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Education  教育之一

(2006-06-09 11:13:34)
分类: 英/美国常识

 The school system  学校体系

 

Education is compulsory from the age of five to sixteen, and there is usually a move from primary to secondary school at about the age of eleven, but schools are organized in a number of different ways. The Department of Education maintains overall control although local education authorities and head teachers have considerable powers in planning and administration. Plans were introduced into Parliament in 1988 for more centralized control, introducing a national curriculum for all schools.

Until the 1960s most children took an examination at the end of primary school. Those who passed went to grammar schools while those who did not went to secondary modern schools.

A few areas still select at the age of eleven, but about 90 percent of secondary schools in Britain are now comprehensive, taking children of all abilities from their local area.

Most parents choose to send their children to free state schools financed from public funds but an increasing number of secondary pupils attend fee-paying independent schools outside the state system. Many of these are boarding schools, which provide accommodation for pupils during term time. Many independent boarding schools are confusingly called public schools in England and Wales. Schools in Britain have three terms a year, each with a short half-term break in the middle, and longer holidays at Christmas and Easter and in the summer.

 

516岁为义务教育阶段。通常孩子们在11岁从小学升上中学。但是学校的形式多种多样。尽管当地教育部门和校长们有相当大的自由进行计划和管理,但是所有的学校都由教育部全面控制。1988年,议会通过了一项加强教育中央控制的议案,引入了全国性的课程设计。

20世纪60年代之前,大多数学生在小学毕业时要参加升学考试。通过考试的学生进入文法学校,没通过的就进入中级现代中学。

现在某些地区仍然在11岁时举行升学考试,但是如今约90%的英国中学是综合学校,不分资质招收当地学生。

多数家长把他们的小孩送进免费的公立学校,但越来越多的中学生进入国立体制以外的收费的独立学校念书。这当中很多是寄宿学校,在学习期间为学生提供住宿。英格兰和威尔士的许多独立寄宿学校被称作“public school”,很容易引起混淆。英国的学校一年有三个学期,每学期中有一个短短的期中假,圣诞节、复活节和夏季才放长假。

 

 

Different types of secondary schools in Britain英国中学的种类

 

Comprehensive schools. Over 85 per cent of secondary school pupils go to comprehensive schools. These take children of all abilities, and provide a wide range of secondary education for all or most of the children in a district from the age of 11 to 16 or 18.

 

综合学校。超过85%的中学生进入综合学校就读。这类学校不分资质招生,为当地1116乃至18岁的所有或大多数孩子提供中学教育。

 

Grammar schools offer a mainly academic education for the 11 to 18-year age group. Children enter grammar schools on the basis of their abilities, first sitting the “11” plus or entrance examination. Grammar schools cater for four per cent of children in secondary education.

 

文法学校招收1118岁的学生。资质好的孩子才能进入文法学校,要在考试中名列前茅。文法学校的学生占总中学生人数的4.

 

Secondary modern schools caters a small minority of children (around four per cent). These schools provide a more general and technical education for children aged 11-16.

 

中级现代中学招生人数很少(约4%)。这些中学为11-16岁的学生提供一般的或技术教育。

 

City Technology Colleges (CTCs) aim to give boys and girls a broad secondary education with a strong technological and business slant. They are non-fee paying independent schools, set up by the Government with the help of business sponsors who finance a large proportion of the initial capital costs and develop links with the schools. There are now 15 such colleges in operation in England and Wales.

 

城市技术学院旨在为有技术和商业潜质的男孩女孩们提供广阔的中级技术教育。这类学校是免费的,由国家建立,商家赞助出资作为启动资金并帮学校发展与各学校的联系。现在英格兰和威尔士有15家城市技术学院。

 

Specialist schools, which only operate in England, give pupils a broad secondary education with a strong emphasis on technology, languages, arts or sports. There are over 250 specialist schools. They charge no fees and any secondary school can apply for specialist school status.

 

特色学校,只见于英格兰,为学生提供全面的中级教育,但是侧重于技术、语言、艺术或体育。此类学校约有250间。特色学校不收费,任何一家中学都可以申请特色学校的地位。

 

     ——本文摘自《英国常识》,不得转载,谢谢合作。

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