• 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:22,219
  • 关注人气:11
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
正文 字体大小:

第18章Learning Summary  9~16续

(2008-06-22 12:29:43)





    组员:郦珺  200742070206

          裴丽娜 200742070207

          杨锐红 200742070208

          肖艳华 200742070209

13.Describe how managers may nave to adjust controls for cross-cultural differences


  Methods of controlling people and work can be quite different in different countries. The differences we see in organizational control systems of global organizations are primarily in the measurement and corrective action steps of the control process. In a global corporation, managers of foreign operations tend to be less directly controlled by the home office, if for no other reason than that distance keeps managers from being able to observe work directly. Because distance creates a tendency to formalize controls, the home office of a global company often relies on extensive formal reports for control. The global company also may use the power of information technology to control work activities. For instance, the Japanese retailer Ito-Yokado, which owns the 7-Eleven convenience store chain, uses automated cash registers not only to record sales and monitor inventory, but also to schedule tasks for store managers to track managers’ use of the built-in analytical graphs and forecasts. If managers don’t use them enough. They’re told to increase their activities.


  Technology’s impact on control also can be seen when comparing technologically advanced nations with those that are less technologically advanced. In countries such as the Unites States, Japan, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, and Australia, global managers use indirect control devices—especially computer-generated reports and analyses—in addition to standardized rules and direct supervision to ensure that work activities are going as planned. In less technologically advanced countries, managers tend to rely more on direct supervision and highly centralized decision making for control.


   Also, constraints on what corrective actions managers can take may affect managers in foreign countries because laws in some countries do not allow managers the option of closing facilities, laying off employees, taking money out of the country, or bringing in a new management team from outside the country.


Finally, another challenge for global companies in collecting data for measurement and comparison is comparability. For instance, a company’s manufacturing facility in Mexico might produce the same products as a facility in Scotland. However, the Mexican facility might be much more labor intensive than its Scottish counterpart (to take strategic advantage of lower labor costs in Mexico). If the top-level executives were to control by, example, calculating labor costs per unit or output per worker, the figures would not be comparable. Global managers must address teed types of control challenges


14.Discuss the types of workplace concerns managers face and how they can address those concerns.


:1. Manages are facing three main workplace concerns: workplace privacy, employee theft, and workplace security.


2. Workplace privacy: Employers can (and do), among other things, read your e-mail (even these marked "personal or confidential") ,tap your telephone ,monitor your work by computer files, and monitor you in an employee bathroom or dressing room.


Internet use  网络使用  


Telephone use 电话使用 


E-mail messages  电子邮件信息


Computer files  电脑文件


 Job performance using video cameras 录制工作情况   


Phone conversations  电话会话 


Voice mail messages 邮件既音信息


Employee theft: We can use the concept of feed forward, concurrent, and feedback control to identify measures for deterring or reducing employee theft.





Careful prehiring screening 雇用前进行仔细的人员检查

Treat employees with respect and dignity尊敬和庄严的对待员工

Make sure employees know when theft or fraud has occurred-not naming names but letting people know this is not acceptable.确保让员工知道偷窃或诈骗发生时,不会指名道姓,但是让人们知道这不是被接受的.

Establish specific policies defining theft and fraud and discipline procedures.建立偷窃与诈骗以及处分步骤的特殊政策

Openly communicate the cost of stealing.开放性的交流奖励支出

Use the services of professional investigators.使用专家检阅服务

Involve employees in writing policies.让员工涉入政策的制定

Let employees know on a regular basis about their successes in preventing theft and fraud.定期让员工知道他们在组织偷窃与诈骗中的成就

Redesign control measures.重新设置控制方式

Educate and train employees about the polices.政策教育和训练员工

Use video surveillance equipment if conditions warrant.如果有正当理由的话用录像监视系统

Evaluate your organization's culture and the relationships of managers and employees.评价你的住址文化和管理者与员工的关系

Have professionals review your internal security controls.有专家评论你的内部安全与控制

Install "lock-out" options on computers, telephones, and e-mail.在电脑,电话和电子邮件上安装"lock-out" options



Use corporate hot lines for reporting incidences. Set a good example.使用公司热线举报小事,树立好的榜样



Workplace security: Once again   , we can use the concept of feedforward, concurrent .and feedback control to identify actions that managers can take.





