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一、英汉语篇对比及翻译技巧-1

(2006-10-13 17:11:51)

A. 篇内因素:

1. 衔接(cohesion

       Halliday1985--词汇衔接lexical cohesion,照应reference, 省略ellipsis, 替代substitution

a. 词汇照应(lexical reference

       包括同义衔接synonymy,组合衔接collocation

1) 同义衔接

同义词synonym, 近义词near synonym, 上义词superordinate, 下义词hyponym, 概括词general word等构成的词汇链。利用同义衔接确定译文选词。

1

       Four months before election day, five men gathered in a small conference room at the Reagan-Bush headquarters and reviewed an oversized calendar that marked the remaining days of the 1984 presidential campaign. It was the last Saturday in June and at ten ‘clock in the morning, the rest of the office was practically deserted. Even so the men kept the door shut and the drapes carefully drawn.

       离大选还有四个月,里根-布什总部的一间小会议室里聚集了五个人,他们审视着一份标有1984年总统选举活动所剩日期的巨型日历。那是六月份最后一个星期六,早晨十点钟,办公室里实际已经没有其他人。尽管如此,这几个人还是把门关好,还小心翼翼地拉上窗帘。

       officeheadquarters之间为上下义衔接,实际上office指的就是headquarters,因为同一间办公室里并没有其他人在场,关门、拉窗帘防的是谁呢?应当是办公室外面的人。因此改译“总部里其实已经没有其他人。”

2

       The festival has been running since 1947. It began unofficially, when several theatre groups from around the world arrived, uninvited, at the first Edinburgh International Festival of the Arts and performed in small buildings, churches and in the streets on the festival’s edges, or fringe. The following year the separate Fringe Festival was set up, to run in parallel with the International Arts Festival.

    A外围艺术节始于1947年。刚开始是非官方的。当时戏剧团体从世界各地赶来参加第一届爱丁堡国际艺术节,他们并没有接到邀请,所以只能在艺术节会场边上——即外围地区——的小楼里、教堂里或街上表演。第二年,独立的外围艺术节得以确立,与国际艺术节同时举行。

    B. 流苏艺术节始于1947年。刚开始是非官方的。当时戏剧团体从世界各地赶来参加第一届爱丁堡国际艺术节,他们并没有接到邀请,所以只能在艺术节会场周围的小楼里、教堂里或街上表演。第二年,独立的流苏艺术节得到确立,与国际艺术节同时举行

       fringeedge构成衔接关系Fringe Festival译成“流苏艺术节”则这种衔接关系出现严重的断裂。

2) 组合衔接(collocation

    词语一旦进入语篇他们的意义不再是词典上所罗列的孤立的、静态的意义。受上下文、语言语境制约,处于动态组合状态。Neubert 1992:109Lexical cohesion is independent of extra-textual referential identity. It operates between text-situated forms. It operates between words that have certain semantic relations with other words in the text. The text determines what belongs together.

       Before college, the only people I had ever known who were interested in art or music or literature, the only ones who read books, the only ones who ever seemed to enjoy a sense of ease and grace were the mothers and daughters. Like the menfolk, they fretted about money, they scrimped and made-do. But, when the pay stopped coming in, they were not the ones who had failed. Nor did they have to go to war,, and that seemed to me a blessed fact. By comparison with the narrow, ironclad days of fathers, there was an expansiveness, I thought, in the days mothers. They went to see neighbors, to shop in town to run errands at school, at the library, at church. (Scott Russell Sanders: Men and Women)

       上大学之前,我所认识的对艺术、音乐或文学感兴趣的人,爱读书的人,看上去安闲自得、优雅自在的人,统统都是做母亲和做女儿的。像男人一样,女人也为钱发愁,也省吃俭用,凑合度日。但是如果家里断了收入,问题并非在他们身上。她们也用不着去打仗,这在我看来是一桩幸事。跟做父亲的那种狭隘、封闭的生活相比,我觉得做母亲的日子过得比较心情舒畅。她们上邻居家串门,去城里买东西,到学校、图书馆教堂跑跑腿儿。

       此处主要阐述作者对男人、女人区别的看法:男人身负重担,吃苦受累女人则悠闲自在,自得其乐narrow, ironclad, expansiveness的翻译不能就词论词,和这两个总括性词语相联系的其实是两个词语链组合:menfolk, narrow, ironclad, fretted about money, scrimped and made-do, failed, go to war; mothers: expansiveness, interested in art or music or literature, read books, enjoy a sense of ease and grace, see neighbors, run errands at school, at the library, at church. “narrow, ironclad”, expansiveness是对男人、女人生活的方式与格调的描写,意义相对。翻译应体现男人、女人之间的对照,“狭隘”指人的性格,“心情舒畅”是一种心态。试译如下:跟父亲的那种圈子狭窄、刻板不变的生活相比,我觉得母亲的日子过得宽松自在。ironcladfixed, rigid

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