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《Habit》 From The Principles of Psychology, Chapter Ⅳ

(2011-03-16 21:17:43)

    The first result of it is that habit simplifies the movements required to achieve a given result, makes them more accurate and disminishes fatigue.(这样做的第一个结果就是:习惯简化为了实现一个特定结果所需的运动,习惯使得这些动作更加精确,并且减少疲劳。)

    "The beginner at the paino not only moves his finger up and down in order to depress the key, he moves the whole hand, the forearm and even the entire body, especially moving its least rigid part, the head, as if he would press down the key with that organ too. Often a contraction of the abdominal muscles occurs as well. Principally, however, the impulse is determined to the motion of the hand and of the single finger. This is, in the first place, because the movement of the finger is the movement thought of, and , in the second place, because its movement and that of the key are the movements we try to perceice, along with the results of the latter on the  ear. The more often the process is repeated, the more easily the movement follows, on account of the increase in permeability of the nerves engaged.(钢琴的初学者为了敲击琴键,不仅上下移动他的手指,还移动他整个手、前臂甚至整个身体,特别是要移动身体最不僵硬的部位——头,好像他也要这个器官来敲击琴键。通常,腹肌也会发生收缩。然而,主要是通过手的运动以及单个手指的运动来实现按键的冲击的。首先,这是因为手指运动是思想到的运动,第二,是因为手指的运动和按键的运动都是我们试图练习的运动,连同在一起的还有后者是我们耳朵感知到的结果。由于所使用神经的渗透度的增加,练习过程重复地越多,随后的运动也会越来越容易。)

     “But the more easily the movement occurs, the slighter is the stimulus required to set it up; and the slighter the stimulus is, the more its effect is confined to the fingers alone.(但是当运动越来越容易时,需要给予的刺激就越轻,刺激越轻,它的限制就越是在单独的手指的效果上。)

     “Thus, an impulse which originally spread its effects over the whole body, or at least over many of its movable parts, is gradually determined to a single definite organ, in which it effects the contraction of a few limited muscles. In this chang the thoughts and the perceptions which start the impulse acquire more and more intimate causal relations with a particular group of motor nerves.(因此,一个冲动,它最初扩散它的影响到整个身体,或者至少遍布身体许多可运动部分,这个冲动渐渐地被确定在一个单一的确定器官上,在这个器官中,刺激的影响引起几块有限的肌肉的收缩。在这些变化中,引起这些冲动的思考和知觉,与一种特殊的运动神经组之间,建立起来越来越紧密的因果关系。)

    “To recur to a simile, at least partially apt, imagine the nervous system to represent a drainage-system, inclining, one the whole, toward certain muscles, but with the escape thither somewhat clogged. Then streams of water will, on the whole, tend most to fill the drains that go towards these muscles and to wash out the escape. In case of a sudden 'flushing', however, the whole system of channels will fill itself, and the water overflow everywhere before it escape. But a moderate quantity of water invading the system will flow through the proper escape alone.(借助于一个明喻(至少是切题的),将神经系统想象为一个排水系统,整体上向某些肌肉倾斜,但是,随着通向那里的出口有些堵塞。然而水流总体上最趋向于填满这些排水沟,冲向这些肌肉并且冲开一个缺口。然而,在突然‘决堤’的情况下,这个通道的系统将自动充满,在释放之前四处泛滥,但是,侵入这个系统的水是适量的,它就只会向那些专门的出口流出。)

    “Just so with the paino-player. As soon as his impulse, which has gradually learned to confine itself to single muscles, grows extreme, it overflow into larger muscular region. He usually plays with his fingers, his body being at rest. But no sooner does he get excited than his whole body become 'animated', and he moves his head and trunk, in particular, as if these also were organs with which he meant to belabor the keys.”(钢琴演奏者的情况也是类似的。一旦他的冲动(已经通过逐渐学习将冲动限制在个别的肌肉上)达到极端,这个冲动就立即弥漫到更大型的肌肉区。他经常用手指弹琴,身体在休息,但是一旦他兴奋起来,他的整个身体就会变得“活泼而有生机”,同时,他摆动身体和躯干,特别像这些器官也是他可以用来痛击键盘似得。)

     Man is born with a tendency to do more things than he has ready-made arrangements for in his nerve-centres. Most of the performance of other animals are automatic. But in him the number of them is so enormous, that most of them must be the fruit of painful study. If practice did not make perfect, nor habit economize the expense of nervous and muscular energy, he would therefore be in a sorry plight. As Dr. Maudsley says:(人生下来就带着一种倾向,要做比那些在他神经中枢中已经安排好了的更多的事情。其他动物大部分行为是自动的。但是,在人这里,他们行为的数量如此巨大,以至于大多数行为都必须是痛苦的学习过程的成果。如果练习做的不正确,或者习惯不能节约神经和肌肉的能量的损失,人们就会因此而处于一个狼狈不堪的境地。正如莫兹利Maudsley博士所说:)

    “If an act became no easier after being done several times, if the careful direction of consciousness were necessary to its accomplishment on each occasion, it is evident that the whole activity of a lifetime might be confined to one or two deeds--that no progress could take place in development. A man might be occupied all day in dressing and undressing himself; the attitude of his body would absorb all his attention and energy; the washing of his hands or the fastening of a button would be as diffcult to him on each occasion as to the child on its first trial; and he would, furthermore, be completely exhausted by his exertions. Think of the pains neccessary to teach a child to stand, of the many efforts which it must make, and of the ease with which it at last stands, unconscious of any effort. For while secondarily automatic acts are accomplished with comparatively little weariness--in this regard approaching the organic movements, or the original reflex movements -- the conscious effort of the will soon produces exhaustion. A spinal cord without....memory would simply be idiotic spinal cord. It is impossible for an individual to realize how much he owes to its automatic agency until disease has impaired its functions. (如果一个行为在重复了几次之后没有变得更加容易了,如果每次完成这个动作都需要有意识的小心指导,那么很明显,一生中整个活动会被限制于一种或者两种行为上,这样在发展过程中是不会进步的。一个人可能会整天忙于穿衣服和脱衣服;其身体的姿势会占据他所有的注意力和能量;每一次洗手或者系扣子这些动作每一次都会很困难,就像一个孩子初次体验一样困难,而且他因尽力导致完全崩溃。想象一下必须教会一个孩子站立的所付出的劳苦,想一想他必须做出的众多努力,才能在最终容易地站立,不用意识到任何努力的那份从容。当次级自动动作伴随相对较少的疲倦,——就这点而言接近器官运动,或原始反射运动——意志的有意识的努力很快会引起。没有……记忆的的脊髓仅仅是愚蠢的脊髓……对一个个体来说,直到损害了脊髓的功能之后,他才有可能意识到这种自动代理功能是多么的重要。)

 

以上内容,翻译完成后,与田平翻译的中文版153-15核对(电子书172-175页)并改正。

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