加载中…
个人资料
metta
metta
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:168,216
  • 关注人气:542
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

八正道:正语经文辑要

(2009-03-19 05:21:19)
标签:

佛教

正语

八正道

杂谈

分类: 经典和唱诵

八正道

正语经文辑要

 

汤华俊 编辑翻译  2005年7月

英文原文网址:Right Speech

 

 

The definition

"And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, from divisive speech, from abusive speech, & from idle chatter: This is called right speech."   SN XLV.8

 

定义

 

诸比丘!云何为正语耶?诸比丘!离虚诳语、离离间语、离粗恶语、离杂秽语。诸比丘!此名之为正语。

 

  ——《相应部*大篇*道相应*无明品*分别》

 

 

Five keys to right speech

"Monks, a statement endowed with five factors is well-spoken, not ill-spoken. It is blameless & unfaulted by knowledgeable people. Which five?

"It is spoken at the right time. It is spoken in truth. It is spoken affectionately. It is spoken beneficially. It is spoken with a mind of good-will."   AN V.198

正语的五个关键点:

比丘们,具有五个要素的言语为善说,而非不善;为无疵,不为智者所责备。是哪五个呢?“适时、真实、柔和、有益、慈爱而语”。——《增支部V.198》

The danger in lying

"For the person who transgresses in one thing, I tell you, there is no evil deed that is not to be done. Which one thing? This: telling a deliberate lie."   Iti 25

撒谎的危险性

“我可以告诉你,如果一个人敢犯有一件事,那么就没有什么坏事他不敢做。这是一件什么事呢?就是故意撒谎。” ——《小部 Iti 25》

Self-purification through well-chosen speech

"And how is one made pure in four ways by verbal action?

"There is the case where a certain person, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, 'Come & tell, good man, what you know': If he doesn't know, he says, 'I don't know.' If he does know, he says, 'I know.' If he hasn't seen, he says, 'I haven't seen.' If he has seen, he says, 'I have seen.' Thus he doesn't consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward. Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.

"Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord.

"Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing & pleasing to people at large.

"Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, & the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal.

"This is how one is made pure in four ways by verbal action."        

AN X.176

善巧选择讲话方法,以自我净化语行

何谓语行净化的四法?

有这种情况:某个人离于谎言、戒绝了谎言。当他被市镇会议、某个组织会议、亲戚的聚会、行会、或者皇族叫去作证并对他说:“来告诉我们你所知道的,善人。”  如果他不知道,他就说“我不知道。”  如果他知道,他就说“我知道。”  如果他不曾看见,他就说“我不曾看见。” 如果他曾经看见,他就说“我曾经看见。”  这样,他不会为了自己或他人、为了得到报酬而故意撒谎。他抛弃了谎言、戒绝了谎言。他说真实语,坚持真实语,坚定,可靠,不欺世人。

离于离间语,戒绝了离间语。他不会传这里听到的话到哪里去造成人们彼此间的不和。他也不会传哪里听到的话到这里去造成人们彼此间的不和。这样他让不和的人们互相和好,让团结的人们更加团结,他爱和谐,他为和谐而高兴,为和谐而欣喜,他讲使人们和谐的事情。

离于粗恶语,戒绝了粗恶语。他讲话让很多人听起来舒畅、有真情实感、直入心扉,有礼貌、有感召力、令人愉悦。

离于闲杂语,戒绝了闲杂语。他讲话适时,所讲的话有实质的东西,和[修行]最终的目标一致,与法和戒律一致。他讲的话值得珍视,适宜,合理,围绕[修行的]主题而不偏离。

这就是如何以四法净化语行。

——《增支部 X.176》

Its relation to the other factors of the path

"And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong speech as wrong speech, and right speech as right speech. And what is wrong speech? Lying, divisive tale-bearing, abusive speech, & idle chatter. This is wrong speech...

"One tries to abandon wrong speech & to enter into right speech: This is one's right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong speech & to enter & remain in right speech: This is one's right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities — right view, right effort, & right mindfulness — run & circle around right speech."    MN 117

正语和其它道支的关系:

  然,诸比丘!正见是先行者,诸比丘!如何正见为先行者?邪语了知是邪语,正语了知是正语也。彼有其正见。诸比丘!如何为邪语?虚诳语、离间语、粗语、杂秽语,诸比丘!此等为邪语…。
  …彼为断邪语,为获得正语而精进。彼有其正精进。彼有念而断邪语,有念成就正语而住。彼有其正念,如是彼有此等之三法,随从、随转于正语,谓:正见、正精进、正念。

——《中部 第一一七大四十经

The criteria for deciding what is worth saying

[1] "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be unfactual, untrue, unbeneficial (or: not connected with the goal), unendearing & disagreeable to others, he does not say them.

[2] "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, unbeneficial, unendearing & disagreeable to others, he does not say them.

[3] "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, beneficial, but unendearing & disagreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for saying them.

[4] "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be unfactual, untrue, unbeneficial, but endearing & agreeable to others, he does not say them.

