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大师解释什么是市场,什么是价格

(2008-09-08 11:44:33)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 杂谈

“Nobody knows how to make a pencil. There’s not a single person in the world who actually knows how to make a pencil.

没有人知道如何制造铅笔,准确的说,世界上没有单独的一个人精确的知道如何去制造一只铅笔

“In order to make a pencil, you have to get wood for the barrel. In order to get wood, you have to have logging. You have to have somebody who can manufacture saws. No single person knows how to do all that.

要制造一只铅笔,你必须获得制作笔筒需要的木头,要活得木头,你必须伐木,必须有人为你提供电锯你才能伐木。没有单独的一个人知道做这所有的一切事情

“What’s called lead isn’t lead. It’s graphite. It comes from some mines in South America. In order to make pencils, you’d have to be able to get the lead.

大家看到的笔芯并不是笔芯,它是石墨。是来自南美洲的一种矿产,为了制造铅笔,你必须能够获得它

“The rubber at the tip isn’t really rubber, but it used to be. It comes from Malaysia, although the rubber tree is not native to Malaysia. It was imported into Malaysia by some English botanists.

还要铅笔的橡皮擦也不是橡皮,但它曾经是。 它是产自马来西亚。尽管马来西亚并不是原来就有橡胶树,是英国的植物学家引进的。

“So, in order to make a pencil, you would have to be able to do all of these things. There are probably thousands of people who have cooperated together to make this pencil. Somehow or other, the people in South America who dug out the graphite cooperated with the people in Malaysia who tapped the rubber trees, cooperated with, maybe, people in Oregon who cut down the trees.

为了制造铅笔,你必须能够获得这一切。可能有上千人一起合作才能制造一只铅笔。一些南美的人哇石墨矿产,一些马来西亚的人在橡胶树上取得橡胶,可能还有美国俄勒冈州的人可能帮忙伐木。

“These thousands of people don’t know one another. They speak different languages. They come from different religions. They might hate one another if they met. What is it that enabled them to cooperate together?

成千上万的人互相不认识,讲不同的语言,来自不同的地区,甚至相互憎恨对方,但什么令到他们在一起合作?

“The answer is the existence of a market.

这个答案就是市场

“The simple answer is the people in South America were led to dig out the graphite because somebody was willing to pay them. They didn’t have to know who was paying them; they didn’t have to know what it was going to be used for. All they had to know was somebody was going to pay them.

南美的人愿意挖石墨矿因为有人愿意购买它。他们不知道谁付钱,也不知道用来干什么,他们只知道有人愿意购买它。

“What brought all these people together was an enormously complex structure of prices - the price of graphite, the price of lumber, the price of rubber, the wages paid to the laborer, and so on. It’s a marvelous example of how you can get a complex structure of cooperation and coordination which no individual planned.

所有买的东西在一起构成一个及其庞大的复杂的结构,而这个结构的核心就是价格,石墨的价格,木材的价格,橡胶的价格,劳动力的价格,等等。制造铅笔是一个说明市场运行的一个令人惊叹的例子,所有这些这些东西能够不需要任何独立的计划组合在一起。

“There was nobody who sat in a central office and sent an order out to Malaysia: ‘Produce more rubber.’ It was the market that coordinated all of this without anybody having to know all of the people involved.”

没有人能够坐在一个中央办公室里面命令马来西亚人,生产多点橡胶。市场会在没有任何人指挥的情况下自动进行调整

华君注:市场是不是令人惊异的伟大? 大师就是大师,没有老师和我解释市场经济是这样一个伟大的东西,价格是怎样一个伟大的东西。我们从来不讨论如何去敬畏它(价格),喜欢讨论如何去控制它。20年钱我们讨论如何解放价格,发明了“价格双轨制”这个怪物,今天我们发展了,有点钱了,就开始讨论又开始讨论如何管制它(房价,物价),价格是政策可以管得了的吗?管了以后“铅笔”的生产链条断了,生产不出来谁负责?粮食,猪肉生产不出来谁负责?有人担心猪肉价格太高我们就吃不上猪肉了,恰恰相反价格的存在,市场的存在,就是要解决稀缺的问题。

地震赈灾,政府拨款700个亿,貌似很多,但我们是要依靠伟大的政府还是要依靠伟大的市场?

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