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仁青拉姆论藏英文明

(2019-08-12 11:36:33)
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仁青拉姆

我们藏人

藏英文明

仁青拉姆论藏英文明
辛世彪
 

仁青拉姆的We Tibetans(《我们藏人》)原书难找,但因其影响较大,书中内容也常被西方人摘录,见诸报端。1934年《悉尼邮报》刊登了此书部分内容(Sydney Mail, Wednesday 26 December 1934, page 43)。此段题为“Your Civilisation and Ours”(汪今鸾中译本作“尔我之文化”),出自原书第二部分第六章,反映了仁青拉姆对东西方生活的观察以及她对藏英民族个性、文化对比的深刻见解。这也是给她在西方带来巨大声誉以及此书历久不衰的缘由之一。读了这一段我们可以理解,庆路易何以面对压力,宁可失去外交官的职位,也不肯放弃仁青拉姆这个有才华、善思考的藏族女子。可惜她28岁就因病去世,不然会给世界贡献更多精彩内容。

仁青拉姆论藏英文明

以下中英对照列出此段,中译文来汪今鸾译本(中译本名《西藏风俗志》或《余之西藏观》,商务印书馆1931年10月版),字体、标点一仍其旧,段落序号为笔者所加。

Your Civilisation and Ours

尔我之文化

1. I suppose our distant country holds little of interest for your public except for what of the strange can be written about it, and so you get a strange picture of us. The most absurd and the most scandalous things are said about us, and there is no one to contradict them. However, your writers often contradict each other. One will say we are an astute and crafty people; another, that we are dull and stupid. One, that the Tibetan is hopelessly lazy: another, that he is the best of workers. And sometimes a writer will even contradict himself.

作者猜度藏為遠國,貴國民眾對之本無甚關懷,非將其國內之奇形怪狀舉其若干者不能引人注意,因此之故,英人描寫西藏竟成一種怪現狀,其說西藏也,均極可笑極損人名譽之事,然而無一人反對者。惟此輩著作家往往互相矛盾,有謂吾族為奸猾、為機巧,有謂之為呆木、為不仁,有謂藏人為無希望的懶漢,有則指為極勤生活者。有時一著作本身所說,尚且自行鑿枘。

2. There was an instance of this in the recent visit of a party of lamas to Europe. One writer described them as being frightened by the marvels of Western material culture, but he goes on to, say that one of them said you were in danger of being enslaved by your own machines. That is not the remark of a man in fear, but of an acute observer. I wonder the journalist did not see it; but I suppose he was misled by the convention about us being primitive. A primitive people ought to be alarmed by such wonders, and so on. But we are not a primitive people. We are neither primitive nor bizarre. We are, like yourselves, a people with a highly developed culture, spiritual, social, and material.

例如新近有一喇嘛團體,往歐考察,某作者描寫此輩震驚歐陸物質文明之千奇百怪,接謂內有一喇嘛,謂歐人將被自身機器所奴隸,危險堪虞,如此批評,其人並非震驚,實為尖銳的觀察者,作者殊怪此位新聞主筆何以明不及此,意其必為一般習語所誤會,認吾人實為太古式的民族。太古民族一旦對此巧奪天工的物質當然駭愕不置。第吾人並非太古式也。既非原始人類,亦無奇形怪狀之足言,吾藏民族猶夫爾之民族,文化、宗教、社會與物質,均發達甚高。

3. Our minds are no less active, our wits ho less keen, than yours. In stature and strength the Tibetan is the equal of the Englishman. Big men standing six feet or more in height are common in Kham. Ours is a wonderful climate. The air is clear and invigorating, and our country beautiful. The Tibetan character is in tune with the environment. There is nothing mean about our people. Sunshine is constant in our land and is reflected in the Tibetan soul. We have health of mind and body. There are very few weaklings among us, and hardly any lunatics and hysterical people such as you have in such numbers.

