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[动画]原则

(2008-04-11 20:53:08)
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杂谈

 动画原则

Effective animation design requires more than simply rendering a character.有效的动画设计,需要的不仅仅是简单地绘制一个字符。 Successful animators follow a variety of principles and techniques to create "believable" characters.成功的漫画家后续的各种原则和技巧,以创建"可信"字。

Squash and Stretch 壁球和舒展

There should be a degree of distortion as an animated object moves.应该有某种程度的失真作为动画物体的动作。 The amount of deformation that occurs reflects the rigidity of that object.额变形出现,反映了刚性的那个对象。 Flattening or elongating a part of a character's body as it moves helps you convey the nature and composition of the character.压扁或伸长的一部分,一个人物的身体,因为它的动作可以帮助你转达的性质和成分的性质。

Anticipation 期待

Anticipation sets the stage for an upcoming action.期待了大显身手的舞台,为即将到来的行动。 Without anticipatory actions, body movements look abrupt, rigid, and unnatural.没有预见性的行动,身体动作看突然,僵硬,不自然。 This principle is based on how a body moves in the real world.这个原则是基于怎样一个机构的动作在现实世界中。 Movement in one direction often begins with movement in the opposite direction.运动的一个方向,往往是从运动中的相反的方向发展。 Legs contract before a jump.双腿合同之前跳。 To exhale, you first inhale.以喷,你第一次呼吸很困难。 Anticipatory action also has an important role in communicating the nature of both the character and the action and helps your audience prepare for the action.有预见性的行动,也有其重要作用,在沟通的性质,双方的性质和行动,并帮助你的听众准备行动。 A key aspect of creating a believable character involves demonstrating that the character's actions stem from a purposeful intent.的一个关键方面创造一个可信的品格,涉及显示了性格的行动源于一个有意义的意图。 Anticipation helps communicate the character's motivation to the audience.预期,有利于沟通性质的动机,给观众。

Timing 时间

Timing defines the nature of an action.时间界定性质的一项行动。 The speed that a head moves from left to right conveys whether a character is casually looking around or giving a negative response.车速一个头部动作,从左至右依次为传达是否性格是轻描淡写地环顾左右,或给予了否定的答复。 Timing also helps convey the weight and size of an object.定时,也有利于传达重量和大小的一个对象。 Larger objects tend to take longer to accelerate and decelerate than smaller ones.较大的物体,往往需要较长时间的加速和减速比必作于细。 In addition, the pacing of a character's movements affects how it draws attention.此外,起搏的一个人物的动向如何影响它提请人们注意。 In a normal scenario, rapid motion draws the eye, while in a frenetic environment, stationary or slow movements may have the same effect.在一个正常的情况下,快速议案,提请眼睛,而在这样一个疯狂的环境,静止或缓慢运动,可产生同样的效果。

Staging 分期

The background and props a character uses can also convey its mood or purpose.背景和道具的特色用途也可以传达其情绪或目的。 Staging also includes what the character wears, lighting effects, viewing angle, and the presence of other characters.分期还包括什么性格穿,灯光效果,视角,和在场的其他字符。 These elements all contribute to reinforcing a character's personality, objectives, and actions.这些因素都有助于加强一个人物的个性,目标和行动。 Effective staging involves understanding how to direct the eye to where you want to communicate.有效分期牵涉了解如何直接眼的地方,你要多沟通。

Follow-Through and Overlapping Action 后续通过和重叠行动

Just as a golfer's follow-through communicates the result of the swing, the transition from one action to the next is important in communicating the relationship between the actions.正如一位打高尔夫球的后续透过沟通的结果,秋千,转变,从单一行动到下一个重要的是在沟通的关系的行动。 Actions rarely come to a sudden and complete stop.行动很少来突然间完全停止。 So, too, follow-through and overlapping actions allow you to establish the flow of the character's motion.因此,太,后续通过和重叠的行动,让您建立的流动性质的议案。 You can typically implement this by varying the speed at which different parts of a body move, allowing movement beyond the primary aspect of the motion.你可以通常执行这项由不同的速度在不同部位的一个机构提出,让运动超越了主要方面的议案。 For example, the fingers of a hand typically follow the movement of the wrist in a hand gesture.举例来说,手指的手通常跟随运动的手腕在一个手势。 This principle also emphasizes that actions should not come to a complete stop, but smoothly blend into other actions.这一原则也强调,行动不应该发展到一个完全停止,但顺利地融入其他行动的可能性。

