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亚特兰蒂斯的理论2

(2006-10-21 20:19:12)
分类: 转贴

Atlas
阿特拉斯

By Egyptian record, Keftiu was destroyed by the seas in an apocalypse. It seems likely Solon carried legends of Keftiu to Greece, where he passed it to his son and grandson.
依照埃及人记载,克弗悌乌在一次天启中被海洋毁灭。这看起来似乎是梭仑把克弗悌乌的传说带到希腊,他把它流传给儿子和孙子。

Plato recorded and embellished the story from Solon's grandson Critias the Younger. As in many ancient writings, history and myth were indistinguishably intermixed. Plato probably translated "the land of the pillars which held the sky" (Keftiu) into the land of the titan Atlas (who held the sky). Comparison of ancient Egyptian records of Keftiu identifies a number of similarities to Plato's Atlantis. It seems likely that Plato's Atlantis was a retelling (and renaming) of Egypt's Keftiu.
柏拉图从梭仑的孙子,年轻的赛提亚那里记下和修饰了这个故事。就像很多古代的著作,历史和神话一样,都被不能识别地混和着。柏拉图很可能把“陆地上支撑天空的柱子”(克弗悌乌)翻译成提坦神(巨人)阿特拉斯(支撑着天空)的陆地。与古埃及人记载的克弗悌乌相比,柏拉图的亚特兰蒂斯也有许多相似之处。这看起来很可能是柏拉图的亚特兰蒂斯是重新讲述(重新命名)了埃及的克弗悌乌。

When Plato identified the location of the land he named Atlantis, he placed it to the west-in the Atlantic Ocean.
当柏拉图把确立的大陆命名为亚特兰蒂斯时,他把它放置在西边——大西洋。

In reality, Egyptian legend placed Keftiu west of Egypt, not necessarily west of the Mediterranean. In describing Atlantis as an island (or continent) in the Atlantic Ocean, we suspect Plato was merely wrong in his interpretation of the Egyptian legend he was retelling.
事实上,埃及的传说是把克弗悌乌放置在埃及的西边,并不一定是地中海的西面。柏拉图把亚特兰蒂斯描写成大西洋上的一个岛屿(或者大陆),我们怀疑柏拉图仅是错误地阐述了他要说的埃及传说。

Yet Plato preserved enough detail about the land of Atlantis that its identification now seems very likely, and rather less mysterious than many new-age advocates would like. It is likely that Atlantis was the land of the Minoan culture, namely ancient Crete and Thera. If this hypothesis is correct, Plato never realized that the land of Atlantis was already familiar to him. Let's have a look at the evidence which suggests that Minoan Crete and surrounding islands bear a striking resemblance to what Plato described as Atlantis.
柏拉图仍然保留着有关亚特兰蒂斯大陆的足够细节,现在对它的认定看起来非常可靠,宁愿少些神秘性,决不让很多新时代鼓吹者喜爱。传说中的亚特兰蒂斯很可能是克里特文明的国土,也就是古代希腊和提拉文明。如果这个假设属实,那么柏拉图从未认识到亚特兰蒂斯大陆已经与他非常亲近。让我们看看克里特文明的克里特岛和周边岛屿的证据,与柏拉图描述的亚特兰蒂斯惊人地相似。

Archaeological records show that the Minoan culture spread its dominion throughout the nearby islands of the Aegean, very roughly from 3000 years BC to about 1400 years BC.
考古学的记录表明了克里特文明把它的主权延伸到爱琴海的周边岛屿,粗略地估计是大约在公元前3000年到公元前1400年。
Crete, now part of Greece, was the capital for the Minoan people ?an advanced civilization with language, commercial shipping, complex architecture, ritual and games.
克里特,现在希腊的一部分,曾经是克里特人民的首都,一个先进的文明,有语言,通商航行,复杂的建筑,宗教仪式和游戏。

It seems very likely that related islands (e.g. Santorini/Thera) may have been part of the same culture. The Minoans were peaceful: very little evidence of military activity was found in their ruins. A 4-storied palace at Knossos, Crete, was said to be the capitol of the Minoan culture. Correspondence of Minoan cultural artifacts with aspects of the Atlantis legend make the identity of the two seem virtually certain. Perhaps the most unusual of these is the Minoan bull fighting.
这看上去非常可能是相关的岛屿(例如,圣多里尼火山岛/西拉岛)可能是同一个文明的一部分。克里特文明是爱好和平的:它们的废墟地几乎没有发现军事行动的证据。克里特岛上拥有四层宫殿建筑的克诺索斯,据说是克里特文明的首都。克里特文明史前古器物外貌与亚特兰蒂斯传说相对应,把两者视为同一,实质上是可靠的。很可能最不寻常的就是克里特文明的斗牛。

