加载中…
个人资料
金吉列加拿大
金吉列加拿大
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:104,144
  • 关注人气:60
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

Text 28 Juvenile Crime-Outlook for California 青少

(2009-05-27 11:31:45)
标签:

杂谈

Text 28 Juvenile Crime-Outlook for California 青少年犯罪—加利福尼亚州展望Pre-reading Activities

1. What do you think are the factors that contribute to juvenile crime?

2. Do you think juvenile wrongdoers should be punished severely or not? Please give your reasons.

Text

1. The public’s fear of crime, including juvenile crime, is a major concern for policymakers. In California, and throughout the nation, nightly news programs often begin their broadcasts with accounts of violent crime committed by juveniles. 公众对刑事案件的恐惧,包括青少年犯罪,一直在困扰着决策者。在全国范围内,每天的新闻节目都是以青少年犯罪案件作为开始的。

2. The Legislature and the Governor have enacted numerous laws to address the public’s concerns about juvenile crime. Despite these efforts, polls show that the public continues to see crime as one of the most pressing problems in society. 为了减轻人们对青少年犯罪的忧虑,司法部门已经颁布了法律。尽管做出了努力,但民意调查表明,公众仍然认为犯罪是当前社会最迫切解决的问题之一。

3. In January 1994, we released our report Crime in California describing overall crime trends in the state. This report, while similar, focuses on juvenile crime trends and the juvenile justice system in California. 1994年1月,我们公布了我们的调查报告—加利福尼亚州的犯罪情况,对该州的各类犯罪趋势进行阐述。与此类似,这个报告将重点放在了加利福尼亚州的青少年犯罪以及青少年法律体系上。

Difference Between the Juvenile and Adult Justice Systems. 青少年与成年人法律体系的不同

4. California’s juvenile justice system is different from the state’s adult justice system. This is because society recognizes that many juveniles need to be treated differently from adults. Generally, the juvenile system emphasizes treatment and rehabilitation, while the adult system concentrates on punishment of offenders. The juvenile justice system also consists of a large number of nonlaw enforcement agencies. Social services agencies, schools, and community-based organizations all provide services to both juveniles “at-risk” of committing crimes and to juveniles who have committed crimes. 加州的青少年法律体系与成年人的有所不同。这主要因为社会认为青少年与成年人应该区别对待。总体上来说,青少年的法律体系强调挽回和拯救,而针对成年人的法律体系则强调对罪犯的惩罚。青少年法律体系也包括很多非执法机构,社会服务机构、学校、社区团体都会对具有犯罪倾向的和已经犯罪的青少年提供帮助。

The State of Juvenile Crime in California. 加州的青少年犯罪状况

5. Juvenile crime peaked in California in 1974 and then decreased through 1987. This decrease occurred at the same time as the proportion of juveniles in California’s population was declining. Juvenile crime has increased since 1987. It is likely that juvenile crime will continue to increase given the projected future increase in California’s juvenile population. In order to address this growth in crime, policymakers will have to pursue multiple strategies including prevention, intervention, suppression, and incarceration efforts. 在加州,1974年是青少年犯罪的最高峰,然后到1987年这段时间有所减少。犯罪数量的降低正好赶上加州青少年人口的减少。从1987年青少年犯罪逐步上升。随着之后加州青少年人口的增加,青少年犯罪也有可能继续增加。为了遏制犯罪,法律部门不得不寻求多种方法,包括预防、干预、制止和禁闭等手段。

Contents of This Report. 报告的主要内容

6. We have prepared this report in an effort to help those concerned with addressing the problems of juvenile crime. This report is not designed to present comprehensive answers to all of the questions concerning juvenile crime, but rather it provides basic information on the issues. It does this through a “quick-reference” document that relies heavily on charts to present information. 我们撰写这个报告的目的是为那些关注青少年犯罪问题的人们提供支持和帮助。这个报告并没有对青少年的全部问题提出解决方法,而是为这一领域提供了最基本的信息。借助于对文献的参考,报告更多采用了图表形式来传达信息。

What Is Juvenile Crime? 什么是青少年犯罪?

