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杜威:我的教学信条(3)

(2006-05-05 03:48:43)
分类: 译文

I believe that it is also a social necessity because the home is the form of social life in which the child has been nurtured and in connection with which he has had his moral training. It is the business of the school to deepen and extend his sense of the values bound up in his home life.

我相信,在社会意义上那也是必要的,因为家庭是社会生活的形式,儿童就是在家庭里养育起来的,他也是在与家庭的联系中得到了道德的训练。把儿童在家庭生活里得到的价值观予以深化和扩展,是学校的任务。

 

I believe that much of present education fails because it neglects this fundamental principle of the school as a form of community life. It conceives the school as a place where certain information is to be given, where certain lessons are to be ]earned, or where certain habits are to be formed. The value of these is conceived as lying largely in the remote future; the child must do these things for the sake of something else he is to do; they are mere preparation. As a result they do not become a part of the life experience of the child and so are not truly educative.

我相信,目前的教育在很大程度上是失败的,因为它忽视了作为社会生活的学校的这些基本原则。它把学校设想成了一个提供某些信息的地方,一个学习某些课程的地方,或者一个形成某些习惯的地方。这些做法所包含的价值观的形成,大体上是基于遥远的未来;孩子们必须做这些事情,这是为了他将来要做的其他事情;那些活动都仅仅是做准备。因此,那些活动不能成为儿童生活经验的一部分,因此那不是真正的教育。

 

I believe that the moral education centers upon this conception of the school as a mode of social life, that the best and deepest moral training is precisely that which one gets through having to enter into proper relations with others in a unity of work and thought. The present educational systems, so far as they destroy or neglect this unity, render it difficult or impossible to get any genuine, regular moral training.

我相信,道德教育要以学校是社会生活的模型这个概念为核心。我相信,最好的、最深刻的道德训练,正是一个人在工作和思想集体中必得和他人结成恰当的关系的时候所得到的那种道德训练。目前的教育体系,就其破坏或忽视这种集体而言,要得到任何真正而正规的道德训练,是很难的或者不可能的。

 

I believe that the child should be stimulated and controlled in his work through the life of the community.

我相信,孩子应该在其社会生活的工作中得到刺激和控制。

 

I believe that under existing conditions far too much of the stimulus and control proceeds from the teacher, because of neglect of the idea of the school as a form of social life.

我相信,在现存条件下,由于忽视了学校作为社会生活的形式这一观念,太多的刺激和控制来自教师。

 

I believe that the teacher's place and work in the school is to be interpreted from this same basis. The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas or to form certain habits in the child, but is there as a member of the community to select the influences which shall affect the child and to assist him in properly responding to these influences.

我相信,教师在学校中的位置和工作,能够从同样的基础上得到解释。教师在学校里不要把某些观念或者某些习惯强加于儿童,而是要以社会的一员的身份,来选择一些有影响力的东西以影响儿童,并帮助他以恰当的方式来应对这些有影响力的东西。

 

I believe that the discipline of the school should proceed from the life of the school as a whole and not directly from the teacher.

我相信,学校的纪律应该来自于作为一个整体的学校生活,而不是直接来自教师。

 

I believe that the teacher's business is simply to determine on the basis of larger experience and riper wisdom, how the discipline of life shall come to the child.

我相信,教师的工作,是根据较多的经验和较成熟的智慧,来决定生活的纪律将如何贯彻到儿童那里。

 

I believe that all questions of the grading of the child and his promotion should be determined by reference to the same standard. Examinations are of use only so far as they test the child's fitness for social life and reveal the place in which he can be of the most service and where he can receive the most help.

我相信,关于对儿童的评分、关于他的升学的一切他,也应该根据同样的标准来决定。考试只是为考察儿童对社会生活的适应力,发现他能为社会提供最大的服务、能够得到最多的帮助的那个位置,如此考试才是有用的。

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