[5] "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, unbeneficial, but endearing & agreeable to others, he does not say them.

[6] "In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, beneficial, and endearing & agreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for saying them. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has sympathy for living beings."

MN 58

 

什么话当说、什么话不当说得判据:

 

 

[1]如来知其语为非实、非真、不具利益者,其因为他人所不爱、所不好者,如来即不语此语。

 

[2]又如来知其语虽为实、为真、然不具利益者,其因他人所不爱、所不好者,如来亦不语此语。

 

[3]然如来知其语为实、为真、具利益者,其因他人所不爱、所不好者,对此如来记说其语是知时者也。

 

[4]又如来知其语为非实、非真、不具利益者、虽然彼语是他人所爱、所好者,如来即不语此语。

 

[5]又如来知其语为实、为真、不具利益者,其因他人所爱、所好者,此语如来不语此语。

 

[6]如来知其语为为实、为真、具利益者,且彼语是他人所爱、所好者,对此,如来即言彼说其语是知时者也。何以故?王子!如来于诸有情、有怜憨心也

 

——《中部 第五十八无畏王子经

 

Speak only the speech

that neither torments self

nor does harm to others.

That speech is truly well spoken.

 

Speak only endearing speech,

speech that is welcomed.

Speech when it brings no evil

               to others

               is pleasant.

—     Sn III.3

 

只说如此语:不折磨自己亦不危害他人,此为真实之善语。

只说如此语:令人喜爱受人欢迎。不恼他人之语令人欢喜。

 

—— 《小部 Sn III.3

 

 

Reflect on your speech, before, during, and after speaking

[The Buddha speaks to his son, Rahula:] "Whenever you want to perform a verbal act, you should reflect on it: 'This verbal act I want to perform — would it lead to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both? Is it an unskillful verbal act, with painful consequences, painful results?' If, on reflection, you know that it would lead to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both; it would be an unskillful verbal act with painful consequences, painful results, then any verbal act of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. But if on reflection you know that it would not cause affliction... it would be a skillful verbal action with happy consequences, happy results, then any verbal act of that sort is fit for you to do.

"While you are performing a verbal act, you should reflect on it: 'This verbal act I am doing — is it leading to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both? Is it an unskillful verbal act, with painful consequences, painful results?' If, on reflection, you know that it is leading to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both... you should give it up. But if on reflection you know that it is not... you may continue with it.

"Having performed a verbal act, you should reflect on it... If, on reflection, you know that it led to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both; it was an unskillful verbal act with painful consequences, painful results, then you should confess it, reveal it, lay it open to the Teacher or to a knowledgeable companion in the holy life. Having confessed it... you should exercise restraint in the future. But if on reflection you know that it did not lead to affliction... it was a skillful verbal action with happy consequences, happy results, then you should stay mentally refreshed and joyful, training day and night in skillful mental qualities."

MN 61

在说话前、说话中、说话后反观你的对话:

[佛陀对他的儿子罗侯罗说:] 罗喉罗!当你欲以口作业时,则应省察你之口业:“我将作之口业,会危害自己吗?会危害他人吗?会自、他俩害吗?为不善、成苦果、苦报吗?”罗喉罗,如果省察时你知道:我将作之口业,会危害自己,会危害他人,会自、他俩害,为不善、成苦果、苦报,那么你绝对不应该作如此之口业。但是如果省察时你知道: 我将作之口业,不危害自己,不危害他人,不自、他俩害,为善、成乐果、乐报,那么你应作如此之口业。

当你正以口作业时,则应省察你之口业:“我正作之口业,危害自己吗?危害他人吗?自、他俩害吗?为不善、成苦果、苦报吗?”罗喉罗,如果省察时你知道:我正作之口业,危害自己,危害他人,自、他俩害,为不善、成苦果、苦报,那么你应该立即放弃如此之口业。但是如果省察时你知道: 我正作之口业,不危害自己,不危害他人,不自、他俩害,为善、成乐果、乐报,那么你可以继续如此之口业。

当你以口作口业已,则应省察你之口业:“我已作之口业,危害自己吗?危害他人吗?自、他俩害吗?为不善、成苦果、苦报吗?”罗喉罗,如果省察时你知道:我已作之口业,危害自己,危害他人,自、他俩害,为不善、成苦果、苦报。罗喉罗!你之如是口业,当对于师长、智者、同梵行者忏悔之、应发露之、应显发之;忏悔已、发露已、显发已、应成就将来之防护。但是如果你省察时你知道:我已作之口业,不危害自己,不危害他人,不自、他俩害,为善、成乐果、乐报,那么你当昼夜,随学善法,住喜悦中。

——《中部第六十一 庵婆檗林教诫罗喉罗经

Kinds of speech to be avoided by contemplatives

"Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to talking about lowly topics such as these — talking about kings, robbers, ministers of state; armies, alarms, and battles; food and drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, and scents; relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women and heroes; the gossip of the street and the well; tales of the dead; tales of diversity [philosophical discussions of the past and future], the creation of the world and of the sea, and talk of whether things exist or not — he abstains from talking about lowly topics such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

"Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to debates such as these — 'You understand this doctrine and discipline? I'm the one who understands this doctrine and discipline. How could you understand this doctrine and discipline? You're practicing wrongly. I'm practicing rightly. I'm being consistent. You're not. What should be said first you said last. What should be said last you said first. What you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your doctrine has been overthrown. You're defeated. Go and try to salvage your doctrine; extricate yourself if you can!' — he abstains from debates such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue."

