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十六观智(6-11)中英对照

(2010-09-25 00:15:17)
标签:

佛教

南传佛教

十六观智

内观

杂谈

分类: 慧学

6. Awareness of Fearfulness 怖畏智

When that knowledge of dissolution is mature, there will gradually arise, just by seeing the dissolution of all object-and-subject-formations, awareness of fearfulness37 and other (higher) knowledges, together with their respective aspects of fear, and so on.38

Having seen how the dissolution of two things — that is, any object noticed and the insight-thought engaged in noticing it — takes place moment by moment, the meditator also understands by inference that in the past, too, every conditioned thing (formation) has broken up in the same way, that just so it will break up also in the future, and that at the present it breaks up, too. And just at the time of noticing any formations that are evident, these formations will appear to him in their aspect of fearfulness. Therefore, during the very act of noticing, the meditator will also come to understand: "These formations are indeed fearful."

Such understanding of their fearfulness is called "knowledge of the awareness of fearfulness"; it has also the name "knowledge of fear." At that time, his mind itself is gripped by fear and seems helpless.

 当坏灭智成熟时,由于见到作为能缘、所缘的诸行的坏灭,觉知怖畏智和其它更高阶观智会依次生起,诸行怖畏的一面和其它特点随这些观智一同显现。看见了所观照的对象和观照的心二者是怎样刹那刹那灭去,禅者通过推想知道过去的诸行是以同样的方式坏灭,未来的诸行也会以同样的方式坏灭,而现在的诸行也是一样,正在坏灭。在观照显现的诸行的当下,这些行法会显示出怖畏的一面。所以,禅者在观照的当下也会明了:“这些行法确实是可怖畏的。”

这种对行法怖畏的了知就是“觉知怖畏智”,也叫“怖畏智”。而此时,他的心本身也被怖畏所抓住,并且像是很无助。

7. Knowledge of Misery 过患智

When he has realized the fearfulness  (of the formations) through the knowledge of fear, and keeps on noticing continuously, then the "knowledge of misery" will arise in him before long. When it has arisen, all formations everywhere — whether among the objects noticed, or among the states of consciousness engaged in noticing, or in any kind of life or existence that is brought to mind — will appear insipid, without a vitalizing factor,39 and unsatisfying. So he sees, at that time, only suffering, only unsatisfactoriness, only misery. Therefore this state is called "knowledge of misery."

当他通过怖畏智体证了诸行的怖畏继而连续不断地观照,不久“过患智”就会生起。当此智生起时,每一处的所有行法——不论是被观照的对象,还是观照之心的诸心所,亦或显现在心的视野中的任何生命或存在——都会显得无趣味、无滋养、不如意。所以他此时看到的只有苦、不如意、过患。这样的情况叫作“过患智”。

8. Knowledge of Disgust 厌离智

Seeing thus the misery in conditioned things (formations), his mind finds no delight in those miserable things but is entirely disgusted with them. At times, his mind becomes, as it were, discontented and listless. Even so he does not give up the practice of insight, but spends his time continuously engaging in it. He therefore should know that this state of mind is not dissatisfaction with meditation, but is precisely the "knowledge of disgust" that has the aspect of being disgusted with the formations. Even if he directs his thought to the happiest sort of life and existence, or to the most pleasant and desirable objects, his mind will not take delight in them, will find no satisfaction in them. On the contrary, his mind will incline and lean and tend only towards Nibbana. Therefore the following thought will arise in him between moments of noticing: "The ceasing of all formations that are dissolving from moment to moment — that alone is happiness." 如此观见诸行的过患,他对这些有过患的东西没有欣喜,只有厌恶。有时他的心似乎变得不满、倦怠。尽管如此,他并不放弃修持内观,继续花时间连续不断地用功。他因此应该知道自己这种状态不是因为禅修的不如意,而正是因为“厌离智”,因其具有对诸行生厌的特点。即使他把心导向最快乐的生命或存在,或者导向最愉悦、最惬意的所缘,他的心也不会喜悦,也不会觉得如意。相反,他的心将倾向、朝向、趋向于涅槃。因此在观照的间歇如下念头会生起:“刹那刹那坏灭的诸行,只有当其寂止才是乐。”

9. Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance 欲解脱智

When through this knowledge (now acquired) he feels disgust with regard to every formation noticed, there will arise in him a desire to forsake these formations or to become delivered from them. The knowledge relating to that desire is called "knowledge of desire for deliverance." At that time, usually various painful feelings arise in his body, and also an unwillingness to remain long in one particular bodily posture. Even if these states do not arise, the comfortless nature of the formations will become more evident than ever. And due to that, between moments of noticing, he feels a longing thus: "Oh, may I soon get free from that! Oh, may I reach the state where these formations cease! Oh, may I be able to give up these formations completely!" At this juncture, his consciousness engaged in noticing seems to shrink from the object noticed at each moment of noticing, and wishes to escape from it.由于此厌离智(此时已获得)他对被观照的每一个行法生厌离,他会生起舍弃诸行或者说从诸行解脱的欲望。与此欲望相应的智就叫作“欲解脱智”。此时,通常各种苦受会在他身体里显现,他也不愿意保持一个姿势很长时间。即使这些状况不发生,诸行令人不舒服的本质会变得比任何时候都明显。由于这样,他在观照的间隙会感到有这样一种渴望:“啊,愿我尽快从此解脱!啊,愿我进入诸行止息的境界!愿我能完全舍弃诸行!” 此时,在他的每一刹那的观照中,观照之心似乎从被观照的所缘回缩,欲求脱离所缘。

10. Knowledge of Re-observation 审察智

Being thus desirous of escaping from the formations, the meditator makes stronger effort and continues the practice of noticing these very formations with the single purpose of forsaking them and escaping from them. For that reason, the knowledge arising at that time is called "knowledge of re-observation." The term "re-observation" has the same meaning as "re-noticing" or "re-contemplation." Then the nature (or characteristics) of the formations — their being impermanent, suffering, and without a self — will be clearly evident to him; and among these three, the aspect of suffering will be particularly distinct.如此欲求脱离诸行,禅者更加精进努力,以舍弃和脱离诸行为唯一的目标,他连续不断地观照诸行。由于再度精进观照的缘故,此时生起的智被叫作“审察智”,这里用词“审察”和“再作仔细观照”、“再作仔细观察”是同一个意思。此时,诸行的自性(或者说特点)——无常、苦、无我——将清楚地显现,而苦会特别明显。

At this stage, too, there will usually arise in his body various kinds of pains which are severe, sharp, and of growing intensity. Hence his whole bodily and mental system will seem to him like an unbearable mass of sickness or a conglomeration of suffering. And a state of restlessness will usually manifest itself, making him incapable of keeping to one particular posture for any length of time. For then he will not be able to hold any one position long, but will soon want to change it. This state, however, simply manifests the unbearable nature of the formations. Though he wants to change his bodily posture, still he should not give in easily to that wish, but should endeavor to remain motionless for a longer period in the same posture and continue to carry on the practice of noticing. By doing so he will be able to overcome his restlessness.

到了这一阶观智,通常各种严重的、强烈的、强度不断增加的疼痛会在身体中生起。由此他的整个身心系统对他来说似乎就像一堆不可忍受的病痛或者苦的集聚。一种不安宁的状态通常会显现,使他无法以特定的姿势坚持足够的时间。由于这样他不能长时间保持一个姿势,不久就会变换姿势。然而这种状态只是诸行难以忍受的自性的简单显现。尽管他想变换身体的姿势,但他不应该轻易屈服于这种念头,而应该努力尽量长地保持一种姿势不动,并继续观照。这样做他就能够克服不安。

