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2005年Text 1 更新08-23

(2009-04-06 19:42:10)
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李剑真题翻译

分类: 考研阅读真题之全心全译


    Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human,” with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it is all too monkey, as well.

人人都喜欢大幅加薪,但是当你知道一个同事薪水加得比你还要多的时候,那么加薪带给你的喜悦感就消失的无影无踪了。如果他还以懒散出名的话,你甚至会变得怒不可遏。这种行为被看作是“人之常情”,其潜在的假定其他动物不可能具有如此高度发达的不满意识。但是由佐治亚州亚特兰大埃里莫大学的Sarah Brosnan 和Frans de Waal进行的一项研究表明,它也是“猴之常情”。这项研究成果刚刚发表在《自然》杂志上。

 

The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food readily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males.

研究者们对雌性棕色卷尾猴的行为进行了研究。它们看起来很可爱,性格温顺,合作,乐于分享食物。最重要的是,就象女人们一样,它们往往比雄性更关注“商品和服务”价值。

Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de Waal’s study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

这些特性使它们成为Brosnan 和 de Waal理想的研究对象。研究者们花了两年的时间教这些猴子用代币换取食物。正常情况下,猴子很愿意用几块石头换几片黄瓜。但是,当两个猴子被安置在隔开但相邻的两个房间里,能够互相看见对方用石头换回来什么东西时,猴子的行为就会变的明显不同。

 

In the world of capuchins, grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers). So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber. Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin.

在卷尾猴的世界里,葡萄是奢侈品(比黄瓜受欢迎得多)。所以当一只猴子用一个代币换回一颗葡萄时,第二只猴子就不愿意用自己的代币换回一片黄瓜。如果一只猴子根本无需用代币就能够得到一颗葡萄的话,那么另外一只就会将代币掷向研究人员或者扔出房间外,或者拒绝接受那片黄瓜。事实上,只要在另一房间里出现了葡萄(不管有没有猴子吃它),都足以引起雌卷尾猴的怨恨。

 

The researchers suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species. Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone. Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

研究人员指出,正如人类一样,卷尾猴也受社会情感的影响。在野外,它们是相互合作的群居动物。只有当每只猴子感到自己没有受到欺骗时,这种合作才可能稳定。义愤感似乎不是人类的专利。拒绝接受较少的酬劳可以让这些情绪准确无误地传达给其它成员。但是这种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独立演化而成,还是来自三千五百万前他们共同的祖先,这还是一个悬而未决的问题。

 

21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by

[A] posing a contrast.

[B] justifying an assumption.

[C] making a comparison.

[D] explaining a phenomenon.

在开头段中,作者通过怎样的方法引入他的话题?

[A] 提出对比

[B] 证明一个假设

[C] 进行比较

[D] 解释一种现象

 

 

 

22. The statement “it is all too monkey” (Last line, Paragraph 1) implies that

[A] monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals.

[B] resenting unfairness is also monkeys’ nature.

[C] monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other.

[D] no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions.

“it is all too monkey”(第一段最后一行)这句话暗示         

[A] 猴子也会对懒散的对手感到很愤怒

[B] 反对不公也是猴子的本性

[C] 猴子就像人类一样会互相嫉妒

[D] 除了猴子以外,没有其他动物能产生这种情感

 

 

23. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are

[A] more inclined to weigh what they get.

[B] attentive to researchers’ instructions.

[C] nice in both appearance and temperament.

[D] more generous than their male companions.

母卷尾猴之所以被选为研究对象的最重要原因是它们

[A] 更会权衡它们得到的东西

[B] 认真听研究人员的指挥

[C] 外表和性情都很好

[D] 比公卷尾猴更加大方

 

 

24. Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys

[A] prefer grapes to cucumbers.

[B] can be taught to exchange things.

[C] will not be co-operative if feeling cheated.

[D] are unhappy when separated from others.

Brosnan博士和de Waal博士最终在他们的研究中发现猴子

[A] 比起黄瓜更喜欢葡萄

[B] 能够学会交换东西

[C] 如果感到受骗就会拒绝合作

[D] 在于其它猴子分开时就会不开心

 

25. What can we infer from the last paragraph?

[A] Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions.

[B] Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source.

[C] Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.

[D] Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild.

我们可以从最后一段中推断出什么?

[A] 猴子经过训练可以发展出社会情感

[B] 人类义愤的来源不得而知

[C] 动物通常能像人类一样公开地表达自己的情感

[D] 猴子之间的合作只有在野外时才能稳定保持


 

 

 

 

 


 

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