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中国成《京都议定书》最大受益者

(2008-05-27 11:27:20)
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军事

京都议定书

分类: 政治-经济热点--时事焦点

中国成《京都议定书》最大受益者

来源:英国金融时报

 

中国已成为《京都议定书》的明显赢家,在低碳技术领域收到巨额美元投资。

去年,在联合国根据议定书认证的碳排放额度(carbon credit)项目当中,有73%位于中国。

在其余国家中,巴西与印度的份额最大,分别获得6%,而只有5%的项目位于非洲。

  根据《京都议定书》的“清洁发展机制”(clean development mechanism),富国可通过资助发展中国家的减排项目,帮助自己达到减少碳排放的指标。这些项目包括风力发电机、从下水道获取甲烷、以及用于过滤工厂烟囱内有害工业气体的技术。

  中国获益最丰的领域是工业气体减排项目,尤其是制冷剂副产品氢氟烃(HFC)。全球多数产生氢氟烃的工厂都在中国。

  标准银行(Standard Bank)有许多业务来自新兴经济体,该行排放业务负责人杰夫•辛克莱(Geoff Sinclair)称:“很遗憾非洲没有怎么获益。”他表示,这在一定程度上是由于现行体系鼓励大量投资于消除氢氟烃排放。安装消除这种气体的设备,成本相对较低,却能产生大量碳排放额度,因为这种气体对气候的有害程度是二氧化碳的1.1万倍。

  针对氢氟烃排放的新项目数量正在减少,因为可供安装清洁设备的工厂已所剩无几。

  目前,多数减排项目聚焦于能源效率及转向更清洁能源。但这些努力也会使那些工业基础较大的国家受益,因此碳排放资金在非洲大幅上升的前景仍然不佳。

 

英文原文:

Chinese reap biggest Kyoto rewards


  China has been by far the biggest winner from the Kyoto protocol, receiving tens of billions of dollars in investment to finance low-carbon technology.

  Last year, 73 per cent of carbon credit projects certified by the United Nations under the protocol were based in China.

  Brazil and India received the next largest shares at 6 per cent each, while only 5 per cent of projects were based in Africa.
    Under the Kyoto treaty, the “clean development mechanism” enables rich countries to meet part of their target to cut carbon emissions by funding the development of projects to reduce emissions in developing nations. These include wind turbines, capturing methane from sewage works and technology used in factory chimneys to destroy harmful industrial gases.

China has benefited most through projects that reduce industrial gases, particularly HFC, a byproduct of making refrigerants. Most of the world's factories that produce HFC are in China.

Geoff Sinclair, head of emissions at Standard Bank, which does much of its business in emerging economies, said it was “a shame Africa has not benefited by much”. He said this was partly because the system was unbalanced by large investments in destroying HFC. Installing equipment to destroy the gas is relatively inexpensive but generates large volumes of carbon credits because the gas is more than 11,000 times more harmful to the climate than carbon dioxide.

The number of new projects targeting HFC emissions is falling as developers run out of factories in which to install the cleaning equipment.

Most emission-reducing projects now focus on energy efficiency and switching away from dirtier fuels. But these efforts also benefit countries with a large industrial base so the prospect of large increases incarbon finance flows to Africa remains poor.

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