Now his insight knowledge is quite strong and lucid, and by virtue of it even his painful feelings will at once cease as soon as they are firmly noticed. Even if a painful feeling does not cease completely, he will perceive that it is dissolving, part by part, from moment to moment. That is to say, the ceasing, vanishing, and disappearing of each single moment of feeling will become apparent separately in each corresponding act of noticing. In other words, now it will not be as it was at the time of the knowledge of comprehension, when the constant flow or continuity of feelings of the same kind was apparent as a single unit. But if, without abandoning the practice, that feeling of pain is firmly and continuously noticed, it will entirely cease before long. When it ceases in that way, it does so for good and will not arise again. Though in that way the insight knowledge may have become strong and perfectly lucid, still he is not satisfied with that much. He will even think: "My insight knowledge is not clear." He should, however, dismiss such thoughts by applying the act of noticing to them, and he should go on with his task of continuously noticing the bodily and mental formations as they occur.现在他的观智很强很明晰,凭借此观智坚定地观照一下,苦受甚至会立即灭去。即使苦受没有完全灭去,他会观察到苦受刹那刹那地、一节一节地消融。也就是说,在每一刹那的观照中会看到苦受在这一刹那灭去、消融、消失,受在前后刹那中是分开的。换句话说,现在的情况和触知智(遍知智)时候不同,那时候受明显地连续流动、象一个整体。但如果禅者没有放弃用功而是坚定不移、连续不断地观照此苦受,此苦受不久就会完全寂止。当此苦受这样寂止之后,就会永远消失不再生起。尽管这样观智会变得很强而且非常明晰,但是禅者仍然不会就此满足。他甚至会想:“我的观智不够明了。” 然而他应该观照这些想法使其消失,并且继续不间断地观照身行和心行,要在它们发生的刹那观照。

If he perseveres thus, his noticing will become more and more clear as the time passes in minutes, hours, and days. Then he will overcome the painful feelings and the restlessness in being unable to remain long in one particular posture, and also the idea that his insight knowledge is not yet clear enough. His noticing will then function rapidly, and at every moment of noticing he will understand quite clearly any of the three characteristics of impermanence, etc.如果他坚持不懈这样用功,经过几分钟、几小时或者几天的时间,他的观照会变得越来越清楚。那时候他会一并克服苦受和不能保持一个姿势很长时间的烦恼以及觉得观智还不够清楚的想法。他的观照变得快速敏捷,他在每一个观照中会清楚地了知无常等三相之一。

This understanding of any of the three characteristics of impermanence, etc., through the act of noticing which functions with promptness in quick succession, is called "strong knowledge of re-observation." 这种一 一连续快捷的观照而产生的对无常等三相之一相的了知,就叫作强审察智。

11. Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations 行舍智

When this knowledge of re-observation is mature, there will arise knowledge perceiving evident bodily and mental processes in continuous succession quite naturally, as if borne onward of itself. This is called "knowledge of equanimity about formations."当审察智成熟之后,另一个智会生起。以此智他会很自然地看到清楚的身心过程一一相续,就像自动发生一样。这就是“行舍智”。

Now, in the act of noticing, effort is no longer required to keep formations before the mind or to understand them. After the completion of each single act of noticing, the object to be noticed will then appear of itself, and insight knowledge, too, will of itself notice and understand it. It is as if no further effort need be made by the meditator. Formerly, owing to seeing the dissolution of formations, there arose, in successive order, the aspect of fearfulness, the perception of misery, the aspect of disgust, the desire for deliverance, and dissatisfaction with the knowledge so far acquired. But now these mental states no longer arise even though, in the present state too, the breaking up of formations which are dissolving more rapidly is closely perceived. Even if a painful feeling arises in the body, no mental disturbance (grief) arises, and there is no lack of fortitude in bearing it. Generally, however, at this stage, pains will be entirely absent, that is, they do not arise at all. Even if the meditator thinks about something fearful or sad, no mental disturbance will arise, be it in the form of fear or of sorrow. This, firstly, is "the abandoning of fear" at the stage of "equanimity about formations." 现在观照无须刻意努力去看清诸行或了知诸行。每一个观照完成之后,下一个所缘会自动现前,而观智也会自动观察和了知所缘,似乎禅者无须进一步努力。先前因为看到诸行的坏灭,怖畏、过患、厌离、欲解脱、对所得观智不满意等依次生起。尽管现在观见诸行的坏灭在此时灭去得更加迅速,但上述心里状态不再生起。尽管有身体的苦受生起,但是心中没有扰动(忧)生起,不会缺乏对苦受的忍耐力。而且通常在这个阶段会完全没有痛苦,就是说,痛苦根本不会生起。即使禅者想到任何可怕或糟糕的事,无论是恐怖的还是悲伤的,心也不会被扰动,这就是“行舍智”阶段的“怖畏之断舍”。

