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日记 [2007年12月09日]

(2007-12-09 17:04:27)
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 Christmas in USA 

The United States is a blend of various different cultures and nowhere is this more apparent than in their celebration of Christmas which incorporates many different elements - carols from England and Australia, trees from Germany, Santa Claus from Europe and parades from Latin America - and it seems that nearly every family has it's own unique Christmas traditions.

One custom in parts of South West America is for people to light the way to their doors with 'luminaries'. These are paper bags with designs cut out of the sides and a candle placed inside. Paths are lined with the bags and after dark the candles are lit to show the way to the door.

In San Antonio, Texas these lights are placed along the River Walk, a paved walkway alongside the San Antonio River, and an old custom known as 'Las Posadas' is acted out. Two young people, representing Mary and Joseph, follow the luminaries up to a house and knock on the door. However, there is no room in the house so they move onto the next one. This is repeated several times until someone finally lets them in. Everyone then sings carols and eats the food provided by the 'innkeeper'.

In San Felipe Pueblo, 35 miles south of Santa Fe, Christmas Eve is celebrated by a unique dance. Following the sermon, dancers dressed in masks, animal skins, feathers, coral, shells, turquoise and head dresses with real antlers perform the deer, turtle, eagle and buffalo dances in front of the altar. Women carry a sprig of hakak, the sacred spruce tree, which represents eternal life and which they believed helped to create mankind.

Palm trees are decorated in Hawaii and fragrant flower leis are hung around the indoor Christmas trees. In many shopping centres 'Menehunes', the legendary little people who are supposed to have been the first inhabitants of Hawaii, are displayed.

In the run up to Christmas most houses and streets are decorated with Christmas trees and lots of coloured lights. The sound of carols and Christmas songs can be heard everywhere - especially in shops and in many parts of the US carollers will go from house to house singing Christmas songs.

Children write letters to Santa Claus, telling him what presents they would like to receive for Christmas, and many stores have their own 'Santa' for children to meet. Connecticut has a Christmas village where Santa and his elves give out gifts and in New York there is a small town called the North Pole, which was designed for Santa Claus and which has a post office, a church and a blacksmith shop to repair the shoes of the reindeer.

Christmas cards are sent to friends and relatives and most homes will have a tree which is decorated with lights, tinsel and lots of colourful ornaments - many of them handmade over the years. Presents are placed under the tree ready to be opened on Christmas Day.

Many people attend church services on Christmas Eve or Christmas Morning. The churches are decorated with evergreens, poinsettias and scenes of the Nativity.

After the evening service on Christmas Eve, the family will gather together and adults often drink eggnog - a drink made of cream, milk, sugar, beaten eggs and brandy or rum. 'The Night Before Christmas' is read to children before they go to bed to await the arrival of Santa Claus, who arrives in a sleigh pulled by reindeer. Stockings are hung up so that Santa can fill them with candy, fruit and other small gifts.

The traditional Christmas Dinner is eaten on Christmas Day. This usually consists of roast turkey (or goose), mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and a variety of other dishes. Desserts include mince pies, pumpkin pie, plum pudding and fruitcake.

There is a great variety of food eaten at this time of year: New England has Lumberjack Pie (a mashed potato crust, filled with meats, onion and cinnamon; North Carolina has Moravian Love-Feast Buns (faintly sweet bread of flour and mashed potatoes); Baltimore serves Sauerkraut (which includes apples, onions and carrots) with their turkey and Southern states have Hominy Grits Souffl?and Whisky Cake (with 100% proof whisky). Louisiana's treat is Creole Gumbo (which can include ham, veal, chicken, shrimp, oysters and crabmeat) and New Mexico has Empanaditas - little beef pies with applesauce pine nuts and raisins.