Management commitment to functional not dysfunctional, work environments.

MBWA(managing by walking around) to identify potential problems; observe how employees treat and interact with each other.巡视以识别潜在的问题,观察员工的待遇以及怎样相互交流

Communicate openly about incidences and what's been done.开放式的交流小事以及在做什么。

Organizational policy that any workplace rage, aggression, or violence will not be tolerated.任何工作地的斗争、侵犯、或者暴力不被容忍的组织政策。

Be a good role model in how you treat other.在如何对待他人方面做一个好的榜样。

Review company policies and change, if necessary.回顾公司政策,必要时做出改变。

Careful prehiring screening.雇用前进行仔细的人员审查

Use corporate hot lines or some mechanism for reporting and investigating incidences.使用公司热线或其他设备举报或检查小事。


Never ignore threats.决不忽视恐吓

Use quick and decisive intervention.迅速并果断的干预.


Train employees about how to avoid danger if situation arises.训练员工当情况出现时怎样避免危险。

Get expert professional assistance if violence erupts.当不傲立突发时寻求专家援助。


Clearly communicate policies to employees.与员工清楚交流政策。

Provide necessary equipment or procedures for dealing with violent situations(cell phones, alarm systems, code names or phrases, and so forth).提供必要的设备或程序处理暴力情况(电话,警报系统,姓名或词组的代码等等)



15. Explain why control is important to customer interactions.


  There’s probably no better area to see the link between planning and controlling than in customer service. If a company proclaims customer service as one of its goals, it quickly and clearly becomes apparent whether or not that goal is being achieves by seeing how satisfied customers are with their service!

   The service profit chain is the service sequence from employees to customers to profit. According to this concept, the company’s strategy and service delivery system influxes how employees, service customers—their attitudes, behaviors, and service capability. Service capability, in turn, enhances how productive employees are in providing service and the quality of that service. The level of employee service productivity and service quality influences customer perceptions of service value. When service value is high, it has a positive impact on customer satisfaction which leads to customer loyalty. And customer loyal improves organizational revenue growth and profitability.


16. Discuss what corporate governance is and how it's changing.


   Corporate governance, the system used to govern a corporation so that the interests of corporate owners are protected, failed abysmally at Enron, as it did at many of the other companies caught in the recent financial scandals. In the aftermath of these scandals, there have been increased calls for better corporate governance. Two areas in which corporate governance is been reformed are the role of boards of directors and financial reporting. And these improvements aren't limited to U.S. and western European corporations expect their boards of directors to take a more active role.

   The role of boards of directors

   The original purpose of a board of directors was to have a group, independent from management, looking out for the interest of shareholders who, because of the corporate structure, were not involved in the day-to-day managements of the organization. However, it doesn't always work that way in practice Board members often enjoy a cozy relationship with managers in which board members "take care" of the CEO and the CEO "take care" of the board members.

   This "quid pro que" arrangement is changing. Since the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, demands on broad members of publicly traded companies in the United States have increased considerably. To help boards do their job better, researchers at the Corporate Governance Center at Kennesaw State University developed 10 governance principles for U.S. public companies that have been endorsed by the Institute of Internal Auditors.

   Financial reporting

   In addition to expanding the role of boards of directors, the previously mentioned Sarbanes-Oxley Act also called for more disclosure and transparency of corporate financial information. In fact, senior managers in the United States are now required to certify their companies' financial results. These types of changes should lead to better information--that is, information that is more accurate and reflective of the firm's financial condition. In fulfilling their financial reporting developed by the researchers at the Corporate Governance Center at Kennesaw State University. These seven principles are explained in Exhibit18-18.



   这种“quid pro que”分配正在改变,自从2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act 事件的一个段落在联合国要求董事会成员公开交易公司的呼声日益高涨,为了帮助董事更好地做好他们的工作。Kennesaw State 大学公司控制中心的研究者们提出了10条控制原则。为国际审核机构支持的联合国公有公司。


   除了扩展董事会的角色,以前提到的Sarbanes-Oxley Act也被要求进一步透露公司的财务信息。实际上,在联合国的高层管理者们现在被要求证明他们的公司财务结果,这些类型的改变会导致更好的信息,即更加准确,更能反映公司财富状况的信息。


阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...




    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有