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正确的战争 The Right War

(2009-06-01 19:01:33)
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分类: 世界公民关注世界未来

正确的战争

 

正确的战争

潘基文

长久以来我们的世界似乎在接踵而至的危机中蹒跚前行中东的暴力事件非洲的疾病全球范围食品和燃料价格的飙升以及气候变化的威胁。当人们遭受了一轮又一轮危机冲击之后不免会变得悲观认为这些世界问题难以解决。此时我们面临着这样的引诱向这些问题认输放弃世界而囿于自己的家中。

但从我身为联合国秘书长的角度来看这些问题得出的结论却截然不同。我对这些问题的看法虽然谨慎但坚定而乐观。世界上的所有问题都能在联合国——这个全球政治和外交的中心——找到解决之道。但是如果所有的问题都汇集到联合国那么这常常会掩盖这些问题之间的联系并且不能根据这些联系顺藤摸瓜寻找到这些问题的真正解决之道。我们现在应对气候变化的做法显然是行不通的。世间万物相互影响我们所面临的贫困和武装冲突等诸多问题与地球变暖有直接的联系。解决气候变暖的方案和对此的探索可以惠及其他领域并会使绿色地球更加和平与繁荣。

联合国的成立以“终结战争的根源”而闻名于世。有些人将“终结战争”与派遣维和部队混为一谈我对这一观点持不同意见。实现人类和平与稳定的基础是经济与社会的稳定立足于可持续发展。这是解决所有问题的关键。为什么这样说呢因为这样做将可以把贫困、气候、环境、政治稳定等重大问题作为一个整体问题的其中一部分而加以解决。

联系一下达尔富尔(Darfur)问题在我担任联合国秘书长的第一年中,我为此付出了相当大的外交努力。当然,我们在这一地区所面临的最紧迫的挑战是调解冲突与维持和平。但达尔富尔(Darfur)的暴力冲突肇始于长达数十年的干旱。农民和牧民为争夺土地和水资源而发生冲突。如果这一根本问题不能得到解决——如果扶贫、环境治理与控制气候变化的要求不能相互配合——那么我们为解决达尔富尔(Darfur)问题所提出的任何方案都只是权宜之计。

同以往任何时候有所不同的是,当今的解决方案必须建立在沟通本地与全球的基础之上。向农民提供他们获得丰收所必需的良种,灌溉设备以及化肥可以部分地解决非洲的饥饿问题。这需要将联合国传统的发展努力与对环境新的关注结合起来。由于我们所面临的这些问题具有跨国性的特征,因此全球任何地方的安全都取决于全球各地的可持续发展。

让我们回到气候变化问题。任何地区——无论是非洲干旱的撒赫勒(Sahel)地区,还是澳大利亚的粮食出口区,还是美国日趋干旱的西南地区——都不能回避这一问题。为了应对气候变化,联合国大家庭包括获得诺贝尔奖的政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)开始将全球资源汇集到一起——这些资源包括科学和工程学技术,企业参与和公民领袖。当我们以正确的视角审视这些问题的时候,我们已经开始更充分地体会到世界纷繁的知识可以解决那些似乎无法解决的问题。

联合国在今年将减贫与气候变化这两个关键议题联系在一起,我们应当铭记在所有最杰出的人物当中,是局部地区的农民、医生和社会活动家最先创造性的提出应对这些紧迫挑战的解决方案。他们告诉我们有办法以适当的成本在非洲建立清洁和可持续的能源系统以及高产农业并改善亚洲、非洲、中东和美洲日趋干旱地区的水资源管理。