7. In its simplest definition, “crime” is any specific act prohibited by law for which society has provided a formally sanctioned punishment. This also can include the failure of a person to perform an act specifically required by law. 简单一点说,“犯罪”就是违反法律的行为,并且会因此受到社会普遍认可的惩罚。这也包括实施违法行为但未遂。

Types of Offenses. 犯罪的种类

8. Crimes, whether committed by adults or juveniles, are classified by the seriousness of the offenses as follows: 无论是成年人还是青少年实施犯罪行为,按照造成危害的程度可以将犯罪分为以下几类:

●A felony is the most serious offense, punishable by a sentence to a state institution (Youth Authority facility or adult prison). Felonies generally include violent crimes, sex offenses, and many types of drug and property violations. 重罪是最严重的犯罪,宣判后要在国家机构(未成年人教管所或成人监狱)服刑。这一类犯罪通常包括:暴力犯罪、性侵犯及各种与毒品和财产相关的违法活动。

●A misdemeanor is a less serious offense for which the offender may be sentenced to probation, county detention (in a juvenile facility or jail), a fine, or some combination of the three. Misdemeanors generally include crimes such as assault and battery, petty theft, and public drunkenness. 行为不端是相对较轻的犯罪行为,罪犯会得到缓刑、拘留(在未成年人教管所或监狱)、处以罚金,或者三者兼有。行为不端通常包括袭击、殴打、小额盗窃、公众闹酒。

●An infraction is the least serious offense and generally is punishable by a fine. Many motor vehicle violations are considered infractions. 违反是最轻的犯罪行为,惩罚措施通常是处以罚金。机动车违反交通规则通常属于这一类型。

9. Many types of crimes in California can be charged as either a felony or a misdemeanor (known as a “wobbler”), or as either a misdemeanor or an infraction. Juveniles, like adults, can be charged with a felony, a misdemeanor, or an infraction. However, as we discuss later, juveniles can also be charged with offenses that are unique to youth. 加州的犯罪可以被指控为重罪或者行为不端,或者是行为不端或违反。青少年和成年人一样,被指控为重罪、行为不端或违反。然而我们一会儿会谈到,青少年也可被指控为冒犯,这专为青少年所设立的。

Categories of Crimes. 犯罪的类型

10. In general, felonies, misdemeanors, and infractions fall into one of three broad categories: violent, property, and drug-related. Violent crimes refer to events such as homicide, rape, and assault that result in an injury to a person. 通常重罪、行为不端和违反都可以归入到以下三种:暴力犯罪、财产犯罪、与毒品相关的犯罪。暴力犯罪是指杀人、强奸、袭击等行为并对人的身体造成伤害。

11. Property crimes are offenses with the intent of gaining property through the use or threat of force against a person. Burglary and motor vehicle theft are examples. 财产犯罪是指通过对人使用暴力或威胁等手段而获得财产的行为。抢劫和行车盗窃都属于此类。

12. Drug-related crimes, such as possession or sale of illegal narcotics, are generally in a separate category altogether. This is because such offenses do not fall under the definition of either violent or property offenses. 与毒品相关的犯罪是指拥有或贩卖非法毒品,它作为单独的一类,是因为这种违法行为既不能被归为暴力犯罪,也不能归为财产犯罪。

The Juvenile Justice System Is Different. 青少年法律系统是不同的

13. The juvenile justice system has evolved over the years based on the premise that juveniles are different from adults and juveniles who commit criminal acts generally should be treated differently from adults. Separate courts, detention facilities, rules, procedures, and laws were created for juveniles with the intent to protect their welfare and rehabilitate them, while protecting public safety. 青少年法律系统在过去几年有了变化,因为考虑到青少年与成年人不同,所以对青少年犯罪的惩罚也应与成人不同。为了保护他们的权益,为了保护他们的权益,为了拯救他们,在法院、监禁设施、规定、程序和法律上都与成人有所不同,与此同时保护公众的安全。

14. Under certain circumstances, youthful offenders can be tried either as juveniles or as adults. But even in these situations, their treatment is different from that of adults. For example, a juvenile who is arrested for an “adult” offense can be adjudicated in either juvenile court or adult court; if convicted, he or she can be incarcerated in either a county or state correctional facility or left in the community; and if incarcerated, he or she can be placed with either other juveniles or adults. In contrast, and adult charged with the same offense would be tried in an adult court; if convicted, he or she would be incarcerated by the state and would be housed with adults. 在某些情况下,青少年罪犯可以被当作青少年也可被当作成年人加以惩罚。但即使是这样,对待他们也与成年人有所区别。例如,一个青少年因犯下了成人所犯的罪行而被逮捕。他可以在青少年法院,也可以在成人法院被判刑,如果被判罪行成立,他可能被关进某市或某个州设立改教所,也可能被留在社区里。如果被关进监狱,他可能会被安排与其他青少年或成年人在一起。相反,如果是成年人犯了同样的罪行,将在成人法院接受审判;一旦罪行成立,他将被关进州立监狱,与其他成员共处。