Slow In-and-Out 慢和出

Slow in-and-out refers to moving a character smoothly from one pose to another.慢和出指移动一个字符顺利地从一对到另一个地方。 The character begins and ends actions slowly.性格开始和结束的行动进展缓慢。 You accomplish this by the number, timing, and location of "in-between" frames.你完成这项工作由数量,时间和地点的"在两位之间的"帧。 The more in-between frames you include, the slower and smoother the transition.越是在画框之间,你包括,慢平滑过渡。

Arcs 弧线

Living objects in nature rarely move in a perfectly straight line.生命物体在性质上很少在一个完美的直线。 As a result, arcs or curved paths for movement provide more natural effects.因此,圆弧或曲线路径,为运动提供更自然的效果。 Arcs also convey speed of motion.弧,也传达速度议案。 The slower the motion, the higher the arc, and the faster the motion, the flatter the arc.较慢的议案,越高的电弧,以及更快的议案,谄媚电弧。

Exaggeration 夸张

Good animators often exaggerate the shape, color, emotion, or actions of a character.好的漫画家往往夸大形状,颜色,情感,或行动的一个人物。 Making aspects of the motion "larger than life" more clearly communicates the idea of the action to the audience.决策方面,委员们提出的"大于生命"更清楚地传达想法的行动给观众。 For example, a character's arms may stretch to the point that they appear elastic.举例来说,一个人物的武器,可拉伸到如此地步,他们似乎弹性。 However, exaggeration must be balanced.然而,毫不夸张地必须保持平衡。 If used in some situations and not others, the exaggerated action may appear unrealistic and may be interpreted by the user as having a particular meaning.如果用在某些情况下,并没有其他人,夸张的行动可能出现不切实际的,并可能被解释由用户具有特别的意义。 Similarly, if you exaggerate one aspect of an image, consider what other aspects should be exaggerated to match.同样,如果你夸大某一方面的一个形象,考虑什么其他方面应该被夸大,以配合。

Secondary Action 二次行动

Animation requires more than the mechanistic creation of in-between images from one pose to the next.动画需要更多的比机械创作中的图像间由一所构成的未来。 A primary action is typically supported by secondary actions.一个主要的行动是典型的支持二次行动。 Secondary actions can enhance the presentation, but should not detract from or dominate the main action.二次行动,可以加强陈述意见,但不应当削弱或占主导地位的主要行动。 Facial expressions can often be used as secondary actions to body movement.面部表情往往可以被用来作为二次行动,以身体运动。 Richness comes from adding elements that support the main idea.富裕来自于添加的内容支持,其主要思想。

Solid Drawing 坚实的绘画

Creating an animated character involves more than creating a series of images.创造一个动画人物涉及以上,创造了一系列的图象。 Effective animation design considers how the character looks in different positions and from different angles.有效的动画设计思考如何规范字看来,在不同的立场,并从不同的角度。 Even characters rendered as two-dimensional images become more realistic and believable if considered conceptually in three dimensions.连字符变成为两维图像变得更加现实和可信的,如果认为是在理念上,在三个方面。 Avoid twins: mirroring the position the face, arms, and legs on both sides of the body.避免双胞胎:镜像立场面对,手臂,腿部,并就双方的身体。 This results in a wooden, unnatural presentation.这个结果在一个木制的,非自然的介绍。 Body movement is rarely symmetrical, but involves overall balancing of posture or reactions.身体运动是很少对称,但涉及整体平衡的姿势或反应。

Appeal 上诉

Successful implementation depends on how well you understand your audience.成功实施取决于如何好,你了解你的听众。 Your character's overall image and personality should appeal to your target audience; appeal does not require photo-realism.你的性格的整体形象和人格应吸引你的目标受众;上诉不需要照片写实。 A character's personality can be conveyed—no matter how simple its shape—by using gestures, posture, and other mannerisms.一个人物的性格,可以转达了-不管多么简单,其形状用手势,姿态,和其他地。 A common assignment of beginning animators is to create a variety of expressions for a flour sack or small rug.一个共同的转让开始漫画家就是要创造一个多种表现形式为面粉一袋或小毯。 Characters with simple shapes are often more effective than complex ones.汉字与简单形状往往更有效,比复杂的。 Consider, for example, that many popular characters have only three fingers and a thumb.考虑,例如,许多受欢迎的人物,只有3个手指和一个拇指。

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