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回归“人文” 纪念王若水

(2007-05-17 20:38:55)
分类: 自由絮语
    今年是中国当代著名人文主义哲学家王若水先生逝世五周年祭。哈佛大学费正清中心曾于2002年5月16日为悼念王若水先生举行专场研讨会。现在,我把本人在这个追悼会的发言重贴于此,以志纪念。
 

BACK TO “HUMANITY”

LIU JUNNING

   

     It is a great privilege here talk about Mr. Wang Ruoshui.  If I am asked to use one phrase to summarize Wang's intellectual heritage, I would say it is “back to humanity”. In the universities of Communist societies, there has been a compulsory course designed to indoctrinate Communist ideas into university students. In the former Soviet Union, there was a well-known political joke. Once in such a class, the professor wanted the students to answer the following question orally: “Is communism really ‘scientific’? ” A third-year psychology student stood up and answered in this way, "Communism is by no means ‘scientific’. Otherwise, it should be tested first on dogs in a Pavlovian way before being implemented in human society.” (I bet, every student in China has been required to answer a similar question.)
     Was this student’s answer correct? According to the official answer, this student could not be wrong any more, since Communism does not differentiate between human beings and dogs. By saying this, I mean, Communism and its founders do not recognize anything humane. According to Friedrich Engels, the greatest contribution of Karl Marx is that he turned utopian socialism into scientific Communism by replacing bourgeois humanism with scientific Communism as the only objective law of history.
     What does this story have to do with Mr. Wang Ruoshui? It seems to me, Just like this psychology student, Mr. Mr. Wang kept challenging scientific Communism and tried to bring back the lost dimension of "humanity" to Chinese society, since there is no place for humanity and individual value in the official ideology of Marxism. Wang's painful experience within the Communist Party told him that, the communists are supposed to be made, not of flesh and blood, but of special stuff without individual freewill, dignity, integrity or mercy. They are denied the right of individual thinking. Their work is just to "do and die, never reason why". It seemed to people like Mr. Wang that the fatal error of scientific communism is that it has lost the sight of man, or in Wang"s term, "humanity". Therefore, Wang declared himself to be a Marxist humanist.
     But in the eyes of Mr. Deng Xiaoping and his followers, a Marxist humanist is not a Marxist in "genuine" sense, but a bourgeois humanist, a bad element of the bourgeois liberal intelligentsia. Deng was in fact right. Marxism as scientific communism denounces humanity. Deng was also right in making no distinction between Marxist humanists such as Wang Ruoshui and other non-Marxist liberal intellectuals. According to Communists like Deng Xiaoping, official (scientific) Marxism will not tolerate Wang's Marxist humanism. This is for two reasons. First, Marxist humanism is not "scientific". Second, any calls for humanity and individual worth are dangerous. A communist regime is only safe and stable when humanity and individual worth are extinguished. Any attempts and efforts to bring "humanity" back are considered to be subversive to the Communist rule. But Wang, with his extraordinary courage and conscience, embraced this impossible mission and got his due. He was dismissed from his position at the People's Daily in 1983 and he was expelled from the Party in 1987.
     People might say, since Deng Xiaoping was gone and China has changed a lot, the CCP might have changed its negative attitude toward humanism and individual worth. No, not yet! Deng's successors have inherited his political legacy of anti-bourgeois liberalization and so far have shown no intention to rehabilitate Mr. Wang and to resume his Party membership. Ask those people who were banned recently from organizing a seminar in honor of Mr. Wang in Beijing's Peace Hotel! Ask those people who have been persecuted in recent years because of "spreading" bourgeois individualism and liberal ideas.
     Wang Ruoshui was not alone in his efforts to bring back "humanity". But to a very great extent, Wang's humanism pioneered the way for the reemergence of liberalism in today's China. Wang's humanism has been echoed very favorably from the Chinese liberals, both young and old. People of the younger generation have been very much influenced by his concern for humanity and individual worth, encouraged by his courage to work for them. All liberal intellectuals share his aspirations for a humane alternative to scientific Communism, and are continuing on with his mission to bring back "humanity" and individual freedom, which are franchises of a free and humane society. He will be remembered as a great humanist in a society where humanity and individual dignity are so scare and invaluable.

 

(Speech, Thursday, May 16, 2002 3:00-5:00PM, Lower Level Auditorium Center for European Studies, 27 Kirkland Street, Cambridge)

原文网址:http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~fairbank/about/wangruoshui.html
   

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