By Egyptian legend, the inhabitants of Keftiu would engage in ritualistic bull fighting, with unarmed Minoan bullfighters wrestling and jumping over uninjured bulls. This same foolhardy practice is richly illustrated in remaining Minoan artwork.
埃及的传说,克弗悌乌的居民会参加斗牛仪式,还有克里特文明的角斗士徒手摔跤以及跳牛比赛。同样的愚勇习俗在克里特文明遗址的艺术品上大量地描绘。

Plato's (Egyptian) legend also holds that Atlantis was peaceful - this is confirmed by a virtually complete absence of weapons in Minoan ruins and in Minoan artwork - unusual for peoples of that time. Egyptian legend held that elephants were found on Keftiu - while there were presumably no elephants on Crete, the Minoans were known to deal in African ivory, and appear to have been the principal access to ivory for Egypt 20 centuries before Christ.
柏拉图(埃及人)的传说也认为亚特兰蒂斯是爱好和平的——这从克里特遗址和克里特艺术品上完全没有描绘武器而得到证实——对当时的人来说是不寻常的。埃及人传说认为大象可以在Keftiu上找得到——大概希腊没有大象,克里特文明却经营非洲象牙生意,看起来比基督早二十个世纪(二千年)就已经有象牙进入埃及。

Plato's maps of Atlantis have even been argued to resemble the geography of ancient Crete.
柏拉图的亚特兰蒂斯地图被争论是类似于古代克里特岛的地理环境。

Many ancient Greek myths take their location from Minoan Crete more than ten centuries before Plato. Daedalus, the ancient scientist, was supposedly the architect of the palace at Knossos.
很多比柏拉图时期早一千年的古希腊传说是发生在克里特岛文明。代达罗斯,古代科学家,按照推测是克诺索斯宫殿的建筑师。

There one can still find ruins alleged to be the labyrinth that housed the legendary Minotaur, the monster (half-human, half bull) haven been slain by Thesius.
那里仍然可以找到所谓迷宫的遗址,住着传说中的人身牛头怪物,(半人,半牛)怪物已经被Thesius宰杀。

So ancient myths were not new to Minoan Crete. Regardless of the legend, Minoan culture extended across the island of Crete, with most of its developments along the northern coast of Crete. But, after more than a thousand years of dominance, the Minoan culture came to an abrupt end, circa 1470 BC.
因而,古代神话对于克里特文明来说并不陌生。抛开传说,克里特文明延伸,越过希腊岛屿,它延着希腊北岸,有着最大的发展。但是,一千多年的统治之后,克里特文明大约在公元前1470年突然结束。

But what of the fabled apocalypse which, according to the Egyptians, swallowed Keftiu-Atlantis in one day and one night? This also has basis in historical fact. The trail of evidence leads to the small island of Santorini.
依照埃及传说,克弗悌乌-亚特兰蒂斯在一日一夜之间被吞没,但是寓言中的天启是什么?这也以历史事实为基础。明显的证据转移到圣多里尼的小岛屿上。

亚特兰蒂斯的理论2
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Santorini (also known as Thera) lies 75 km north of Crete.
圣者像(也以宙斯神赫拉而闻名)位于克里特岛以北75公里

Santorini was also a Minoan land, and ruins can be found throughout the island. A mountain lay at its center, probably about 1500 meters in height until approximately 1500 BC. This mountain was a volcano; eruptions began about 1500 BC, and smoldered until a final climax about 1470 BC. Geologically, not all volcanoes are the same.
圣多里尼也是克里特的国土,整个岛屿都可以找到遗迹。大约在公元前1500年,一座山位于它的中心,很可能大约有1500米高。这是一座火山;大约在公元前1500年开始爆发,公元前1470年闷烧到顶点。从地质学来说,并不是所有火山都是相同的。