今年将成为联合国发展的一个分水岭。我们将认真地进行气候变化的相关谈判并竭尽一切努力加速打击贫困、饥饿和疾病的千年发展目标的实现。在我们着手进行这项伟大的事业的时候,我们应当回顾一下美国领导层在这场斗争中所做的历史贡献。1963年,约翰·F·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)在联合国大会上演讲时说道:“提高人类生活水平的努力……并不是少数人的任务。这是我们全体的责任——行动的个体,群体行动以及联合国行动。因为传染病与流行病,劫掠与污染,自然灾害与受饥饿的儿童是我们每一个国家的仇敌。大地,海洋与天空与我们每个国家的命运息息相关。科学、技术和教育将成为我们忠实的盟友。”我们应留意这中肯的忠告。

(作者为联合国秘书长)

The Right War

By BAN KI-MOON

Too often, our world seems to careen from one crisis to the next: violence in the Middle East, disease in Africa, soaring food and fuel prices around the globe, the threat of climate change. When people are buffeted by one shock after another, it's not uncommon for them to grow pessimistic, to see the world's problems as too intractable to solve. The temptation is to throw up our hands, retreat from the world and tend our own gardens.

Yet from where I sit, on the 38th floor of the United Nations building, the view is rather different. My perspective is of cautious but resolute optimism. Every problem of the world finds its way to the U.N., our global crossroads of politics and diplomacy. But if the problems come together at the U.N., so do the often hidden connections among them—and through those connections, the ways to real solutions. Nowhere is that more apparent than in our approach to climate change. Many of the challenges we face, from poverty to armed conflict, are linked to the effects of global warming. Finding a solution to climate change can bring benefits in other areas. A greener planet will be a more peaceful and prosperous one too.

The U.N. was founded, famously, to "end the scourge of war." We often confuse that with the dispatching of peacekeepers to this or that zone of conflict. I see it differently. The basic building block of peace and security for all peoples is economic and social security, anchored in sustainable development. It is a key to all problems. Why? Because it allows us to address all the great issues—poverty, climate, environment and political stability—as parts of a whole.

Consider Darfur, where I've put considerable diplomatic effort during my first year as Secretary-General. It is, of course, most immediately a challenge of peacemaking and peacekeeping. But Darfur's violence began with the onset of a decades-long drought. Farmers and herders came into conflict over land and water. If this root problem is not addressed—if the challenges of poverty alleviation, environmental stewardship and the control of climate change are not tied together—any solutions we propose in Darfur will at best be a temporary Band-Aid.

More than ever before, solutions must bridge the local and the global. Hunger in Africa will be solved partly by helping farmers get the improved seeds, water pumps and soil nutrients they need for a good harvest. It also requires the traditional U.N. development effort—coupled with a new attention to the environment. Since problems spill across borders, security anywhere depends on sustainable development everywhere.

That brings us back to climate change. No place is immune, neither the arid Sahel of Africa nor the grain-exporting regions of Australia nor the drought-prone Southwest of the U.S. To fight it, the U.N. family, including the Nobel Prize-winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, has begun tapping into a pool of global resources—scientific and engineering expertise, corporate engagement and civic leadership. We have begun to appreciate more fully how the world's dazzling know-how can solve the seemingly unsolvable when we view our problems through the right perspective.

This year at the U.N., as we link the crucial agendas of poverty reduction and climate change, we must remember that among the best minds are the farmers, doctors and community leaders at the local level who have worked out ingenious solutions to urgent challenges. They tell us that there are indeed pathways, at modest cost, to clean and sustainable energy systems, high-yield agriculture in Africa and improved water management in drought-prone regions of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and the Americas.

This year could mark a watershed at the U.N. We will undertake climate-change negotiations in earnest and accelerate our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals to fight poverty, hunger and disease. As we embark on this great undertaking, we might recall the historic importance of American leadership in this fight. In 1963, President John F. Kennedy told the U.N. General Assembly, "The effort to improve the conditions of man...is not a task for the few. It is the task of all—acting alone, acting in groups, acting in the United Nations. For plague and pestilence, plunder and pollution, the hazards of nature and the hunger of children are the foes of every nation. The earth, the sea and the air are the concern of every nation. And science, technology and education can be the ally of every nation." Let us heed that sound advice.

 

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