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民航英语

(2007-12-16 17:57:13)
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学习公社

Flight

A railway locomotive has one freedom of motion.

一个火车头有一个运动自由度。

Directed by its track, it can only go forward or backward.

由轨道指引,火车可以向前或向后运动。

A car, under the direction of its driver, has two freedoms motion, it can also turn left or right.

一辆汽车有两个运动自由度,在司机的指引下汽车还可以向左转向右转。

But an aircraft has three freedoms of motion, it can be made to climb or dive.

但是以及飞机由三个运动自由度,它可以爬升或者俯冲。

Within each of the three freedoms of motion, an aircraft has two others.

三个运动自由度中,每一个都有两个相反的动作。

It can pitch nose-up or down about an imaginary line stretching from wing-tip to wing-tip---its lateral axis.

它可以绕着一个从左翼尖连到右翼尖的虚轴来完成俯或仰,这个轴就是横轴。

It can roll about a line from nose to tail --- the longitudinal axis; and it can yaw, left or right, about the vertical axis.

他可以绕着从机头到机尾的纵轴来翻滚;并且可以绕着竖轴向左或向右偏航。

The fuselage and wings along would, like a dart without flights, be too unstable to fly.

只有机翼和机身对于飞行来说就像一个标枪没有羽翎,很不稳定。

An aircraft has to be stabilized about its three axes of rotation by adding a tailplane (horizontal stabilizer) for pitch, a fin (vertical stabilizer) for yaw, and by setting the wings at a positive dihedral angle (an angle raised from the horizontal plane) for roll.

一架飞机通过三个坐标州的转换实现稳定,增加一个平尾(水平安定面)可以实现俯仰,增加一个垂尾(垂直安定面)可以实现偏航,通过使机翼处于正上反角的状态实现翻滚。

Control about each axis is provided by manipulating hinged control surfaces on the aircraft.

通过控制在飞机上铰接在一起的控制板来控制每个轴。

Elevators on the tailplane control pitch.

平尾上的升降舵控制俯仰。

Raising them causes down-load on the tailplane, which drops, and the nose pitches up, the reverse happens if they are lowered.

扬起升降舵会使平尾朝下,平尾向下,机头就会扬起,相反,如果降下升降舵,平尾向上,机头就会降低。

The rudder controls yaw exactly like the rudder on a boat.

方向舵控制偏航就想船上的方向舵一样。

Swinging it to the right forces the tail left and the plane yaws to the right; swinging it left has the opposite effect.

把方向舵向右转就会是机尾向左,飞机向右偏航;把方向舵向右转效果是相反的。

The ailerons are moved in opposite senses to make the plane roll.

副翼向相反的方向转动就会使得飞机翻滚。

Lift is lost on the wing where the aileron is raised, but it increases on the side where the lowered aileron increases the camber of the wing.

副翼扬起的时候机翼的胜利就会减小,但是副翼降下的一边会增加机翼的弯曲度。

On modern jets almost the entire leading and trailing edges are taken up by lift-increasing flaps and slats for takeoff and landing.

在现在的喷气机上,几乎所有的前后缘都被用于起飞和降落的提高升力的襟翼和缝翼所占据。

Ailerons are smaller than on the older jets, and they are aided by spoilers mounted on the tops of the wing.

副翼比旧式喷气机上的要小,装载机翼顶部的扰流片可以辅助副翼。

When a spoiler is raised, the wing on that side drops.

当一个扰流片扬起的时候,另一边的机翼就会下降。

When both are raised, overall lift fall and drag increases, so the aircraft descends.

当两边的扰流片都扬起时,升力就会下降,阻力增加,飞机下降。

Like a bicycle, an aircraft turns by banking.

像自行车那样,飞机依靠倾斜实现转弯。

To turn left, the pilot deflects the ailerons so that the left aileron goes up to make the left wing incline downward and the right aileron goes down to make the right wing tilt up.

向左转时,飞行员偏转副翼使得左副翼向上,左边的机翼向下倾斜,右边的副翼向下,右边的机翼向上倾斜。

The lift force is pulled inward, away from the vertical.

升力向前拉,远离竖轴。

The elevator, tilted upward-slightly, increases the down-load, in the tail.

升降舵稍微向前倾斜,增加了机尾向下的载荷。

Centrifugal force plays a counter-balancing role, pulling the aircraft outward, to the right; held in equilibrium, the aircraft turns smoothly.

离心力控制平衡,把飞机向右边外拉,在平衡的状态下,飞机平稳的转弯。

The rudder plays a secondary role during a turn it is used to prevent yawing.

在转弯时,方向舵发挥的作用仅次于离心力,方向舵用来防止偏航。

If a pilot tries to turn with the rudder alone, centrifugal force makes the aircraft skid out the sideways.

当飞行员尝试只用方向舵转弯时,离心力就会使飞机侧滑。

Often the rudder is controlled in flight by one or more automatic yaw dampers, robot devices which, together with many others, handle corrections on modern airliners.

通常在飞行中方向舵都是有一个或多个自动偏航阻尼器控制的,在现代飞机上,自动装置和其他的装置一起处理偏航修正。

As an aircraft approaches higher speeds close to the speed of sound trim will be changed automatically to keep the fuselage level.

当飞机接近音速飞行时,配平会自动调节来确保机身的水平。

This compensates backward movement of the lift forces as shockwaves develop.

这样补偿了当激波产生时升力向后的运动。

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