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Meditations_8-1

(2009-02-23 12:54:39)
标签:

book

meditations

杂谈

沉思录

分类: Books

Book Eight(Part 1)

THIS reflection also tends to the removal of the desire of empty fame, that it is no longer in thy power to have lived the whole of thy life, or at least thy life from thy youth upwards, like a philosopher; but both to many others and to thyself it is plain that thou art far from philosophy. Thou hast fallen into disorder then, so that it is no longer easy for thee to get the reputation of a philosopher; and thy plan of life also opposes it. If then thou hast truly seen where the matter lies, throw away the thought, How thou shalt seem to others, and be content if thou shalt live the rest of thy life in such wise as thy nature wills. Observe then what it wills, and let nothing else distract thee; for thou hast had experience of many wanderings without having found happiness anywhere, not in syllogisms, nor in wealth, nor in reputation, nor in enjoyment, nor anywhere. Where is it then? In doing what man's nature requires. How then shall a man do this? If he has principles from which come his affects and his acts. What principles? Those which relate to good and bad: the belief that there is nothing good for man, which does not make him just, temperate, manly, free; and that there is nothing bad, which does not do the contrary to what has been mentioned.
这一反思也有助于消除对于虚名的欲望,即像一个哲学家一样度过你的整个一生,或至少度过你从青年以后的生活,这已不再在你的力量范围之内了;你和许多别的人都很明白你是远离哲学的。然后你落入了纷乱无序,以致你得到一个哲学家的名声不再是容易的了,你的生活计划也不符合它。那么如果你真正看清了问题的所在,就驱开这一想法吧。你管别人是怎样看你呢,只要你将以你的本性所欲的这种方式度过你的余生你就是满足的。那么注意你的本性意欲什么,不要让任何别的东西使你分心,因为你有过许多流浪的经验却在哪儿都没有找到幸福:在三段法中没有,在财富中没有,在名声中没有,在享乐中没有,在任何地方都没有找到幸福。那么幸福在哪里?就在于做人的本性所要求的事情。那么一个人将怎样做它呢?如果他拥有作为他的爱好和行为之来源的原则。什么原则呢?那些有关善恶的原则:即深信没有什么东西于人是好的-如果它不使人公正、节制、勇敢和自由;没有什么东西对人是坏的-如果它不使人沾染与前述品质相反的品质。  

On the occasion of every act ask thyself, How is this with respect to me? Shall I repent of it? A little time and I am dead, and all is gone. What more do I seek, if what I am now doing is work of an intelligent living being, and a social being, and one who is under the same law with God?
在采取每一个行动时都问自己,它是怎样联系于我呢?我以后将后悔做这事么?还一点点时间我就要死,所有的都要逝去。如果我现在做的事是一个有理智的人的工作,一个合社会的人的工作,一个处在与神同样的法之下的人的工作,那么我还更有何求呢?  
Alexander and Gaius and Pompeius, what are they in comparison with Diogenes and Heraclitus and Socrates? For they were acquainted with things, and their causes (forms), and their matter, and the ruling principles of these men were the same. But as to the others, how many things had they to care for, and to how many things were they slaves?
亚历山大、盖耶斯和庞培与第欧根尼、赫拉克利特、苏格拉底比较起来是什么人呢?由于他们熟悉事物,熟知他们的原因(形式)、他们的质料,这些人的支配原则都是同样的。但在后者看来,他们必须照管多少事物,他们是多少事情的奴隶啊!  

Consider that men will do the same things nevertheless, even though thou shouldst burst.
考虑一下,人们无论如何也要做同样的事情,即使你将勃然大怒。  

This is the chief thing: Be not perturbed, for all things are according to the nature of the universal; and in a little time thou wilt be nobody and nowhere, like Hadrian and Augustus. In the next place having fixed thy eyes steadily on thy business look at it, and at the same time remembering that it is thy duty to be a good man, and what man's nature demands, do that without turning aside; and speak as it seems to thee most just, only let it be with a good disposition and with modesty and without hypocrisy.
主要的事情在于:不要被打扰,因为所有的事物都是合乎宇宙本性的,很快你就将化为乌有,再也无处可寻,就像赫德里安、奥古斯都那样。其次要聚精会神地注意你的事情,同时记住做一个好人是你的义务,无论人的本性要求什么,做所要求的事而不要搁置;说你看来是最恰当的话,只是要以一种好的气质、以谦虚和毫不虚伪的态度说出来。  

