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恐怖摄影--威金

(2006-10-11 08:23:31)
分类: 林泉自多兴

恐怖摄影--威金

(具体图片,可以看我的相册)

1974年,乔—彼特·威金作为一个自由摄影师的助手,在一所艺术学校的雕塑专业中获得了艺术学士学位。1975年,他离开了令他厌恶的城市纽约,在那里他曾经花了八年的时间,完成了一个私人主题,一个关于基督教的系列,“源于所有人类的生活”。他定居于辽阔的新墨西哥州,干燥而阳光充足。在阿尔伯克基,他希望开始新的生活,以及新的关于身体的作品创作。这次向美国西南的迁移,的确影响了他的生活方式和思想方式。他在新墨西哥州大学关于摄影史的研究,以及和其他摄影家的联系,对他产生了重大的影响。他的摄影观点,在本质上发生了转变。当时他的一位同事这样描述说,威金的新照片,将我们带入“深度,在发现自己的过程中,唤醒了我们的人性意识”。1976年,威金将这一系列作品命名为“反叛神秘”,展现了一位艺术家逐渐深入探索的过程。
In 1974, Joel-Peter Witkin, while working as a freelance photographer's assistant, obtained his Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in sculpture at the Cooper Union School of Art. In 1975, he left the trying city of New York where he had spent almost eight years working on a personal project, a series on Christ, the incarnation of God, the abso-lute creator, and on Woman, "source of all human life." He settled in vast New Mexico, the dry and sunny forty-seventh state of the Union. In Albuquerque, he hoped to start both a new life and a new body of work. This move to the American southwest influenced his way of life and thought. His studies of photographic history at the University of New Mexico and relationships with other photographers had an even greater effect on him. His pho-tographic viewpoints - in the mental, not the spatial sense of the word - were thus deeply changed. As one of his colleagues wrote at the time, Witkin's new photographs bring us to "the depths that a conscious man can probe in his search to find himself and what makes us human beings.1" In 1976, Witkin titled his thesis Revolt Against the Mystical. It explains his devotion to photography and traces his start as an artist, step by step.
在纽约的日子里,威金与摄影和艺术圈几乎完全隔绝,沉浸在自我的探索和渴望之中。在这一时期,威金只是崇尚奥古斯特·桑德的作品,包括《20世纪的人民》,《我们时代的脸》,以及摄影家死后出版的《不带面具的人》。威金不仅赞赏桑德聚焦于同时代人的勇气,同时也折服于他所擅长的揭开所有虚伪装饰的能力。
During his New York years, when he was cut off from photography's intellectual and artistic circles, he preferred to isolate himself in order to shape his aspirations and experiences. At the time, Witkin admired only August Sander (1876-1964), who photographed People of the Twentieth Century, a series mostly completed during the 1920s, as well as Faces of our Times7 and the posthumous Men Without Masks.3 For Sander, time and space were intangible and the human mind unfamiliar, but Witkin admired his ability to focus on the individuality of his contemporaries, and, more specifically, to successfully remove each of their masks in the medium of his choice.
威金只能看到他身边的人戴着面具,并且以同样的方式看着他。他感到虚幻,就像是一个幻觉的疑问。在他试图解释一切真相的过程中,反而陷入了迷茫和混乱,从而选择了以基督教为拍摄主题。当时他也不知晓霍兰德·戴尔曾经以自拍摄方式,完成过一系列基督受难的作品。到了20世纪70年代末,威金的作品才在艺术世界赢得了声望,并且以其作品独具一格的特色而闻名。他经常在作品中融入艺术史的知识,如米罗,戈雅,卡诺瓦,鲁本斯,库尔贝等,加上强烈的情感,不管是精神上的还是肉体上的。加上他所选择的肥胖的女性模特儿所进行的实验,令人想起埃德伍德·麦布里奇的《运动中的人体》。
Witkin could only see his fellow man as masked and saw himself in the same way. He felt unreal, like an illusion made of questions. At the time, Sander's work was his only foray into the history of photography. In his search for a revelation, a divine truth that would put an end to his confusion and suffering, he photographed Christ. He was not yet familiar with F. Holland Day's surprising series of crucifixions, the self-portraits of the pictorialist esthete on the cross. At the end of the 1970s, Witkin fervently began to produce the photographs that would win him fame in the art world, allowing him to work exclusively as a photographer. He often mixed his knowledge of art history (Miro. Goya, Canova, Rubens, Archimboldo, Courbet) with his concerns and intense impulses, whether spiritual or existential. Thus, a corpulent woman whom he takes as a model recalls for him a study by the ingenious photographer of The Human Figure in Motion, Eadweard Muybridge. whom he decides to use a reference.
他的作品在世界重要的画廊展出,包括巴黎,旧金山,纽约。一些国际化的博物馆也使他声名远扬,或者声名狼藉。收藏者蜂拥而至,他的作品有限版本一般只印制15幅,许多作品很快售罄,包括:吻,疗养院,收获等。
