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百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种

(2010-11-28 16:04:01)
标签:

罗马

罗马军制

罗马士兵

concept

历史

军事

原画

罗马装备

分类: 百科全书
除翻译原文外,我会列出几个常见的专有名词并配图做解释。关于目的,我一见某些做设定的把斯巴达的头盔套在罗马士兵头上就很不爽。多做点功课啊,让其他领域的专业人士别觉得你在乱画。知道我为什么总是那么关注英文专有名词吗?因为百度在这方面很垃圾。

英文作者:不详       翻译:DylanZhang(http://blog.sina.com.cn/ts152154539)
百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
(典型的普通士兵,百夫长与旗手信号兵(signifer兵种专有名词)与其装备)

The Roman Army was made up of men from all over the Empire, no women were allowed to join the army. The only job of these men was to fight and defend Rome. They could not see their families for years and they could not marry their girl friends until they left the army. But the wages were good and there were other benefits such as a payment of land or money when they retired. Sons often followed their fathers into the army. These professional soldiers of the Roman Army who would have to stay in the army for at least 25 years are called Legionaries. There were also auxiliaries in the Roman Army but with structure and equipment, they were differing from the legionaries. They were non-Roman citizens, recruited mostly from the Roman provinces with less pay than the legionaries, but at the end of their service they would be granted Roman citizenship.
罗马军队由帝国的男丁组成,妇女不能参军。他们的唯一任务就是保卫罗马帝国。他们有时几年不能回家,在退伍之前不能和女友结婚。但是工资高,退伍之后待遇好。儿子通常跟着老子去当兵。那些在军队里呆了至少25年的专业士兵们叫做Legionaries(单数为legionary,罗马军团专用名词即Legion)。还有一些辅助军,但是编制和装备与正规军团士兵都不同,而且他们通常不是罗马公民,从帝国的其他行省征召而来,而且工资也低一些。但是奖励就是服役结束后获得罗马公民身份。(罗马人以共同理想来区分是否为“罗马人”,而非用地域区分。罗马人善于统治多人种、多民族、多语言架构的大帝国。 )

The structure of the Roman Army was not complex but strong. The basic unit was Contubernium (十人队?)which consists of a group of 8-10 soldiers who share the same barrack or tent in battlefield , eat together and live as brothers-in-arms. 10 of contuberiums form a Century (百人队)which is the essential fighting unit of Roman Army. A century was commanded by a Centurion (百夫长)and his second in command who called Optio. 6 centuries form the main tactical unit - Cohort步兵大队. The Cohorts were arranged in battle so that the experienced, inexperienced, strongest and weakest soldiers would be mixed throughout the battle formations which maximized moral and military effectiveness. Each cohort was led by a junior officer named Tribunus militum. Every century and cohort had an emblem symbolizing the unit and it was carried by a Signifer. 10 cohorts form a Legion which is known as the main unit. The Roman army had between 27 - 30 legions. The officer commanding a legion was called the Legatus legionis. He was usually from a wealthy family. Each legion had an eagle made of silver called an Aquila which was symbolic of the legion's power. It was carried in battle by a soldier called an Aquilifer鹰帜手. Each of the 10 cohorts were numbered and consisted of specific types of soldiers. The organisation and numbering of the Cohorts were the same throughout the different legions.
不逐字翻译了。罗马军队编制不复杂但是很牛逼。基本单位是8到10人组成的十人队,他们在战场上情同手足,吃喝拉撒睡一起。 10个十人队组成百人队,电影百夫长看过吗,百夫长就是百人队的队长。然后还有一个副官(optio)。6个百人队组成一个主要的战略单位——步兵大队cohort。每个步兵大队由一个低级军官指挥。每个百人队和步兵大队都有一个象征队伍的标记,由信号兵signifer扛着。10个步兵大队组成一支军团。罗马军队大约有27到30个军团。指挥军团的军官叫做Legatus legionis,通常来自富裕家庭。每一个军团都有一个银制雄鹰,叫做Aquila,是军团权力的象征,由专门人员扛着,叫做鹰帜手aquilifer。
百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
从左到右分别为百夫长,鹰帜手,旗手(还负责抗队伍旗帜并负责财务,有时充当副官)

The republican army's strength, in peace, was four legions, but the number was increased during wartime. The highest number of legions was 70 after the civil war between Octavian (Augustus) and Mark Antony, due to having two whole Roman empires fighting when the remainder of Antony's forces joined with Octavian's. The number was decreased to 28 legions soon after, as the economically strained empire could not pay such huge numbers. After the Varus disaster, only 25 legions remained.
共和国军队在和平时期只有4只军团,战争时期增加。最高纪录是奥古斯都和安东尼内战之后,高达70。之后由于经济危机,又直降到28。在varus大灾难后,只留有25支军团。

百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
典型的军团普通士兵装备,普通士兵头盔不插毛。大腿以下无盔甲防护。注意腰带及其下垂的圆片装饰物,十分典型,能显示主人的财富地位,末端的大圆片代表主人来自帝国何处。lorica也是一个专有名词,专门指代罗马帝国的士兵盔甲。

百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
signifer旗手的典型着装,扛着队伍的旗帜,通常披一件狼皮。旗手衣着与普通军团士兵差别很大,最显著的是其头上批着的兽头和兽皮,若是狮子,则为军团鹰旗的旗手;若为熊,则是营旗旗手,若为狼,则为大队队旗旗手,铠甲也是比一般军团士兵的板甲更轻便的锁子甲,盾牌也是比军团士兵的的方盾更灵活的圆盾。
A signifer is the standard bearer of a cohort or century. He was chosen from the most valiant legionaries veteran legionaries who generally were serving their extended enlistments after 20 years of service, as the standard bearer certainly had to be the bravest and most exemplary. In the event of defeat, he was necessarily destined to sacrifice himself on the field, because a signifer who survived without his standard would most certainly be condemned to death for cowardice.
信号兵是百人队或者步兵大队的扛旗手。由军团资深士兵(通常当了20多年兵)中最英勇的人来担当,为什么呢,因为扛旗的人必须是最勇敢最接触的,所以信号兵是很牛逼的,别以为他就是个普通士兵。如遇战败,他应当牺牲沙场,因为一个丢了旗帜的信号兵如果苟活,会因为贪生怕死而被处死。就是说横竖都是个死,不如壮烈点。
更多关于鹰旗的解释,参加贴吧http://tieba.baidu.com/f?kz=476841020
百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
鹰帜手,扛鹰标。不过给游戏做设定还是不用太拘泥了
百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
看见没,星际战锤里的marine就用了罗马军的元素

百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
罗马禁卫军执政官卫队,中南海保镖

百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
第十二军团

百科历史军事篇-图解罗马军制与典型兵种
元老院



暂时先这样,看看还有啥可添加的内容和图片再添加。。

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