The nature of the universal has this work to do, to remove to that place the things which are in this, to change them, to take them away hence, and to carry them there. All things are change, yet we need not fear anything new. All things are familiar to us; but the distribution of them still remains the same.
宇宙的本性有这一工作要做,即把这个地方的事物移到那个地方,改变它们,把它们从此带到彼处。所有事物都是变化的,但我们没有必要害怕任何新的东西。所有的事物都是我们熟悉的,而对这些事物的分配也保持着同样。  

Every nature is contented with itself when it goes on its way well; and a rational nature goes on its way well, when in its thoughts it assents to nothing false or uncertain, and when it directs its movements to social acts only, and when it confines its desires and aversions to the things which are in its power, and when it is satisfied with everything that is assigned to it by the common nature. For of this common nature every particular nature is a part, as the nature of the leaf is a part of the nature of the plant; except that in the plant the nature of the leaf is part of a nature which has not perception or reason, and is subject to be impeded; but the nature of man is part of a nature which is not subject to impediments, and is intelligent and just, since it gives to everything in equal portions and according to its worth, times, substance, cause (form), activity, and incident. But examine, not to discover that any one thing compared with any other single thing is equal in all respects, but by taking all the parts together of one thing and comparing them with all the parts together of another.
每一本性当它在循自己的路行进得很好时都是满足于自身的,当一个理性的本性在其思想中不同意任何错误的或不确定的东西时;当它使自己的活动仅仅指向有益于社会的行为时;当它把它的欲望和厌恶限制在那属于自己力量范围之内的事物上时;当它满足于那普遍本性分派给它的一切事物时,我们就说一个理性的本性循自己的路行进得很好。因为每一特殊本性都是这一共同本性的一部分,正像叶子的本性是这一植物本性的一部分一样,但在植物那里,叶子的本性则是这样一种本性的一部分,这种本性不易受到阻碍,是理智和公正的,因为它根据每一事物的价值平等地给予一切事物以时间、实体、原因(形式)、活动和事件。但我们的考察并不是要发现,任何一个事物和任一别的的个别事物相比较在所有方面都是平等的,而是要把结为一个事物的所有部分与组成另一个事物的所有部分相比较。

Thou hast not leisure or ability to read. But thou hast leisure or ability to check arrogance: thou hast leisure to be superior to pleasure and pain: thou hast leisure to be superior to love of fame, and not to be vexed at stupid and ungrateful people, nay even to care for them.
你没有闲空或能力阅读,但是你有闲空或能力防止傲慢,你有闲空超越快乐和痛苦,你有闲空超越对虚名的热爱,不要烦恼于愚蠢和忘恩负义的人们,甚至不要理会他们。  

Let no man any longer hear thee finding fault with the court life or with thy own.
不要让任何人再听到你对宫廷生活或对你自己生活的不满。  

Repentance is a kind of self-reproof for having neglected something useful; but that which is good must be something useful, and the perfect good man should look after it. But no such man would ever repent of having refused any sensual pleasure. Pleasure then is neither good nor useful.
后悔是一种因为忽视了某件有用的事情而作的自我斥责,而那善的东西必定也是有用的,完善的人应当追求它。但完善的人没有一个会后悔拒绝了感官的快乐。这样快乐就既非善的亦非有用的。  

This thing, what is it in itself, in its own constitution? What is its substance and material? And what its causal nature (or form)? And what is it doing in the world? And how long does it subsist?
一个事物,它自身是什么,自身的结构是什么?它的实体和原料是什么?它的原因的本性(或形式)又是什么?它在这世界上正做什么?它要继续存在多久?  

When thou risest from sleep with reluctance, remember that it is according to thy constitution and according to human nature to perform social acts, but sleeping is common also to irrational animals. But that which is according to each individual's nature is also more peculiarly its own, and more suitable to its nature, and indeed also more agreeable.
当你不情愿地从眠床上起来时,记住这是按照你的结构和人的本性去从事社会活动,而睡眠却是对无理智的动物也是同样的。但那以每个个体的本性为据的东西,也是更特殊地属他自己的东西,是更适合于他的本性的,也确实更能带来愉悦。  

Constantly and, if it be possible, on the occasion of every impression on the soul, apply to it the principles of Physic, of Ethic, and of Dialectic.
如果可能的话,不断地对灵魂收到的每一印象应用物理学、伦理学和辩证的原则。  

