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动画的12条基本原理(2)【翻译】

(2006-11-14 01:49:07)

Anticipation 动作预备

Action in animation usually occurs in three sections. The setup for the motion, the actual action and then follow-through of the action. The first part is known as anticipation.

 

角色的动作一般分为三个阶段:运动的准备阶段,动作实施阶段,和动作跟随阶段。第一个个阶段就是所说的动作预备。

 

In some cases anticipation is needed physically. For example, before you can throw a ball you must first swing your arm backwards. The backwards motion is the anticipation, the throw itself is the motion.

 

有些情况动作预备是根据物理运动规律需要这样做。比如说在你投掷一个球之前必然要先向后弯曲你的手臂获得足够的势能。这个向后的动作就是预备动作,投掷就是动作本身。

 

Anticipation is used to lead the viewers eye to prepare them for the action that follows. Generally, a longer period of anticipation is needed for faster actions. If you think about cartoons, you've probably seen cases where a character zips off screen leaving a puff of smoke. Usually just before the zip, there is a pose where the characters raises a leg and bends both arms as if he's about to run. That's the anticipation pose for the off screen run.

 

动作预备一般用来引导观众的视线趋向即将发生的动作。所以常见的一个长时间的预备动作意味着下面的动作速度会非常快。如果你注意观察卡通片,你可能会遇到类似的情况,角色先是预备奔跑的样子,然后一溜烟地急速消失。角色在奔跑前,通常会先抬起一条腿,弯曲他的胳膊即使他马上就开跑了。这就是常见的动作预备。

 

Generally, for good clear animation, the viewer should know what is about happen (anticipation), what is happening (the actual action itself) and what happened (related to follow through).

总之,一个好的动画应该让观众明白什么是将要发生的(动作预备),什么是正在发生的(动作本身),和已经发生的(类似于动作跟随)。

 

Most body movements of a character require anticipation in some form, especially from rest. For example, before a character takes a step to walk, they must shift their weight on one leg so they can lift the other, another example of anticipation.

 

角色身体的绝大多数运动都需要某种形式的动作预备阶段。特别是从静到动的运动状态的转变。比方说,在角色开始走的时候,他们肯定要先转移自身的中心到一条腿上,这样他们才能抬起另外一条腿。

Exaggeration 夸张

Exaggeration is used to accent an action. It should be used in a careful and balanced manner, not arbitrarily. Figure out what the desired goal of an action or sequence is and what sections need to be exaggerated. The result will be that the animation will seem more realistic and entertaining.

 

动作上的夸张处理一般用来强调动作的突然性。这个原则应该根据实际需要适当的运用,不能随便使用,否则会适得其反。制作者应该首先清楚动作的目的性,剧情需要是什么,以及决定哪个阶段需要动作上的夸张处理。适当的夸张会让动画看起来更可信更有趣。

 

One can exaggerate motions, for example an arm may move just a bit too far briefly in an extreme swing. A pose can be exaggerated, perhaps the characters leans just a bit farther than normal. Generally when animating to dialogue, one listens to the track and picks out areas that sound like they have more stress or importance, and then tends to exaggerate poses and motions that fall at those times.

 

角色的动作过程是可以夸张的,譬如可以让胳膊摆动过程中抖动的很厉害。某一个POSE也可以夸张,比如让角色比正常情况下倾斜很多。在制作对话过程中,动画师要仔细辨认出音轨里重音强调的地方,然后据此配合一些夸张的动作或者运动来强调这些部分。

 

The key is to take something and make it more extreme in order to give it more life, but not so much that it destroys believability.

 

做好“夸张”的处理关键要让被夸张的部分发挥到极致,赋予它们活力,但要适度,否则会让人觉得很假。

 

*note that in many cases, subtlety is good. Subtle action mixed with exaggeration here and there can make for some of the best acting and animation. The first sample above is almost scarier because it's so subtle...he seems mad, but somewhat controlled...you're not sure if he is going to explode. However, it could probably use a bit more motion on the spine. The second sample is more exaggerated and might fit within the context of a larger animation, especially if it was more cartoony.

 

注意:

在很多情况下,正常的动作状态也是必要的。 正常状态下的动作夹杂着一些适当的夸张,是优秀动画必不可少的出彩的部分。上面的第一个例子可以看出角色已经有些愤怒了,看上去角色是发狂了,但在努力的控制情绪,你不清楚他将要什么时候爆发,动作上只是在躯干上做了些弯曲。第二个例子里则夸张的多,根据上下镜头动作的特点决定使用多大的夸张程度,特别是动作类型是不是卡通风格的。

 

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