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民航英语翻译——费了老半天的劲翻译的,放上来自恋一下!

(2007-12-16 17:50:31)
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Aircraft Design

Aircraft in a variety of shapes took to the air after World War I .

一战后,各种形状的飞机飞上天空。

Some were more efficient than others, but their speed, around 90 mph, was mot too much testing of their design and structure.

其中的一些比其他的飞机效率高,但是他们的速度,90海里/小时左右,对于他们的设计和结构来说不太合适。

Gradually, as cantilever monoplanes proved their efficiency, less economical designs were discarded, and aircraft took on a more stereotyped look.

随着悬臂单翼机的效率被证实,不经济的设计逐渐被淘汰,飞机呈现出一种陈规的外型。

The last important piston-engined airliners, the Lockheed Constelation(1943) and the Douglas DC-6(1946), were basically similar.

权威的活塞发动机飞机Lockheed COCnstelation以及道格拉斯DC-6在本质上来说是相似的。

In 1954 the celebrated Boeing 707 established a basic configuration for the four-engined jetliner and serves to illustrate the classic shape.

1954年,著名的波音707建立了四发动机喷气式客机的基本构造,并且成为了经典机型的说明。

From a distance it looks just like its close rival, the Douglas DC-8.

707从远距离看上去和它的对手道格拉斯DC-8很相像。

The classic sweptback shape enables jets to fly up to a speed of MACH 0.8(about 550 mph) and to slow down, using complex flaps and slats, to speeds safe for takeoff and landing.

经典的后掠翼形状的设计使飞机可以以马赫数0.8(大约550海里/小时)的速度飞行,并且使用复杂的襟翼和缝翼可以减速到安全起飞和着陆的速度。

The cruising speed is unlikely to be surpassed by airliners designed for subsonic flight; the extra strength and weight [a faster jet would need to resist the onset of shockwaves] [caused by flying close to the speed of sound-around 660 mph-]would be reflected in its running costs.

巡航速度不太可能被亚音速飞机超过,额外的强度和重量会反映在飞行成本上,一架速度更快的喷气机需要抵制由于接近音速飞行(大概660海里/小时)而产生的激波这种症状。

The 707 needed four turbojets to travel intercontinental distances.

波音707需要四个涡喷发动机来完成在大陆间的航行。

If one or even two engines failed, the plane could still fly.

如果一个或两个发动机熄火了,飞机可以继续飞行。

But today’s turbofan engines are so powerful and reliable that four may not be justified in future airliners.

但是现在的涡扇发动机功率很大并且很可靠,四发动机对于未来的飞机或许就不太合理了。

The newest medium-range airliners have two engines, and medium and long-range planes have three.

最新的中程客机装有两个发动机,中远程客机装有三个发动机。

In 1955 the Caravelle appeared with two engines attached to the rear of the fuselage.

1955年的Caravelle飞机在机身后部装有两台发动机。

This configuration became another classic formula.

这种布局成为了另一种经典结构。

The bow-wave, the region of disturbed air around aircraft engines, could damage a tailplane (stabilizer) if the engines were located near it,so tailplanes of rear-engined aircraft are mounted above the jets, often above the fins (horizontal stabilizer).

如果平尾装在接近弓形波,也就是飞机发动机周围产生干扰气流的区域,弓形波就会破坏平尾(安定面),因此发动机装在机身后部的飞机的平尾被安置在喷气机的上面,通常是在垂尾(水平安定面)的上面。

The most noticeable innovation in recent years has been in the size of subsonic jets, but Boeing 747 looks like a scaled-up version of the trend-setting 707, and designers of other wide-bodied jets have not deviated from the classic norm.

最近几年来最显著的改进就是亚音速喷气机的机身型号,但是波音747看上去就像是先驱707按比例放大的型式,其他宽体客机的制造者也没有偏离经典的机型。

The long narrow delta shape of supersonic aircraft is an example of aesthetic functionalism, an extreme form of streamlining that is essential to minimize drag.

超音速飞机的长窄三角翼型设计是美观实用原则的代表,极度的流线型设计对于将阻力降到最低是必要的。

Experience in supersonic flight is modifying subsonic aircraft.

超音速飞行的经验可以修正亚音速飞行。

The Airbus, perhaps the most advanced subsonic airliner in use, has wings designed so that lift is spread along their breadths.

空客,也许是现使用中最先进的亚音速客机,它们的翼型设计使得升力沿客机的宽度伸展开来。

They give a better performance, with less sweepback, at high and low speeds.

空客的设计展示出了一个在高速和低速飞行时减少后掠的更好的机身外貌。

But it is unlikely that the shape of subsonic aircraft will change radically in the foreseeable future.

但在可预见的未来,亚音速飞机的形状不会发生根本的改变。

Aircraft structure

Today’s airliners fly ten to 12 hours a day for 20 years or more.

今日的客机可以飞行20年或者更久,每天飞行10到12个小时。

The stresses produced by continual movement, and even intense noise, cause fatigue, the cracking and breaking that occurs in metals under constant flexure.

持续的运动甚至是强烈的噪音产生的应力会导致疲劳、不断弯曲的金属出现的裂缝和破损。

Fatigue is an aging process that cannot be avoided, but weak points such as holes and joins can be reduced by using adhesives instead of rivets and bolts, and by casting wing skins in gigantic panels.

疲劳是一个无可避免的老化的过程,但是像开口和接头这样的薄弱的部位可以使用胶粘剂粘合来代替铆钉和螺栓,并且用大的板材来铸造机翼。

Fatigue can start from a scratch, so surfaces are polished and sharp corners rounded off.

疲劳可以从一次擦伤开始,所以飞机的表面以及锋利的棱角都被磨的圆滑。

Safe limits are set to the lives of susceptible components, and frequent testing and replacement ensure that catastrophes no longer happen.

安全保障依赖于飞机上敏感部件的寿命,定期的测试以及更换部件可以确保灾难不再发生。

 

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