Whatever man thou meetest with, immediately say to thyself: What opinions has this man about good and bad? For if with respect to pleasure and pain and the causes of each, and with respect to fame and ignominy, death and life, he has such and such opinions, it will seem nothing wonderful or strange to me, if he does such and such things; and I shall bear in mind that he is compelled to do so.
无论你遇见什么人,径直对自己说:这个人对善恶持什么意见?因为,如果他对苦乐及其原因,对荣辱、生死持这样那样的意见,那么他做出这样那样的行为,对我来说就没有任何值得奇怪和不可解的地方了,我将在心里牢记他是不能不这样做的。  

Remember that as it is a shame to be surprised if the fig-tree produces figs, so it is to be surprised if the world produces such and such things of which it is productive; and for the physician and the helmsman it is a shame to be surprised, if a man has a fever, or if the wind is unfavourable.
记住:正像对无花果树结出了无花果感到大惊小怪是一种羞愧一样,对这世界产生了本来就是它产物的事物大惊小怪也是一种羞愧,对于医生来说,如果他对一个人患了热病大惊小怪;或者一个舵手对风向不遂人意大惊小怪,对他们来说都是一种羞愧。  

Remember that to change thy opinion and to follow him who corrects thy error is as consistent with freedom as it is to persist in thy error. For it is thy own, the activity which is exerted according to thy own movement and judgement, and indeed according to thy own understanding too.
记住:改变你的意见,追随纠正你缺点的人,这跟要坚持你的错误一样,是和自由一致的。因为这是你自己的活动,这活动是根据你自己的运动和判断,也的确是根据你自己的理解力做出的。  

If a thing is in thy own power, why dost thou do it? But if it is in the power of another, whom dost thou blame? The atoms (chance) or the gods? Both are foolish. Thou must blame nobody. For if thou canst, correct that which is the cause; but if thou canst not do this, correct at least the thing itself; but if thou canst not do even this, of what use is it to thee to find fault? For nothing should be done without a purpose.
如果一件事是在你的力量范围之内,为什么不做它呢?但如果它是在另一个人的力量范围之内,你责怪谁呢?责怪原子(偶然)抑或神灵?不论怪谁都是愚蠢的。你决不要责怪任何人。因为如果你能够,就去改变那原因;但如果你不能够,那至少去改正事物本身;而如果连这你也做不到,那你不满有什么用呢?因为没有什么事物是不带有某种目的做出的。  

That which has died falls not out of the universe. If it stays here, it also changes here, and is dissolved into its proper parts, which are elements of the universe and of thyself. And these too change, and they murmur not.
那死去的东西并不落到宇宙之外。如果它逗留在这里,它也在这儿改变,被分解为恰当的部分-即宇宙的元素和你自身的元素。它们也在变化,且不发牢骚。  

Everything exists for some end, a horse, a vine. Why dost thou wonder? Even the sun will say, I am for some purpose, and the rest of the gods will say the same. For what purpose then art thou? to enjoy pleasure? See if common sense allows this.
一切事物存在都有某种目的,如一匹马、一棵葡萄树。那你为什么奇怪呢?甚至太阳也要说,我存在是有某种目的的,其余的神灵也要同样说。那么你是为什么目的而存在呢?为了享受快乐吗?看看常识是否允许这样说。  

Nature has had regard in everything no less to the end than to the beginning and the continuance, just like the man who throws up a ball. What good is it then for the ball to be thrown up, or harm for it to come down, or even to have fallen? And what good is it to the bubble while it holds together, or what harm when it is burst? The same may be said of a light also.
自然在每一事物结尾时对它的关心不亚于在其开始或中途对它的关心,就像往上投球的人一样。那么对于球来说,被投上去对它有什么好处呢?而开始落下甚或落下地对它又有什么损害呢?对于一个气泡来说,形成对它有什么好处,爆裂对它又有什么坏处呢?同样的也适用于一道闪电。  

Turn it (the body) inside out, and see what kind of thing it is; and when it has grown old, what kind of thing it becomes, and when it is diseased.
深入地审视身体,看看它是一种什么性质的事物,当它变老时,它变成什么样的事物,当它生病时,它又变成什么样的事物。  
    
Short-lived are both the praiser and the praised, and the rememberer and the remembered: and all this in a nook of this part of the world; and not even here do all agree, no, not any one with himself: and the whole earth too is a point.
赞颂者和被赞颂者,记忆者和被记忆者的生命都是短暂的;所有这些活动都发生在这世界的一部分的一个小角落里,甚至在此也不是所有人都意见一致,不,不是任何人都和他自己在一起的。整个地球也只是一个点。  

Attend to the matter which is before thee, whether it is an opinion or an act or a word.
注意你面前的东西,看它是一个意见还是一个行为或者一句话语。  
    