Legal Categories of Juvenile Offenders. 青少年罪犯的类型

15. Juvenile offenders are generally placed in one of four legal categories depending primarily on the seriousness of the offense committed. Two of these categories (“criminal offenders” and “juveniles remanded to superior court”) are for juveniles who have committed adult-like crimes. The other categories (“informal probationers” and “status offenders”) are for youths who have committed less serious offenses or offenses unique to juveniles, like curfew violations. 按照所犯罪行的轻重,青少年罪犯通常属于以一四种之一。其中的两种(刑事罪犯和遣回高等法院的青少年)是指犯了成人所犯的罪行。另外两种(非正式拘留或状态犯罪)是指犯了较轻的罪行或者仅仅是青少年才会犯的罪行,比如违反了宵禁法。

Who Is Treated As a Juvenile in California? 在加州谁被当作青少年

16. Generally, any individual age 18 or older is considered an adult and treated as such in California. Depending on the circumstances, however, someone as young as 14 can be tried in the adult court system and sentenced to the California Department of Corrections (CDC) and housed in the California Youth Authority (CYA); and if 16 years old can be sent to prison. On the other hand, someone as old as 24 can be incarcerated as a juvenile in the CYA. 在加州,年龄在18岁及以上的人被当作成年人对待。然而根据具体情况,14岁的青少年也可能在成人法院接受审判,在加州改教所被判刑,并被关进加州青少年管教所。如果达到16岁可能被关进监狱。另一方面,24岁的人也可能被关进加州青少年管教所。

17. There are over 6,000 offenders incarcerated in the CYA who are age 18 or older. The CYA can accept juveniles younger than age 12 after a review by the CYA Director, however, these offenders generally are kept in the community under county probation supervision. 在青少年管教所有6000多名年龄在18岁以上罪犯。加州青少年管教所也接受12岁以下的违法者,但通常他们是在社区的监管之下。

How Much Juvenile Crime Is There in California? 加州有多少青少年犯罪?

18. Crime in California, whether committed by an adult or juvenile, is counted in two different ways. One is based on official reports to law enforcement agencies, and is reflected in the national Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) data and the California Crime Index (CCI) data. Crime is also counted based on surveys of individuals to determine if they have been victims of crime, even though the crime may not have been reported to the police. The data is obtained through national victimization surveys. 在加州,无论是针对成人犯罪还是青少年犯罪,通常有两种统计方式。一种是建立在向执法部门的官方报告的基础上,数据通常被收集到国家统一犯罪报告(UCR)以及加州犯罪索引(CCI)中。此外,统计还可以建立在对个人进行调查的基础上,看他们是否是受害者,因为有些犯罪行为没有被报告给警方。这个数据通过国家受害者调查进行收集。

Limited Data Available About Juvenile Crime. 有关青少年犯罪的有限数据

19. Many types of data on juvenile crime are not collected or aggregated for the state. For example, we know how many juveniles were arrested for felonies and misdemeanors, but we don’t know the disposition of those juvenile arrestees. This is because the state Department of Justice (DOJ) stopped collecting statewide disposition data for juveniles in 1990 for budgetary reasons. As a consequence, we do not know, since 1990, how many juvenile arrestees were adjudicated as juveniles or prosecuted as adults; how many were convicted; how many were placed on probation in the community or incarcerated at the local level. The DOJ reports that it will resume collecting these data in 1995-1996. 有关青少年犯罪类型的数据并没有被统计。例如我们知道有多少青少年因犯重罪和行为不端而被捕,但我们不知道对那些青少年的处置情况。这是因为州立司法部门在1990年由于预算的原因而停止收集青少年的处置数据。结果我们就无从知道,从1990年起,有多少青少年被捕者被当作青少年来判决,或者被当作成人来起诉。多少被判有罪,多少在社区拘留或者在当地被关押,州立司法部门宣布说,将于1995~1996年继续收集数据。