He adds to it a transsexual and entitles it Alternates for Muybridge (1984). He was so successful that important galleries in Paris (Texbraun, 1982), San Francisco (Fraenkel Gallery, 1982), and New York (Pace/MacGiII, 1984) showed his work. At the same time, museums (Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1983; Aspen Art Museum. 1985; San Francisco Museum of Modem Art, 1985) established his notoriety and internationalized his fame in no time. Collectors instantly appre-ciated his major works, which were printed in editions limited to fifteen copies. These sold out shortly after being made available to the public, and included Bee Boy (1981), Bird of Queveda (1982), The Kiss (1982), Sanitarium (1983), Harvest (1984), and The Result of War: Cornucopian Dog (1984).
从摄影的初创时期起,新媒体和绘画的对话就已经开始,摄影和绘画一直有着剪不断的关联。
From the very invention of photography, a dialogue began between the new medium and painting. It was some-times a dialogue that fell on deaf ears, sometimes a dialogue between rivals, sometimes a dialogue between allies in the human attempt to represent, express and elevate. The best among the early photographers, such as Charles Negre, Edouard-Denis Baldus, Henri Ie Secq and Gustave Le Gray, had received training in painting. They were the first to establish the legitimacy of an art that did not unanimously compare to traditional fine art. but that was already charming less conservative art enthusiasts. Later, a great number of painters, from Eugene Delacroix to Francis Bacon, modeled their work after, or drew inspiration from photographs and photographers, from Roger Fenton to Aaron Siskind. They integrated pictorial works into the genesis of their own creations. Some painters used photography as a simple reference, as an aide-memoire, while others, for whom it was a revelation, let pho-tography develop in their own imagination; they did not consider it a reality or an objective truth, imposed by Nature, but an element of art. Photographers used paintings as models for composition, either in relation to light or to graphics, as Oscar Gustav Rejiander. who borrowed the equilibrium of Raphael's The School of Athens for his The Two Ways of Life, for which he used approximately thirty negatives. Others were inspired by a motif or a pictorial theme, which they transposed into their universe. Julia Margaret Cameron integrated Caravaggio. Tintoretto and the Pre-Raphaelites, whom she admired so much. into her own photographic ecstasies.
摄影不久就被人们认为具有虚构能力,和绘画一样。威金也许就是这样一个典型的例子,他的摄影无可避免地受到了绘画和雕塑的影响。他同样完成了摄影和绘画的对话:甚至摄影的历史并不长,然而其丰富性足以和绘画并存。
Photography was soon recognized as fiction, as painting was itself. Joel-Peter Witkin is the perfect example of a photographer who has been inspired by and trained in painting and sculpture. He has used his background as both a formal and spiritual model, liberating himself from it to give his thoughts and visions the imperious form they require. He has the same dialogue with photography that he has with the fine arts: even though the history of photography is not a long one, it has been as rich as painting over the century and a half of their coexistence. Let us add that Witkin does not integrate works from the past in a for-tuitous, but a continuous way. He thus refers to Masaccio as much as to Miro, to Lewis Carroll as much as to Man Ray, without ever yielding to the mermaid song of any form of academicism. The commercial supremacy of painting has never impressed this demiurge.
他在变化的过程中浓缩了一切。然而他的摄影视觉是无可匹敌的,他对自己的视觉有着足够的理解。他将情感的表达变为有形,通过他所选择的媒体可视化,同时也使情绪变得可视化。
He concentrates on his transmutations. While his photographic vision remains unmatched, he appreciates and understands the visions of his peers. He can give concrete expression to an emotion, make it visible through his chosen media, but he can also be affected by the emotions visualized by others. He feels grateful and expresses this gratitude. His own obsessions and personal quest are so strong that he can fully acknowledge his references and partnerships. What's more. as an heir, he acknowledges the syn-cretist nature of his photography, a nature that moreover helps him to reach the height of art.
在他的宇宙观中包含了两种重要的成分:宗教和神性。威金承认第三才是艺术,并且补充说:“当我还是孩子时,同年龄的朋友在交易棒球卡片,而我收藏绘画复制品。只要有可能,我就会坐地铁到曼哈顿看博物馆展出。”他补充说,他生活在一个艺术家的家庭,将他们比喻为布道者:“对于我来说,艺术家具有无比的神圣感。我将他们和圣人放在同等的地位。他们的目的就是使我们的心灵净化。我理解创造力是一种提炼的行为,一种神圣化的类型。艺术的目标在于自我实现。于是就和宗教、神性以及审美相关。”正如威金所承认的:“我只拍摄我所信仰的东西,如果我展现死亡,就是因为我承认这样一种真实的力量所在,不是想象的作品可以复制的,甚至不是米开朗琪罗或者达芬奇的作品。那些经典的作品不管如何精彩,只是人类精神的复制品,而真实的肉体,生活或死亡,才是上帝的创造。”

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