At the earlier stage, on attaining knowledge of arising and passing away, great joy had arisen on account of the clarity of insight. But now this kind of joy does not arise, even though there is present the exceedingly peaceful and sublime clarity of mind belonging to "equanimity about formations." Though he actually sees desirable objects conducive to joy, or though he thinks about various enjoyable things, no strong feeling of joy will arise. This is "the abandoning of delight" at the stage of "equanimity about formations." 在先前生灭随观智阶段,由于内观明了,很强的喜会生起,但现在尽管行舍智的心具有极为寂静、超越的明了性,这种很强的喜也不会生起。即使他看到喜欢的令人高兴的东西或者想到各种高兴的事,也不会有强烈的喜乐的感受生起。这是行舍智阶段“喜的舍断”。

He cherishes no desire nor hate with regard to any object, desirable or undesirable, that comes into the range of his sense doors, but taking them as just the same in his act of noticing, he understands them (that is to say, it is a pure act of understanding). This is "equable vision" at the stage of "equanimity about formations."  他对所观照的对象不怀有喜欢或厌恶,不管是喜欢的还是不喜欢的所缘进入他根门的范围,在他的观照中都一样平等对待,他只是了知它们而已(也就是说,只是纯粹的了知)。这就是行舍智的“增上舍性”。

Of these three qualities just mentioned, it is said in the Path of Purification: "Having discarded fear and delight, he is impartial and neutral towards all formations" (Visuddhimagga, xxi,62).关于刚讲的行舍智的这三种特质,《清净道论》说:“舍断了怖畏与喜欢,他对一切行保持不偏向和中舍性。”

If he resumes the practice of noticing with the thought: "Now I will do it vigorously again!" then, before long, the noticing will function efficiently as if borne onward of itself. From now onwards there is no need for the meditator to make further (deliberate) effort. Though he does not make a (deliberate) effort, his noticing will proceed in a continuous and steady flow for a long time; it will go on even for two or three hours without interruption. This is "the state of long-lasting (practice)" of equanimity about formations. Referring to this it is said in the Patisambhidamagga: " 'The wisdom lasting long' is the knowledge present in the mental states of equanimity about formations." The Great Commentary to the Path of Purification explains as follows: "This is said with reference to knowledge functioning in a continuous flow." 当他想“现在我当再度精勤观照!”而用功时,不久他的观照就会非常有力,就好像在自动运行。从此以后禅者不需要刻意努力。虽然他不作刻意努力,但是他的观照会连续稳定地流畅运作很长时间,甚至会持续两三个小时而无中断。这是行舍智的“长住性”。关于这点,《无碍解道》说“长住的慧”是存在于行舍心诸心所中的智。《清净道论大疏钞》中则这样解释:“这是指连续运作的智。”

Now when noticing functions spontaneously as if borne onward of itself, the mind, even if sent out towards a variety of objects, generally refuses to go; and even if it does go, it will not stay long but will soon return to the usual object to be noticed, and will resume continuous noticing. In this connection it was said: "He shrinks, recoils, and retreats; he does not go forth to it." 当观照的运作变成了自动运行时,即使禅者试图把心转向外在的所缘,心通常也不会转过去,即使转过去了也不会多停留,很快就会回到原来的观照目标上,继续不间断地观照。由于这样所以有这样的说法:“他的心缩回、卷退、退回,而不伸向那些所缘。”

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