吾人之心靈,活潑靈敏不減於他人,吾人智識之尖銳亦無遜於爾,身材與力量不下於英人,軀幹偉岸者挺然高過六尺。喀姆人(辛按:康人/西康人)一般一如是也。吾人氣候常不可思議,空氣清潔宜於養生,能壯心神,國中美境舉世無匹,藏人特性實與其環境相應契合,在吾民族之中絕少卑鄙惡劣之行,太陽時刻照臨西藏,而藏人之魂靈實反射之。吾人心身強健,極少任何弱點,如許民眾絕少癲狂錯亂之人如爾英國者。

4. The Tibetan is a cheerful worker, vigorous and thorough. We do not fuss about something that has to be done, but do it and have done with it. We laugh at dull wits and slow hands, and find it wearisome just to see a lazy or a dull fellow at work. Why does he not get on with it? One feels like shaking him or doing the work for him. Of the man who is always saying he is going to do something and never does it we say he is like the grasshopper which, in the cold of the night, resolves it will build itself a house the very next day; but, the morrow arrived, it hops about gaily in the warm sunshine with its resolution forgotten.

吾族人心身活潑,舒暢快樂,為最強毅果敢透徹始終的工作者,凡事在所必行者,對之絕無騷鬧,惟行之爾徹底成之。吾人對麻木不仁的智慧,及遲鈍的手腕,常竊笑焉。視懶漢及呆人工作,每覺厭惡不堪,怪其何以對所事不能進步,或且為之震怒,欲取其事而代之。(作者自離祖國以來,往往有此感觸。)吾人謂懶漢食如豬,作如蟲,男子對於進行之事絕不工作者,吾人呼之為蚱蜢。蓋蚱蜢每當寒夜,決於次晨自建一巢,及朝複在暖日之下歡欣跳躍,昨夜所決之策業已忘之。

5. But our work is so different from much of yours. It is mostly work on farm or ranch under the open sky, and the material objects of our use are made at home, between times, at leisure. We have not your commercial and industrial system wherein men and women work to a set programme all day long indoors.

吾人之工作與爾輩所事者如此懸殊,大部分均為露天日下之耕種、遊牧,吾人所需物品每值耕牧之余,制諸家庭之內,吾人無工商業上之組織,使男婦遵照一定程式工作,終日蟄居室中。

6. We have not your passion for tidiness and system, which seems to pervade your lives, at work and at play. We do not plan out our days in advance and live according to a time-table, hurrying from this thing to that. We have more time to do what we want to,- what comes into our minds at the moment, than you. We take things as they come, living a life less flurried, less trammelled than yours.

吾人不似爾之性情,工作遊戲必求整齊而有組織,此種性情似英人已貫徹平生。吾人不企圖現代以外之進步,不生活於時間表內,從此一事匆匆又趕到他事。吾人對於欲行之事,其時間較爾為多,而此欲行之事即隨時入吾心目中者,畢生生活,不似爾之騷擾,爾之桎梏。

7. Our ethical standard is as high as yours. We believe in our religion, and endeavour to guide our lives by the will of Heaven. We believe that Heaven notes everything you do and that what you do of ill brings retribution, and what of good, reward; that what you do and think makes you what you are and will be in future lives.

倫理之上程度,吾人何下於爾,吾人信仰吾宗教,企圖以天心護吾人之生母。吾人深信一切動作均在上天洞察之中,爾所行如惡,罰斯來矣,所行如善,償斯及矣。凡爾所思所作為如何,則爾現在必如何,將來之身世亦必如何。

8. Our people are good-humoured, laughter-loving, loyal, and honest; they do not try to overreach each other, and men bad of heart are rare. We have none of your social unrest. Men are not jealous of people in better circumstances. We believe good fortune or ill fortune alike to be the result of conduct in past lives. One man succeeds in everything he undertakes; another, equally capable and diligent, fails in everything. The one is reaping the reward of past good deeds, the other is suffering for past ill deeds. There is no bitterness or hatred. In the next life the two may possibly change places. Punishment and reward, good fortune, or ill fortune are decreed by Heaven. We are, from your point of view, an unworldly people. Our religion enjoins it, and our priesthood sets the example. We do not consider it right to struggle for material things, even to have things our neighbour cannot have. Heaven has been kind to our country, giving us room for all and food for all. Wealth and rank are not the subjects uppermost in the Tibetan mind. We have not your incessant struggle and stress and strain, your race after wealth and your fear of poverty.

