甚至倾向性更强。因为它与所有别的事物比较起来优越得多,它也同样多地更愿意与和它同类的东西结合或融合。所以,我们在缺乏理性的动物中发现蜂群、畜群、对雏鸟的抚养、某种意义上的爱;因为甚至在动物中亦有灵魂,那种把它们带到一起的力量看来是在较优越的程度上的活动的,在植物、石块、树林中却没有看到过这样一种现象。而在理性动物中,则有政治团体和友谊、家庭和公众集会,以及战争、谈判和休战。但在更为优越的存在那里,即使它们相互分离,也还是以某种方式统一着,星宿的情况就是这样。于是达到这更高程度的上升就能够甚至在分离的事物中产生一种同情。那么看看现发生的事情吧。因为目前只有理性的动物忘记了这一相互的欲望和爱好,只有在他们那里看不到一起行动的特性。但即使人们努力避免这一联合,他们还是为了联合所吸引和制约,因为他们的社会本性是太强了,你只要观察一下,就知道我说的是事实。那么,一个人将发现任何土性的事物与非土性的事物的结合要比一个人完全分离于其他人来得更快。

Both man and God and the universe produce fruit; at the proper seasons each produces it. But if usage has especially fixed these terms to the vine and like things, this is nothing. Reason produces fruit both for all and for itself, and there are produced from it other things of the same kind as reason itself.
人、神和宇宙都生产果实,他们各自在适当的季节里生产它。但如果按惯常的用法把这些特殊用法的词用于葡萄树或类似事物却毫无意义。理性为一切也为自己产生果实,从它,产生出别的和理性本身同一性质的事物。

If thou art able, correct by teaching those who do wrong; but if thou canst not, remember that indulgence is given to thee for this purpose. And the gods, too, are indulgent to such persons; and for some purposes they even help them to get health, wealth, reputation; so kind they are. And it is in thy power also; or say, who hinders thee?
如果你能够,通过劝告去纠正那些做错事的人,但如果你不能够,记住你要因此之故采取任其自然的态度。神灵对这种人也是任其自然的,出于某些原因他们甚至帮助这些人得到财富、健康、名声,他们是如此和善。这也是在你的力量范围之内,或者说,谁阻碍你这样做呢?

Labour not as one who is wretched, nor yet as one who would be pitied or admired: but direct thy will to one thing only, to put thyself in motion and to check thyself, as the social reason requires.
不要像一个被强迫者那样劳动,也不要像一个将受到怜悯或赞扬的人那样劳动,而要使你的意志直指一件事情,即像社会理性所要求的使你活动和抑制自身。

To-day I have got out of all trouble, or rather I have cast out all trouble, for it was not outside, but within and in my opinions.
今天我摆脱了所有苦恼,或宁可说我逐出了所有苦恼,因为这不是发生在外部,而是发生在内部,在我的意见中。

All things are the same, familiar in experience, and ephemeral in time, and worthless in the matter. Everything now is just as it was in the time of those whom we have buried.
所有事物都是同样的,都是经验所熟悉的,都是时间上短暂和质料上无价值的。现在的一切事物正像它们在先死者的时代时里一样的。

Things stand outside of us, themselves by themselves, neither knowing aught of themselves, nor expressing any judgement. What is it, then, which does judge about them? The ruling faculty.
事物并列在我们外面,它们不知道它们自己,不表示任何判断。那么,判断它们的是什么呢?是支配的能力。

Not in passivity, but in activity lie the evil and the good of the rational social animal, just as his virtue and his vice lie not in passivity, but in activity.
有理性的社会动物的善恶不是在消极的活动中,而是在积极的活动中,正像他的德行与恶行不是在消极的活动中而是在积极的活动中一样。

For the stone which has been thrown up it is no evil to come down, nor indeed any good to have been carried up.
对于那被住上掷的石头来说,落下决非一种恶,而它被人携带也的确并非一种善。

Penetrate inwards into men's leading principles, and thou wilt see what judges thou art afraid of, and what kind of judges they are of themselves.
深入到人们的指导原则之中,你将看到你害怕什么判断,它们自身又是一种什么判断。

All things are changing: and thou thyself art in continuous mutation and in a manner in continuous destruction, and the whole universe too.
一切事物都在变化中,你自身也是在不断的变化中,在某种程度上是在不断的毁灭中,整个宇宙也是如此。

It is thy duty to leave another man's wrongful act there where it is.
让别人的恶劣行为留在原地而不影响你是你的义务。

Termination of activity, cessation from movement and opinion, and in a sense their death, is no evil. Turn thy thoughts now to the consideration of thy life, thy life as a child, as a youth, thy manhood, thy old age, for in these also every change was a death. Is this anything to fear? Turn thy thoughts now to thy life under thy grandfather, then to thy life under thy mother, then to thy life under thy father; and as thou findest many other differences and changes and terminations, ask thyself, Is this anything to fear? In like manner, then, neither are the termination and cessation and change of thy whole life a thing to be afraid of.
活动的停止、运动和意见的停止,它们在某种意义上的死亡,这些决不是恶。现在转而考虑你的生命,你作为一个孩子、一个青年、一个成人和一个老人的生命,因为在这里面每一变化也都是一种死。这是值得害怕的事情吗?现在转而考虑你在你的祖父体内的生命,然后是你在你母亲体内的生命,你在你的父亲体内的生命,当你发现许多别的差别、变化和毁灭时,问你自己,这事情值得害怕吗?那么,同样,你整个生命的熄灭、停止和改变也决不是一件需要害怕的事情。

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