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游戏设计白皮书之游戏平衡

(2006-10-26 16:28:00)
分类: 游戏设计白皮书

http://mosq.blog.sohu.com/ 魔法蚊子的乱飞天空

Balance
游戏平衡

If you had a unit or weapon that was a sure way to win in every situation, how long will the fun last? Surely the game won't feel challenging anymore, and will quickly become boring. People want to feel good about their abilities to overcome challenging situations. To give them that feeling, they need to have choices available for them - rush or defend? save for later power or go for speed now? long-range cover or up-close offensive? If a variety of game-play options are available (unit A, B, C...), and the outcome of choosing any one option is not clear, the player has a chance to show or refine his skills. If one game element is clearly enough because it always works (unit B alway wins), there's a balance problem.

如果你有一个单位或者武器可以在任何情况下都用同一种方法获胜,这样还有乐趣么?很显然游戏再也没有挑战,很快变得无趣。玩家希望通过自己的力量在不同的境况下挑战自己克服困难。要拥有这种感觉,玩家需要面临不同的选择,进攻还是防守?能量继续蓄还是释放?远程进攻还是近攻?如果有一系列的游戏选项可以选择,选择哪一种策略并不是完全清晰,玩家就有机会展示自己的选择。如果一个游戏元素过于清晰总是成立,那么必然在平衡性上存在问题。

Rock, paper, scissors (RPS)
石头剪刀布

游戏设计白皮书之游戏平衡石头剪刀布是最基本的平衡模型

The use of of the RPS concept has become somewhat of a standard in game development because it's the simplest solution (on an abstract level) to the balancing problem. Rock beats scissors, scissors beat paper, paper beats rock. Although each element has a winning advantage, no one element is superior because each has its disadvantage.

使用石头剪刀布的概念是由吸烟法中的一个标准。这是一个最简单的解决方案来解决平衡问题。石头>剪刀,剪刀>布,布>石头。虽然每一个元素都有获胜机会,但是没有一个元素在所有情况下都能获胜。


游戏设计白皮书之游戏平衡石头剪刀布的模型也会变得异常复杂

This basic idea carries through to video game elements. One unit/weapon is strong in some way, and weak in another. Another unit/weapon has a different advantage, but also a different disadvantage. This creates the possibility to create various combinations of units/weapons to outdo opponents in unique ways, but without any one way being always superior (at least in the ideal case).

把这个概念用到游戏中来就体现为:一种武器/单位在某些情况下比较强,但是另一种情况下就比较弱。另一个武器/单位在不同的情况下具有优势,当然也有不同的劣势。这样就形成了很多种的组合,避免了形成一种很固定的玩法,避免了一种很固定的优势。

Types of imbalance
各种不平衡的类型

Both 'balance' and 'imbalance' are fairly abstract terms, and in game development they need to be made a lot more concrete. For this, it is helpful first to describe what times of imbalance there are in games. In an article on the topic of game balance, Tom Cadwell mentions three types of imbalances in games: the cost-power imbalance, the skill-level imbalance, and the forced imbalance.

平衡和不平衡都是抽象的术语,在游戏开发中他们有许多具体的表现.在这里,重点说明一下不平衡在游戏中的种种表现.Tom Cadwell为我们指出了三类游戏中的不平衡:力量消耗型,技能等级型,和压迫型

The cost-power imbalance - if something costs (time, money, whatever) too much and is too weak at the same time, why go for it? This immediately eliminates the possibility of choosing this option. Alternatively, if something costs too little and is very powerful at the same time, why go for anything else? There's your winner! Again, this becomes the only logical option and so game-play is skewed.

力量消耗型的不平衡 - 如果游戏要素产生的消耗(时间,金钱,或其他)太多,但是同时却不强壮,为什么要选择他呢? 这种情况会让玩家立即放弃这种游戏选择.相反的,另一个游戏要素消耗的很少,但是却很强大,为什么不选择他呢?肯定会赢.强调一下,这种情况使得游戏逻辑变得单一,游戏性变得偏差.

The skill-level imbalance - if a player no longer finds a particular game choice valid simply because his/her skill level is high, there is an imbalance between this player's choices and a less-skilled player's choices. This imbalance is a tricky one. Allowing player skill improvement (growth) is a desirable trait of games, so some sort of balance needs to be worked out between possibilities for growth and uneven game-play choices with increasing growth.

技能等级型的不平衡 - 如果一个玩家仅仅因为等级高而很快找到一个特定的游戏最优选择,那么等级不同的玩家之间必定存在着不平衡.允许玩家的技能成长是一个可以描述的游戏特点,所以必须在玩家成长和成长中的游戏选择里面找出一系列的游戏平衡点.

The forced imbalance - if doing a particular sequence of actions grants a player an undeniable advantage over another player, there is an imbalance! If a player has no chance to even try and counter the result of that sequence of actions, that player has a forced disadvantage.

压迫型的不平衡 - 如果按照特定的序列来做一套动作能让一个玩家必然获得对其他玩家更多的优势,那么就存在不平衡.如果一个玩家没有机会来做出这套动作的话,那么他也必然处于劣势.


One way to find the imbalances is for you, the developer, to play the game. Before starting, note
down opposing combinations of units/weapons/moves and the intended outcome of a fight between them.If during testing you find that some element wins (or loses) a lot more often than intended, there's some balancing to be done. During the testing, you might also find some unexpected outcoms, like when using Unit A and Unit B together you become way too strong...

对于开发者来说,有效找到不平衡的方法就是:玩游戏.开始玩之前,记下各种不同的单位,武器和行动组合,然后刻意在不同的组合之间进行比拼.如果在测试中,你发现一些要素的组合获胜(或失败)的次数很多,那么平衡性方面肯定有问题.在测试的过程中,你应当注意一些意料之外的结果,例如用A单位和B单位联合之后变得异常强大...


The other way is to get someone else, outside the development team to do the testing. After spending a lot of time with the game, you get used to it and how to play it well. So you would be testing it from an experienced player's perspective. It helps a lot to bring in people who have not played the game at all, because they would be experiencing it differently, and so they might spot different imbalances.

另一个方法是请一个没有接触过游戏的人来测试。因为已经大量花在游戏上的时间,你已经习惯这个游戏,并且更好的玩它。那么你测试游戏的时候就站在一个经验丰富玩家的立场上。但是一个从没有玩过这个游戏的玩家却能提供更多的帮助,因为他们从未接触过游戏的困难,那么他们的行为会揭示难度上的不平衡。

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