20. Consequently, the most currently available data are limited to the number of juvenile arrests, juvenile arrest rates, and the number of juveniles incarcerated at the state level. 因此大多数可得到的数据只限于青少年被逮捕的人数,青少年犯罪率,以及青少年在州一级被关押的人数。

Arrest “Rates.” 被逮捕率

21. Crime data is often presented in terms of “rates.” A rate is defined as the number of occurrences of an event within a given population. For example, the overall juvenile arrest rate for California in 1993 was 6,772.8, which means that there were about 7,773 juvenile arrests for every 100,000 youths under the age of 18. 犯罪数据通常都以比率的形式出现。比率是指在特定人口中某个事件发生的数量。例如,1993年加州青少年的被逮捕率为6772.8,这就是说,在每100,000名不到18岁的青少年中有7773人被捕。

Crime Is Underreported. 犯罪统计数字过低

22. Crime statistics (for juveniles and adults) from law enforcement agencies don’t tell the entire story about the extent of crime for two reasons. First, victimization surveys generally show there is a significant amount of crime committed each year that is not counted in official statistics because it is not reported to law enforcement authorities. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, in 1993 about two-thirds of all crimes went unreported to the police. Specifically, about 50 percent of violent victimizations, almost 60 percent of household crimes, and 70 percent of all personal thefts went unreported. 执法部门对青少年犯罪和成年犯罪的统计并不全面,这是由于两个原因:首先,对受害者的调查表明,每年都有大量的犯罪行为没有被列入官方统计,因为这些情况没有报到执法部门。根据美国司法部,1993年大约有三分之二的案件没有报到警察局。再具体一点说,大约有50%的暴力行为,60%的家庭纠纷和70%的个人盗窃没有公开。

23. A second reason why crime is underreported is that when several crimes are committed by an offender at the same time, only one (usually the most severe) is counted in the data. For example, if a juvenile offender robbed a store, assaulted a clerk, and killed a customer, only the homicide would be reported. 第二个原因是,当同一个罪犯同时做了几项违法行为时,只有一项(通常是最严重的那个)被统计进去。比如,一个青少年罪犯抢劫了商店、袭击了售货员并杀死了一名顾客,只有杀人这一项被统计。

24. Juveniles Account for a Significant Number of All Arrests. 青少年犯罪占到所有违法行为的很大一部分。

●In 1993, juveniles accounted for 16 percent of all felony arrests in California. 1993年在加州,在所有因重罪而被捕的人中有16%是青少年。

●Juveniles accounted for 26 percent of all property arrests and 14 percent of violent crime arrests, in 1993. 1993年在所有因产犯罪而被捕的人中有26%是青少年,在暴力犯罪中有14%是青少年所为。

●In 1988, juveniles accounted for 24 percent of property arrests and 12 percent of violent arrests. 1998年在财产犯罪中有24%是青少年所为,而在暴力犯罪中这一数字为12%。

25. How Many Juveniles Become Repeat Offenders? 有多少青少年成为屡次犯罪的违法者?

Findings: 发现

Small number of offenders commit majority of crime. 大多数犯罪都是由极少数人实施的

Strong relationship between age at onset of criminal behavior and continued criminality. 首次犯罪年龄和以后的犯罪行为之间都有很大的关系

Based On: 基于

Research in Orange and Los Angeles Counties. 对奥瑞治和洛杉矶的调查

Longitudinal study. 纵向研究

Details: 细节

In Orange County, between 8 and 12 percent of offenders account for 60 percent of juvenile and subsequent adult crime. 在奥瑞治8%到12%的违法者所犯的罪行占到青少年犯罪以及随后成人犯罪总数的60%

In Los Angeles County, research showed similar results. 对于洛杉矶的调查也得到了相似的发现

Other studies, including those from foreign courtiers, have drawn similar conclusions. 其他调查(其中包括其他国家的调查)也得出了相似的结论

These repeat offenders are arrested between 4 and 14 times during criminal careers. 这些屡次犯罪的人在其犯罪生涯中遭到逮捕的次数为4到14次不等

Younger the arrestee, the greater likelihool of subsequent arrests 被逮捕者年龄越小,再次犯罪的可能性越大

Caveats: 告诫Most individuals arrested as juveniles will not be arrested as adults. 大多数被捕的青少年将不会在长大后被捕

Large portion of arrested adults were not arrested as juveniles. 大部分被捕的成年人在未成年时都不曾被捕过

 

 

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有