Many American traditional desserts, like other Christmas customs, were started long ago in other parts of the world - Crostoli, a fried bread spiced with orange peel, is made in Italian-American communities; German-Americans eat Pfeffernuesse, a bread full of sweet spices; doughnuts are a holiday offering in many Ukrainian-American homes and Norwegian-Americans eat Berlinerkranser, which is a wreath-shaped cookie.
圣诞节在美国

美国是一个融合各种不同文化和行不通的,这更加明显比他们庆祝圣诞节,其中包含了许多不同的要素-颂歌来自英国和澳洲,树木和来自德国,圣诞老人从欧洲和巡游来自拉丁美洲-这看来,几乎每个家庭有它自身的独特的圣诞传统。

其中定制部分地区的美国西部,是为人民,以因应方式,以自己的门与'名人' 。这些都是纸袋与设计剪下的两侧和蜡烛放在里面。路径内衬同袋,以及天黑以后蜡烛亮起,以显示方式,以大门。

在德克萨斯州圣安东尼奥,这些灯都放在沿江步行,铺设行人道,伴随着圣安东尼奥河,旧习俗称为'拉斯维加斯波萨达斯' ,是出于。两位年轻的人,玛丽和约瑟夫,走名人了,一府叩门。不过,有没有空间,在众院中,使他们进入下一个。这是反复多次,直到有人终于让他们。每一个人,然后唱颂歌和吃食物提供的' innkeeper ' 。

在圣费利佩pueblo的, 35以南180公里处的圣菲,圣诞前夕庆祝一种独特的舞蹈。继讲道中,舞者身着口罩,动物毛皮,皮革,珊瑚,贝壳,绿松石和头部衫裙与实质鹿角履行鹿,龟,鹰和水牛舞前的祭坛上。妇女携带小枝的hakak ,神圣云杉树,它代表着永恒的生命和他们认为有助于创造人类。

棕榈树装饰,在夏威夷和芳香花卉leis是红周围的室内圣诞树。在很多商场' menehunes ' ,是传说中很少人是为了得到第一个居民的夏威夷,均显示。

在临近圣诞节最房子和街道上装饰着圣诞树和地段的五彩灯光。声乐曲和圣诞歌曲,可以听到到处-尤其是在商店和许多地方的美国c arollers会去挨家挨户唱圣诞歌曲。

孩子写信给圣诞老人,告诉他什么礼物,他们希望获得的圣诞节,许多商店都有自己的'圣' ,为孩子们见面。康涅狄格州有一个圣诞村圣诞老人和他的精灵给予了礼物和在纽约有一个小镇叫北极,这是专为圣诞老人,其中有一个邮局,一所教堂和一个铁匠店,以修理皮鞋的驯鹿。

圣诞贺卡送到朋友和亲人,大多数家庭将有树饰有灯光,金属丝和大量精美的饰物-他们中的许多人手工多年来。礼物都放在圣诞树下随时可以开圣诞日。

很多人参加教会服务于圣诞节前夕或圣诞节早上。该教堂装饰着常, poinsettias和场景的nativity 。

后晚间服务于圣诞前夕,家人将相聚一堂,和成年人经常饮用eggnog -喝了奶油,牛奶,糖,打鸡蛋和白兰地或朗姆酒。 '夜圣诞节前'是阅读儿童后,他们去睡觉了迎候的圣诞老人,谁抵在sleigh所拉扯驯鹿。丝袜挂了,让圣诞老人可以填补他们糖果,水果和其他小礼品。

传统的圣诞晚餐吃圣诞日。这通常包括烤火鸡(或鹅) ,马铃薯泥,蔓越莓酱及其他各种菜肴。甜点包括直言不讳的馅饼,南瓜饼,梅花糕和fruitcake 。

有丰富,形式多样的食物吃在每年的这个时候:新英格兰地区有樵夫饼(一捣碎的马铃薯地壳,洋溢着肉,洋葱及肉桂;北卡罗来纳州已摩拉维亚爱情盛宴包(依稀甜面包的面粉和土豆泥) ;巴尔的摩服务酸菜汁(其中包括苹果,洋葱和红萝卜) ,与土耳其和南部各州有hominy糁souffl ?和威士忌蛋糕(百分之一百证明威士忌酒) 。路易斯安那州的对待是克里奥尔gumbo (可包括火腿,小牛肉,鸡肉,虾,牡蛎和crabmeat )和新墨西哥empanaditas -小牛肉馅饼与苹果泥松子和葡萄干。

许多美国传统甜点,像其他的圣诞节习俗,早已开始在世界其他地区-c rostoli,一个油炸面包五香与桔皮,是在意大利-美国社区;德语美国人吃p feffernuesse,一个面包充满甜香料;体检是一个假期开办,在许多乌克兰-美国家庭和挪威裔美国人吃berlinerkranser ,这是一个花圈形曲奇。

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