吾民族溫厚而好笑,忠誠而公正,不思彼此互相欺詐,壞心地者絕少,似爾社會之騷擾吾人所無,對於處境素豐之人,亦無妒忌之念,自信好運壞運均為前生行為之結果,一人所興作事事成功,他一人智慧勤奮相等,而所事輒失敗,則其一為前生行善獲報之結果,一為前生作惡今世受磨,蒙不幸者絕無悲哀痛恨之念,蓋來世此二人或彼此易地,賞與罰,幸運與顛連,均自天降之。

9. There is, indeed, no wealth in the country as you understand the term. One man has more horses and cattle than another, more land, more grain. He can employ more servants, and so on. But the mode of life of the one and of the other is much the same, for there is a limit to the amount of food a man can eat, of clothes he can wear, of servants he can use. We have not the many ways of spending money which mark with you the gulf between wealth and poverty. With us the rich man necessarily lives much as the poor man does. The rich man in Tibet would be a poor man abroad. He would find it difficult to raise the money necessary to maintain the standard of living enjoyed by very ordinary people in your country. The cost of a big motor-car would swallow up an estate.

藏確無富者,為爾所盡悉,所謂富不過多馬若干,多牛幾匹,田地稍廣,米谷稍豐,用人較眾,如此如此,而生活上之習慣,則貧富仍極其一律。蓋一人所食之量有限,所著之衣有限,所用之人亦有限。吾人於金錢之用場,門道無多,金錢一物,在爾族貧富間介然如鴻溝者也,在吾藏則富人之生活實際與窮民無二致。西藏之所謂富人,不過外國之窮漢。爾國中極普通人起碼生活上之需要,藏人對之已覺難於舉措,一大汽車之價,即足抵吾藏一家之產。

10. Yet in the essentials our material culture is the equal of yours. The average Tibetan house is better than the average I have seen in my travels. Our clothes are as durable and convenient as yours, and look better. Our food is varied and healthy. We have all the material things we require. Our craftsmen are skilled, and the objects they make are a pleasure to the eye and enduring. They are all made by hand. You also seem to prefer hand-made things.

然其實際吾人物質文明與爾蓋不相上下。藏人房屋之平均,較吾離國後所見各方面者實有過之而無不及。吾人之衣耐久而便無遜於爾,抑且外觀較勝。吾人所食花樣不同,均有益於衛生,一切所需物質,吾人應有盡有。藏之匠人手業極精,所制之物,既悅目而耐久,均為手工所制。手工物亦爾所贊同者也。

11. Civilisation is not bound up in material things. A civilised people must have a sufficiency of them, and that is all. We have. You have more than that. You have a great many things we have not — wonderful things. Your electricity and the various uses to which it is put, your steamers and trains, and motor-cars and aeroplanes, especially your machines of all kinds. I am never tired of looking at your machines — what each does and how it does it. It is fascinating. And your astonishing radio! I am lost in admiration of such an ingenious thing. It is really marvellous that people should have thought out such wonderful things. Then there are the thousands of beautiful and useful objects in your shops. You are indeed wonderful to have produced all this wealth of material culture.

文明之界限並非止於物質而已,文明民族之所需要第求足以供其用,苟能足用,斯亦已矣。吾人之所需已是應有而盡有,爾國之所需實過於其必要之界限,大多事物為爾所有者,吾人均無之,窮工絕巧之物,如電氣,如各種電氣之用場,如輪船,如火車,如汽車,如飛機。尤其是各種機器緣何用場,何由至此,此誠蠱惑人心之物,如爾之無線電,亦屬駭人聽聞。在鄉下茅舍之中,吾人可以耳聽音樂,其音樂之發源遠出於倫敦,作者對此巧奪天工之物不禁為之驚歎,人類乃能運用其思想至此,實至不可思議!市鋪之中,美麗而有用之事物為數千萬萬,爾民族確為振奇人也!凡諸物質文明之富產,均為爾族之所發育。

12. But there is another aspect of the matter. People can do without these things, but if they are there everyone naturally wants them, and so life becomes very expensive. And most people cannot afford many of these things they want. They work and work and work, and yet do not get them. Few can attain luxuries, but all want them. Wealth means that you may have them, poverty that you may not; if you have them you are respected by everybody; if you have not, you are thought of little consequence. So wealth becomes the goal of endeavour, and men's minds are taken off other things we consider more important. And some people in their struggle for wealth or fear of poverty set aside the principles of right living, even of humanity, sacrificing their souls to this strange god whom we have not.