Thou sufferest this justly: for thou choosest rather to become good to-morrow than to be good to-day.
你正直地忍受这一事,因为它宁愿它明天变成好事而不是今天就是好事。  

Am I doing anything? I do it with reference to the good of mankind. Does anything happen to me? I receive it and refer it to the gods, and the source of all things, from which all that happens is derived.
我在做什么事情呢?我做有关人类善的事情。有什么事对我发生吗?我接受它,把它归于神灵-所有事物的根源,所有发生的事物都是从它们那儿获得的。  
Such as bathing appears to thee- oil, sweat, dirt, filthy water, all things disgusting- so is every part of life and everything.
当洗澡时你看到这样的东西-油腻、汗垢、肮脏、污秽的水,所有的东西都发出令人作呕的气味-生命的每一部分和一切事物都是如此。  

Lucilla saw Verus die, and then Lucilla died. Secunda saw Maximus die, and then Secunda died. Epitynchanus saw Diotimus die, and Epitynchanus died. Antoninus saw Faustina die, and then Antoninus died. Such is everything. Celer saw Hadrian die, and then Celer died. And those sharp-witted men, either seers or men inflated with pride, where are they? For instance the sharp-witted men, Charax and Demetrius the Platonist and Eudaemon, and any one else like them. All ephemeral, dead long ago. Some indeed have not been remembered even for a short time, and others have become the heroes of fables, and again others have disappeared even from fables. Remember this then, that this little compound, thyself, must either be dissolved, or thy poor breath must be extinguished, or be removed and placed elsewhere.
柳西那看见维勒斯死了,然后柳西那死了;西孔德看见马克西默斯死了,然后西孔德死了;埃皮梯恩查努斯看见戴奥梯莫斯死了,然后埃皮梯恩查怒斯死了;安东尼看见福斯蒂娜死了,然后安东尼死了。这就是一切。塞勒尔看见赫德里安死了,然后塞勒尔死了。那些机智颖悟的人,或者预言家或者趾高气扬的人,他们现在到哪里去了呢?比方说这些机敏的人:查拉克斯、柏拉图主义者、迪米特里厄斯,还有尤德蒙及别的类似于他们的人。所有  
的人都是朝生幕死,早已辞世。有一些人的确甚至被人马上忘记,还有一些人变成了传说中的英雄,再一些人甚至从传说中也消失了。那么记住这一点:你,这一小小的混合物,也必定要或者是争解,或者是停止呼吸,或者被移到其他地方。  

It is satisfaction to a man to do the proper works of a man. Now it is a proper work of a man to be benevolent to his own kind, to despise the movements of the senses, to form a just judgement of plausible appearances, and to take a survey of the nature of the universe and of the things which happen in it.
一个人做适合于一个人做的工作对他就是满足。那么适合于一个人做的工作就是:仁爱地对待他的同类,轻视感官的活动,对似可信的现象形成一种正当的判断,对宇宙的本性和发生于它之中的事物做一概观。  

There are three relations between thee and other things: the one to the body which surrounds thee; the second to the divine cause from which all things come to all; and the third to those who live with thee.
在你和别的事物之间有三种联系:一种是与环绕你的物体的联系;一种是与所有事物所由产生的神圣原因的联系;一种是与那些和你生活在一起的人的联系。  

Pain is either an evil to the body- then let the body say what it thinks of it- or to the soul; but it is in the power of the soul to maintain its own serenity and tranquility, and not to think that pain is an evil. For every judgement and movement and desire and aversion is within, and no evil ascends so high.
痛苦或者对身体是一个恶(那就让身体表示它的想法吧),或者对灵魂是一个恶;但是,灵魂坚持它自己的安宁和平静,不把痛苦想做作一种恶,这是在它自己的力量范围之内。因为每一判断、活动、欲望和厌恶都是发生在内心,而任何恶都不能上升得如此高。  

Wipe out thy imaginations by often saying to thyself: now it is in my power to let no badness be in this soul, nor desire nor any perturbation at all; but looking at all things I see what is their nature, and I use each according to its value.- Remember this power which thou hast from nature.
通过常常这样对自己说而清除你的幻觉:不让任何恶、任何欲望或纷扰进入我的灵魂,现在这是在我的力量范围之内,而通过观察所有事情我看见了它们的本性是什么,我运用每一事物都是根据其价值。-牢记这一来自你的本性的力量。  

Speak both in the senate and to every man, whoever he may be, appropriately, not with any affectation: use plain discourse.
不仅在元老院中,而且对任何一个人都要恰当地说话,不矫揉造作,言词简明扼要。
  

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