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Why Many Public Spaces Fail

(2009-01-22 19:58:00)
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杂谈

Why Many Public Spaces Fail(转载请注明出处)

为什么许多公共空间会失败

 

William H. Whyte once said, "It is difficult to design a space that will not attract people - what is remarkable is how often this has been accomplished." Today, many public spaces seem to be intentionally designed to be looked at but not touched. They are neat, clean, and empty - as if to say, "no people, no problem!" But to us, when a public space is empty, vandalized, or used chiefly by undesirables, this is generally an indication that something is very wrong with its design, or its management, or both.

威廉.H.怀特曾说过:“很难设计一个不吸引人的场所—而这一现象往往出现在已经完成了的项目中。”今天,许多公共空间似乎是故意设计成只能看,不能碰。它们整洁,干净,而且空旷—好像在说,“没有人,没问题!”但是对我们而言,当一个公共空间空旷,破败,或者使用起来不便时,这就一般表明它的设计或者管理在什么地方出错了,或者两者兼有。

 

The following pairs of photographs illustrate some of the most common problems of public spaces.

下面的几组照片分别例举了一些出现在公共空间中的最普遍的问题

 

Lack of places to sit Many public spaces don't even provide a place to sit. So, in their protracted quest just to be comfortable, people are often forced to adapt to the situation in their own way. Sometimes they simply give up (below), or have to sit on briefcases (second image below).

 

没有地方可坐——许多公共空间甚至没有提供可以坐的地方。因此,在其长期的追求(仅仅是要舒适一点),人们往往被迫以自己的方式来适应形势。有时他们仅仅就放弃了,或者有时不得不坐在他们的公文包上。

 

 Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 A lack of good places to sit is an equally important issue. For example, a choice of seats in sun or shade can make all the difference in a place's success, depending on its climate and location. Allowing people to sit near a playground or within view of other activities is also crucial.

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

没有好的地方来坐同样是一个重要问题。例如:只能坐在太阳下或者可以坐在阴凉中的选择在判断一个场所成功与否上是非常不同的,这取决于它的气候和地理位置。允许人们坐在靠近操场处或者在其活动的视野范围内也是很重要的。

 

Lack of gathering points - This includes features people want or need, such as playgrounds, or places where varying elements--bus stop, vending cart, outdoor seating--combine to create a gathering point. Food is often a critical component of a successful gathering point.

没有可以聚集的点—这涉及到人们想要或者需要的一些特殊场所,例如操场,或那些结合不同要素(公交车站,叫卖手推车,户外座椅)共同创造的聚集的场所。食物经常是一个成功的聚集点的重要组成部分。

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 Paris' Parc de la Villette (top) has seats that force people to sit in unsociable ways, and signs that ask them not to climb on the sculpture. Though located along a stretch of the Pacific Coast Highway, this park at Laguna Beach (near top) has loads of activities, food, and places to sit. It is a busy, healthy gathering place.

巴黎的拉维莱特公园(上图)有一些迫使人们以不利于交际的方式就座的椅子,还有一些告诉人们不要攀爬雕塑的符号。虽然坐落在太平洋海洋公路的一段上,这个位于拉古纳海滩的公园还是充满了各种活动,食物,和就坐的地方。它是一个繁忙,健康的聚集场所。

 

Poor entrances and visually inaccessible spaces - If a space is to be used, people need to see it and they need to be able to get to it.

不显眼的入口和视觉上不可及的场所——如果一个场所想要被人利用,人们必须能够看到它而且能够很快到达它。

 Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

A dark or narrow entrance such as those that used to be at New York City's Bryant Park (top) keeps people out instead of inviting them in. The same entrance (near top), redesigned to be more inviting and open, has kiosks that sell coffee and sandwiches, and the interior of the park is visible from the street.

一个黑暗或者狭窄的入口例如纽约市布赖恩特公园的入口(上图)是想要把人隔离在外面而不是邀请人们进入。同样的入口(下图),重新设计得更吸引人进入和更开放,有出售咖啡和三明治的售货亭,而且从街上也能看到公园内部。

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

Dysfunctional features Oftentimes features are designed simply to punctuate the space, serving a use more visual than functional, instead of encouraging activity to occur around them - as at this waterfront park in Barcelona, below.

功能性失调的特征物——有时候特征性标志物仅仅被设计成不断地打断空间,其充当的视觉功能多于它的实用功能,并不鼓励周围活动的发生—就像巴塞罗那的这个滨水公园一样。

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

Good features, such as the friendly gorilla at the Berlin Zoo (above), encourage activity to occur around them.

良好的特征物,就像这只柏林动物园的友好的大猩猩一样,鼓励他们周围的活动发生。

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

Paths that don't go where people want to go

通往人们不想去的地方的小径

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

Paths that lead to nowhere are useless, as demonstrated at this Phoenix, Arizona park (top). The Luxembourg Gardens in Paris, however (near top), show the art of making a path that pulls people along it, or allows them to stop and relax.

许多走不通的小径是毫无利用价值的,就像这个亚利桑那州的凤凰城公园里出现的小路一样。(上图)然而,这个巴黎的卢森堡花园(下图),则显示了开辟小路的艺术,吸引人们来散步,或者允许人们停留和休闲。

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

Domination of a space by vehicles There may be a lack of crosswalks, or streets that are too wide, or lacking sidewalks.

被车辆主宰的场所——可能是缺乏人行横道,或者街道太宽,又或者是没有步行便道。

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

A main street is not a highway. One should not fear crossing the street so much that the activity needs to occur in groups, as on George Street in Sydney, Australia (top). Crossing the street should be an easy, comfortable activity. Even if you have to wait (near top, Paris, France)

一条主要大街不是一条公路。一个人不应该如此害怕穿过街道以至于还需要集体出动,就像澳大利亚悉尼市的乔治大街上发生的情景一样。(上图)穿过大街应该是一个放松,舒适的活动。即使你还不得不等等。(下图,巴黎,法兰西大街)

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

Blank walls or dead zones around the edges of a place The area around a space is as important to its success as the design and management of the space itself.

空白的墙或围绕在一个场所边缘的死角——围绕场所的领域对场所成功的作用是和场所本身的设计和管理同样重要的。

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

The blank wall (near top) contributes nothing to the activity of the street. In fact, it doesn't even seem real.

空白的墙(下图)对街道的活动毫无益处。事实上,它看上去都不像是真的。

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

Inconveniently located transit stops Bus or train stops located in places where no one wants to use them are a good recipe for failure.

位置不便的公交车站——位于一些没人想去用的地方的巴士站或是火车站是优秀的失败窍门。

 

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

 

A transit stop located in a busy, active place can not only make that place better, but also increase transit use.

Why <wbr>Many <wbr>Public <wbr>Spaces <wbr>Fail

 

位于一个繁忙,活跃的地方的公交车站不仅能让这个地方变得更好,还能增加它的使用率。

 

                                                              罗晶09,1,14日译

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