雖然,就其另一方面言,奇技淫巧非本民族所必需,惟既有此物,自然人人欲之矣,由是而生活上之程度遂極其耗費,大部分人能力不足以及此者,均有欲得之心,工作,工作復工作,乃終不能達到此目的。供養奢侈,僅有少數人得之,其餘多數人則惟過屠門而大嚼。富之意義謂能得奢靡之事事物物也,貧之意義則不能得也,一得此物則人人尊崇,不得則人人視之為無結果。於是而富之一字,乃為人生奮勉之鵠。然而人類心靈中有另一事,吾人視之較為重要,卻被棄而不顧。若干民族在其競富畏貧之中,將合理生活之原則置諸腦後,不顧人格,犧牲其精神,以求達到其所未得所崇拜之異物焉。

13. Your inventors have thrown amongst you a host of wonderful things and the people scramble for them, and with each new thing the struggle gets fiercer; but this does not mean the things are bad in themselves. They are not. For instance, your motor-car is comfortable and swift, and it is mechanical. It entails no hardship upon a living creature, such as riding a horse does; so you have not the guilt towards Heaven of subordinating the interests of a dumb creature to your own. You may treat a horse with all consideration. We do, for the Tibetan loves his horse; but it is here to be ridden, to be used, and riding it is in itself a hardship upon it. But riding it is not so bad as making it pull a cart. We have no carriages or carts in Tibet. I was shocked the first time I saw a horse pulling a carriage, and it was a long time before I could bring myself to sit in one. I see, of course, it is only a question of degree; but that does not remove the distaste of it.

爾國之發明家,將如許奇異事物擲諸人山人海之中,使族人爭先奪取,新奇之物每一發現,競爭亦隨之而愈劇烈。此其意並非物質本身之不良,蓋物質原無所謂不良也。今且將爾之運輸與吾人之運輸列一譬喻,則馬與汽車是也。汽車安穩而快,且為機器的,不與牲口一困難之重任,如騎馬之類,故爾不獲戾於上天,因不奪此默默無言的牲口的利益而據為己有。吾人蓋騎馬者,因藏人愛馬,是以藏地均騎馬,用馬。騎在馬上馬固負有重責,然比驅之拖車則較略勝。在藏無馬車,當吾人見馬拖車之第一次,心田為之震盪,久而久之,始能一置身馬車之內,作者固知以馬拖車與騎馬其相去不過程度上之問題,惟總覺不能去其厭惡之心。

14. The motor is a great improvement upon the horse as a mode of conveyance, but it is not within the reach of all of you; whereas almost every Tibetan can have a horse to ride. This illustrates a point of importance. The things of your material culture are not available to you all; the things of ours are to us all. Even a Tibetan who is so poor as to have to be someone's servant rides his master's horses. We have a saying that when a Chinese is ruined he uses his shoes as a pillow; a Tibetan is ruined and he rides a white horse. It means the Tibetan hires himself out as a servant and still has a horse.

汽車發現,使以馬為運輸唯一工具者大為改進。第此亦非爾族中人人所能辦到,而吾藏則幾人有一馬。在此層顯示一種重要的意義。則爾物質文明中之事事物物非人人可得而有,而吾藏之事事物物則人皆有之。藏人雖至貧為人僕,亦有其主之馬可乘。吾人有言:“漢人失敗後以鞋作枕,而藏人與彼同騎一白馬焉。”其意則謂藏人已雇漢人為僕,而仍與之馬乘。

15. The things of your material culture are very desirable in themselves and the spirit that produced them is beyond praise; but people should not misuse them nor struggle for them. The more desirable they are, the greater the merit in renouncing them. Perhaps they are there just to be renounced. No, it can hardly be that; but they are certainly not to be misused. Perhaps that is the test which Heaven has put to you.

吾人對於爾之物質文明其著眼則猶是,事物之本身固甚可欲者,發明此物之精神亦至堪嘉尚,惟不宜誤用此物,亦不宜因此物而競爭,事物之愈為人可欲者,能拒絕之則其功績亦愈大,意者,此類事事物物其將遭人之拒絕乎?曰,是不然,此蓋絕無而僅有,且決不至被人誤用,上天取以試驗爾歐人者或在此。

16. You are rightly proud of your material culture, but you must not think peoples without it are necessarily uncivilised. Civilisations and material culture are not one and the same. Your peasants have but few of the things your townsmen enjoy, yet they are no less civilised; they might, indeed, be more. It is a question of spiritual outlook.

爾引物質文明以自豪固為正當,第無謂民族之缺乏此物質者不免入於野蠻之列,文化之與物質文明,原非一事,不相同也。爾國之市民所享用者,農民取得為數有幾。然而農民之文化不減于市民,或且確實過之,此精神觀察上之問題也。


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