Some drip lava slowly for centuries, others explode cataclysmically. From tectonic location, composition, and physical structure one can identify similarities between volcanoes. The volcano at Santorini was geologically similar to the 19th century Pacific volcano Krakatoa, and quite different from (for example) the volcanoes on Hawaii. Krakatoa exploded violently in 1883, spreading unparalleled tidal waves (tsunamis) throughout the southwest pacific, and filling the atmosphere with ash that spread through the entire world.
一些熔岩绶慢地滴了数个世纪,其他的像洪水般地爆发。从结构位置,组成部分和物理位置来看,可以确定火山之间的相似之处。圣多里尼火山地质上与十九世纪太平洋上的喀拉喀托火山相似,与夏威夷的火山完全不同。喀拉喀托火山在1883年猛烈地爆发,撒布了空前的潮汐波(海啸),遍及整个太平洋西南部,大气层充满了灰烬,蔓延到全世界。

Santorini was about 4 times larger than Krakatoa, and probably at least twice as violent. The fury of Santorini's final explosion is inferred from geologic core samples, from comparison to the detailed observations made on Krakotoa in 1883, and from the simultaneous obliteration of almost all Minoan settlements. The geologic record dates the final explosion of Santorini with remarkable accuracy. The likely picture then, is this.
圣多里尼比喀拉喀托大四倍,很可能至少比喀拉喀托猛烈两倍。从地质学上的矿石样本推断,圣多里尼的最后猛烈爆发,与1883年喀拉喀托的详细观察相比较,几乎与所有克里特居住地被除去的时期同时发生。圣多里尼最后爆发的地质学上记录日期是惊人地精确。然后,很可能是描绘这个。

In summer, circa 1470 BC, Santorini exploded. Volcanic ash filled the sky, blotted out the sun, and triggered hail and lightning. A heavy layer of volcanic ash rained down over the Aegean, covering islands and crops. Earthquakes shook the land, and stone structures fell from the motion. When the enormous magma chamber at Santorini finally collapsed to form the existing caldera, enormous tsunamis (tidal waves) spread outward in all directions.
大约在公元前1470年夏天,圣多里尼火山爆发了。天空充满了火山灰,遮盖了太阳,触发了冰雹和闪电。浓厚的火山灰层大量降下到爱琴海,遮盖了岛屿和农作物。地震摇动了陆地,石头建筑物从移动中倒塌。圣多里尼火山的巨大岩浆房最后倒塌,形成了现有的喷火山口,巨大的海啸(潮汐波)向各个方面向外伸展。

The coastal villages of Crete were flooded and destroyed. The only major Minoan structure surviving the waves and earthquakes was the palace at Knossos, far enough inland to escape the tidal waves. But in the days that followed, volcanic ash covered some settlements, and defoliated the island.
克里特的沿海村庄被洪水淹没和毁灭,唯一在海浪和地震中幸存的克里特主结构就是克诺索斯的宫殿,在遥远的内陆,足够地逃脱了潮汐浪的冲击。但在随后的日子,火山灰遮盖了一些居住地,使内陆沉没。

In famine from the ash, with the bulk of their civilization washed away, the remaining Minoans were overrun by Mycaeneans from Greece, and Knossos finally fell.
从火山灰而来的饥荒,它们文明的牛被冲走,残存的克里特文明被希腊的迈锡尼文明蹂躏,克诺索斯最后倒下了。

The modern island of Santorini is now the rim of the volcano - the caldera is covered by the Aegean Sea. Mounds of pumice and volcanic ash mark its center, where the volcano remains. New inhabitants of Santorini mine the volcanic ash to make cement - and still find ancient ruins under the stone. The ash is now the soil, olive and fruit trees cover the landscape, and former Atlantis (Crete, Santorini, and perhaps other Aegean islands) is mostly buried. New inhabitants have rebuilt Crete, but the mute ruins of ancient Atlantis can still be seen.
现代的圣多里尼位于火山的边缘——喷火山口被爱琴海覆盖着。浮石和火山灰的土墩标志着它的中心,是火山的遗迹。圣多里尼的新居民开采火山灰,制成了水泥——石头之下仍然找到古代遗迹。火山灰现在是土壤,橄榄树和果树覆盖着土地,从前的亚特兰蒂斯(克里特,圣多里尼,很可能还有其他爱琴海的岛屿)大部分都被埋藏了。新居民重建了克里特,但仍然可以看到古代亚特兰蒂斯无声的废墟。

- The End of Atlantis: New Light on an Old Legend
——亚特兰蒂斯的终结:旧传说的新曙光

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