DN 2

修行人应避免的对话:

  有某沙门、婆罗门、受食信施而生活。专心住于无益徒劳之论。例如王论、盗贼论、大臣论、军兵论、恐怖论、战争论、食物论、饮料论、衣服论、卧具论、华鬘论、香料论、亲族论、乘具论、村里论、乡镇论、都市论、国土论、妇女论、英雄论、路边论、井边风传论、祖先论、种性论,世界起源论、海洋起源论、如是有无之论。应当远离任何像这样的诤论。这也是戒行的一部分。

  又有某沙门、婆罗门,受食信施而生活,却沉迷于诤论。例如“你不知此法、律、我知此法、律,你如何知此法、律耶?”“你是邪行者,我是正行者,”“我言[前后]相应,你言不相应。”“你应言于前者而言于后,应言于后者而言于前。”“你考虑了很久得出的结论却被驳倒。”“你的立论被推翻,你的辩论输了。”“你当思维如何解决你的立论存在的问题;如果可能,就把自己的问题解决了。”应当远离任何像这样的诤论。这也是戒行的一部分。

——《长部 二沙门果经(二)

 

 

Ten wholesome topics of conversation

"There are these ten topics of [proper] conversation. Which ten? Talk on modesty, on contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue, on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge & vision of release. These are the ten topics of conversation. If you were to engage repeatedly in these ten topics of conversation, you would outshine even the sun & moon, so mighty, so powerful — to say nothing of the wanderers of other sects."     AN X.69

十种善的话题:

有十种[恰当]的话题。哪十种呢?谈论少欲、知足、远离、离缚、精进、戒、定、慧、解脱、解脱知见。这就是十种[恰当]的话题。如果你常常参与这十种对话,你甚至会比巨大而俱大力之日月更光耀,更不用说别的宗教的修行人。  ——《增支部 X.69》

How to admonish another skillfully

"O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who desires to admonish another should do so after investigating five conditions in himself and after establishing five other conditions in himself. What are the five conditions which he should investigate in himself?

 [1] "Am I one who practices purity in bodily action, flawless and untainted...?

 [2] "Am I one who practices purity in speech, flawless and untainted...?

 [3] "Is the heart of goodwill, free from malice, established in me towards fellow-farers in the holy life...?

 [4] "Am I or am I not one who has heard much, who bears in mind what he has heard, who stores up what he has heard? Those teachings which are good alike in their beginning, middle, and ending, proclaiming perfectly the spirit and the letter of the utterly purified holy life — have such teachings been much heard by me, borne in mind, practiced in speech, pondered in the heart and rightly penetrated by insight...?

[5] "Are the Patimokkhas [rules of conduct for monks and nuns] in full thoroughly learned by heart, well-analyzed with thorough knowledge of their meanings, clearly divided sutta by sutta and known in minute detail by me...?

"These five conditions must be investigated in himself.

"And what other five conditions must be established in himself?

 [1] "Do I speak at the right time, or not?

 [2] "Do I speak of facts, or not?

 [3] "Do I speak gently or harshly?

 [4] "Do I speak profitable words or not?

 [5] "Do I speak with a kindly heart, or inwardly malicious?

"O bhikkhus, these five conditions are to be investigated in himself and the latter five established in himself by a bhikkhu who desires to admonish another."

—     AN V (From The Patimokkha, Ñanamoli Thera, trans.)

 

如何才能善巧地教诫他人

比丘们呀,一个比丘欲教诫他人,必须先从五个方面审查自己,同时还需要俱足 五个条件。先从哪五个方面审查自己呢?

[1]我的身行是否纯净、无疵、无染…?

[2]我的语行是否纯净、无疵、无染…?

[3]我的内心是否充满对同梵行者的慈爱而没有恶意…?

[4]我是否多闻、善记所闻、善聚所闻?初善终善后亦善之圣教,在意义上和用词上完美地宣说绝对清静的梵行——我是否已于此圣教多闻、记忆、讲解、深思并以内观智慧实证…?

[5]我 是否已能通篇背诵比丘律、透彻分析其意义、一经一经地分别并能知晓微小的细节…?

这是必须自己审查的五个方面。

还必须俱足哪 五个条件呢?

[1]我说话适时与否?

[2]我说话真实与否?

[3]我说话柔和还是粗俗?

[4]我说话有益与否?

[5]我说话具有慈爱还是有内在的恶意?

比丘们呀,想要教诫他人的比丘,应该先从这五个方面审查自己合格,同时还要俱足后面的 五个条件。

——《增支部 V》

 

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有