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教育的科目(翻译练习)

(2006-05-11 20:22:58)
分类: 翻译练习

第二款:教育的科目

I believe that the social life of the child is the basis of concentration, or correlation, in all his training or growth. The social life gives the unconscious unity and the background of all his efforts and of all his attainments.

我相信,儿童的社会生活,在其全部的训练和成长中,都是他专心致志、与人合作的根本。社会生活为他的全部努力和成就提供了那个无意识的集体和背景。

I believe that the subject-matter of the school curriculum should mark a gradual differentiation out of the primitive unconscious unity of social life.

我相信,学校的课程设置,应该逐渐地从社会生活的原始的无意识的集体中有所创新。

I believe that we violate the child's nature and render difficult the best ethical results, by introducing the child too abruptly to a number of special studies, of reading, writing, geography, etc., out of relation to this social life.

我相信,由于我们太过突兀地为儿童引进了大量脱离于社会生活的专门学习科目,读啊,写啊,地理啊等等,我们侵犯了儿童的天性,使最好的道德效果变得难以得到。

I believe, therefore, that the true center of correlation on the school subjects is not science, nor literature, nor history, nor geography, but the child's own social activities.

我因此相信,学校课程的真正核心,不是科学,也不是文学,不是历史,也不是地理,而是孩子们自己的社会活动。

I believe that education cannot be unified in the study of science, or so called nature study, because apart from human activity, nature itself is not a unity; nature in itself is a number of diverse objects in space and time, and to attempt to make it the center of work by itself, is to introduce a principle of radiation rather than one of concentration.

我相信,在对科学的研究或者所谓自然研究当中,教育是不可能严整起来的,因为离开了人类活动,自然本身并不是一个统一体;自然本身是许多在空间和时间中的各异的物体,试图把自然弄成工作的中心,就是引进了一种分散的原则,而不是集中的原则。

I believe that literature is the reflex expression and interpretation of social experience; that hence it must follow upon and not precede such experience. It, therefore, cannot be made the basis, although it may be made the summary of unification.

我相信,文学是对社会经验的反映式的表达和解释;因此文学一定在这种经验的后边,而不能在它的前边。因此,文学不能成为根据,尽管文学能够被弄成关于统一状态的一种概述。

I believe once more that history is of educative value in so far as it presents phases of social life and growth. It must be controlled by reference to social life. When taken simply as history it is thrown into the distant past and becomes dead and inert. Taken as the record of man's social life and progress it becomes full of meaning. I believe, however, that it cannot be so taken excepting as the child is also introduced directly into social life.

我相信,只要历史呈现社会生活和发展的一些阶段,它是有教育价值的。必须把历史和社会生活联系起来。仅仅把它看成历史,它就被扔回了遥远的过去,它就死了,没生气了。把历史看作对人类社会生活和进步的记录,它就意义丰富。然而,我相信,除非把儿童引向社会生活,要这么看历史也是不可能的。

I believe accordingly that the primary basis of education is in the child's powers at work along the same general constructive lines as those which have brought civilization into being.

我于是相信,教育的首要基础,就在儿童的工作力量当中,这种力量和那些使文明发生的一般的建设性事业是相同的。

I believe that the only way to make the child conscious of his social heritage is to enable him to perform those fundamental types of activity which make civilization what it is.

我相信,使儿童意识到他所继承的社会遗产的唯一方法,是让他能够操作这些基本的活动类型,这些活动类型造就了如今的文明。

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