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第18章Learning Summary  9~16

(2008-06-22 12:27:33)





    组员:郦珺  200742070206

          裴丽娜 200742070207

          杨锐红 200742070208

          肖艳华 200742070209

9Describe the most frequently used measures of organizational performance.描述最频繁使用的组织绩效的衡量标准。

答:Organizational performance—the accumulated end results of all the organization’s work processes and activities.


The most frequently used organizational performance measures include organizational productivity, organizational effectiveness, and industry rankings.


Productivity is the overall output of good or services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output. Organizations least amount of inputs. Output is measured by the sales revenue an organization receives when those goods and services are sold(selling price *number sold).The only other viable option for increasing product ivy, then, is to decrease the input part of ratio—that is , the organization’s expenses. Doing this means being more efficient in performing the organization’s work activities. So, organizational productivity becomes a measure of how efficiently employees do their work.


Organizational effectiveness is a measure of how well an organization is achieving those goals. It’s a common performance measure used by managers. The bottom line for managers continues to be how well the organization meets its goals. That’s what guides managerial decisions in designing strategies, work processes, and work activities, and in coordinating the work of employees.


The rankings for each list are determined by specific performance measures. Fortune’s 100 Best Companies to Work For are chosen by answers given by thousands of randomly selected employees on a questionnaire called the Great Place to Work Trust Index, and on material filled out by thousands of company managers, including a corporate culture audit created by the Great Place to Work Institute and a human resources questionnaire designed by Hewitt Associates, a compensation and benefits consultant.


10. Contrast feed forward, concurrent, and feedback controls.


  Feed forward Control the most desirable type of control---feed forward control—prevents anticipated problems since it takes place before the actual activity. The key to fee forward controls is taking managerial action before a problem occurs. Feed forward controls are desirable because they allow managers to prevent problem rather than having to correct them later after the damage (such as poor-quality products, lost customers, lost revenue, and so forth) has already been done. Unfortunately, these controls require timely and accurate information that often is difficult to get. As a result, managers frequently end up using the other two types of controls.


  Concurrent Control concurrent control, as its name implies, takes place while an activity is in progress. When control is enacted while the work is being performed, management can correct problems before they become too costly. The best-known form of concurrent control is direct supervision. When managers use management by walking around, shih is a term used to describe a manager being out in the work area, interacting directly with employees, they’re using concurrent control. When a manager directly oversees, the actions of employees, he or she can monitor their actions and correct problems as they occur. Although, obviously, there’s some delay between the activity and the manager’s corrective response, the delay is minimal. Problems usually can be addressed before much resource waste or damage has been done.


  Feedback Control feedback controls do have two advantages. First, feedback provides managers with meaningful information on how effective their planning efforts were. Feedback that indicates little variance between standard and actual performance is evidence that the planning was generally on target. If the deviation is significant, managers can them more effective. Second, feedback control can enhance employee motivation. People want information on how well they have preformed and feedback control provides that information.


11. Explain the types of financial and information controls managers can use. (解释管理者们能够使用的财务控制和信息控制类型)

答:One of the primary purposes of every business firm is to earn a profit. To achieve this goal, managers need financial controls.


Traditional Financial Control Measures(传统的财务控制衡量)

Traditional financial measures include ratio analysis and budget analysis.


The liquidity ratios measure an organization’s ability to meet its current debt obligations. Leverage ratios examine the organization’s use of debt to finance its assets and whether it’s able to meet the interest payments on the debt. The activity ratios assess how efficiently the firm is using its assets. Finally, the profitability ratios measure how efficiently and effectively the firm is using its assets to generate profits.


Other Financial Control Measures (其他财务控制衡量标准)

In addition to the traditional financial tools, managers are using measures such as EVA (economic value added) and MVA (market value added).


Economic value added (EVA) is tool for measuring corporate and divisional performance. Market value added (MVA) adds a market dimension since it measures the stock market’s estimate of the firm’s past and expected capital investment projects.

经济附加值(EVA)是一个衡量全体和各部分绩效的工具。市场附加值 (MVA)增加了一个市场尺度,因为它衡量了股市对一个公司过去或预期的资本投资项目的价值的评价。

Information  Controls  (信息控制)

Management information system (MIS): we define it as a system used to provide management with needed information on a regular basis. The term system in MIS implies order, arrangement, and purpose. Further, an MIS focuses specifically on providing mangers with information, not merely data.

管理信息系统(MIS):我们定义它为一个在正常的基础上用来为管理提供必要的信息的系统。在MIS 里面系统这个词意味着命令,安排和目的。而且,MIS 明确集中于给管理者提供信息,而不仅仅是数据。

How Are Information Systems Used in Controlling?


Managers need information to monitor organizational performance and to control organizational activities. Without information, they would find it difficult to measure, compare, and take action as part of the controlling process. For instance, in measuring actual performance, managers need information about what is, in fact, happening within their area of responsibility, about what the standards are in order to be able to compare actual performance with the standard, and to help them determine acceptable ranges of variation within these comparisons. And they rely on information to help them develop appropriate courses of action if there are or are not significant deviations between actual and standard. As you can see, information is an important tool in monitoring and measuring organizational performance.


12. Describe how balanced scorecards and benchmarking are used in controlling. ( 描述平衡计分卡和标杆比较是怎样在控制中使用的?)

  The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement tool that looks at four areas -- financial, customer, internal processes, and people/ innovation/ growth assets – that contribute to a company’s performance.


According to this approach, managers should develop goals in each of the four areas and measures to determine if these goals are being met. For instance, a company might include cash flow, quarterly sales growth, and ROI as measures for success in the financial area. Or, it might include percentage of sales coming from new products as a measure of customer goals. The intent of the balanced scorecard is to emphasize that all of these areas are important to an organization’s success and that there should be a balance among them.


  Although a balanced scorecard makes sense, unfortunately, managers still tend to focus on areas that drive their organization’s success. Their scorecards reflect their strategies. If those strategies center on the customer, for example, then the customer area is likely to get more attention than the other three areas. Yet, managers need to recognize that you really can’t focus on one performance area without affecting the others. For instance, at IBM Global Services in Houston, managers developed a scorecard around an overriding strategy of customer satisfaction. However, the other areas (financial, internal processes, and people/ innovation/ growth) are intended to support that central strategy.


  Benchmarking is the search for the best practices among competitors or no competitors that lead to their superior performance.


 The benchmark is the standard of excellence against which to measure and compare. At its most fundamental level, benchmarking means learning from others. As a tool for monitoring and measuring organizational performance, benchmarking can be used to help identify specific performance gaps and potential areas of improvement. But managers shouldn’t just look at external organizations for best practices. It’s also important for them to look inside their organization for best practices that can be shared.


  Did you ever work somewhere that had an employee suggestion box on a wall in an office or in the plant? When an employee had an idea about a new way of doing something—such as reducing costs, improving delivery time, and so forth—it went into the suggestion box where it usually sat until someone decided to empty the box. Businesspeople frequently joked about the suggestion box and cartoons lambasted the futility of putting ideas in the employee suggestion box.


  Unfortunately, this attitude about suggestion boxes still persists in many organizations, and it shouldn’t. Research shows that best practices frequently already exist within an organization but usually go unidentified and unused. In today’s environment, organizations striving for high performance levels can’t afford to ignore such potentially valuable information.



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