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不要忽视机会成

(2006-03-07 00:54:43)
一位经济学教授问他的学生:
An economics student whom professor ask him:

An economics student whom professor ask him:
 
“有一个商人,他要运一批黑色的衬衣到非洲去卖。
" there is a businessman, he wants to carry a black underclothing
 
goes to Africa to sell.
你们想一想,他这一笔买卖的成本该怎样算?
You consider, he should the cost of this business calculate how?
”学生们议论纷纷,有的说要算运输费,有的说要进口税……等大家静下来,教授正色道:
" student the comment is in droves, having of say that to calculate the traffic expense, have of say that want the import duty …… wait everybody quiets down, positive color way in professor:
 
“我问你们,谁看见过曼德拉穿黑衬衣?
" I ask you, who saw the 曼 the virtuous pulling to wear the black underclothing?
”学生们面面相觑,原来气候炎热,太阳光照射强,谁穿上黑色衬衣,皮肤就会灼伤。
" student in every aspect and mutually , originally the weather is blazing hot, the sun light projects light upon strong, who put on the black underclothing, skin will burn.
教授叹了口气说:
The professor sighed the tone says:
 
“无知才是最大的成本。
" it is stupid to is just biggest cost.
 成本有两种,一种是上面学生们讲的经营成本,另一种是教授讲的成本,即机会成本。
  The cost has two kinds of, a kind of is top that cost that management cost students speak, another a kind of is a professor to speak, namely opportunity cost.
 
有人说,生活中遇到的一切问题都可以从“成本”的角度去看。
Someone says, living the whole problems that inside meet can see from the angle of the " cost".
 
比如经济工作中的决策成本,表现在资源配置、产品开发等方面;
The decision cost of the for example economic work inside, express in the aspects of resources installing, product development waiting;
 
比如道德成本,表现在诚信、公平等方面。
For example morals cost, express in the aspects of trustworthiness, fair etc..
 
由于资本的趋利性,市场化的资源配置具有作出收益最大化选择的内在机制,一旦实践证明该决策并非最优,决策者便具有调整决策的内在驱动力。
Because tending the benefit capitally, the resources that market turn installs to have to make the inside mechanism of maximizing the choice in income, once practice the proof should make policy not superior, the decision maker has then the internality of the adjustment decision drives the dint.
 
但是,掌握决策者在决策时,不仅要考虑将要发生的成本,还要考虑机会成本;
But, control the decision maker while making policy, not only the cost that consider to will take place, but also consider the opportunity cost;
 
不仅要把资源投向有效益的领域,而且要投入到最有效益的领域。
Not only want resources hurl direction valid the realm of the benefit, but also throw in most effectively the realm of the benefit.
 
如果决策者的收益不取决于为社会带来的收益,他就没有动力把资源用于对社会最有益的用途,就会造成资源的极大浪费。
If the income of the decision maker do not be decided by for income that society bring, he used for the resources without the motive to the social the most beneficial use, will make resources biggest wasted.
 
这样看草率决策、盲目上马新项目,甚至屡屡出现“形象工程”、“政绩工程”也就不足为奇了。
See like this to make policy careless, blindness top new item in horse, even appear the " image engineering"," achievement engineering" repeatedly too no wonder.
 
诚信在经济生活中表现为信用交易,诚信失缺不仅严重影响投资和消费,破坏企业的正常经营,加大企业的经营成本,并且使政府宏观调控政策和工具难以发挥作用。
  The trustworthiness expresses in economicly life to trades for the reputation, the trustworthiness loses to lack to not only affect the investment with consume seriously, the normal management that break the business enterprise, the management cost of the enlargement business enterprise, but also make government macro view adjusted to control the policy to is hard to produce result with the tool.
 
诚信失缺还会影响社会风气,直接破坏国家的法制基础。
The trustworthiness lose to lack and would still affect the social values,
 
当今经济生活中欺诈、违约现象增多是由于失信成本太低。
Now economy life the inside cheats, break contract the phenomenon increases is because of failing in promise the cost too low.
然而,企业经营者必须明白,成本付出有大小之分,也有前后之分,从长远看,道德成本多属于后期付出,其付出往往是巨大的。

However, the business enterprise executive must understand, the cost pays the cent that have the size, also having in front and back it cent, from farsighted see, morals cost the period much pays after belonging to, its pay an is usually enormous of.
 
大千世界,收获与付出是事物的两个方面,付出多少是获利的前提。
 Big thousand world, results with pay is two aspects that premise that thing, pay how much is an accrual.
宋人林逋说:
Sung person's wood's :
“无德以表俗,无功以及物。
" have no virtuous with watch 俗 , have no 功 and things.
”即德和功都是获“利”的条件,比如土地、种子是成本,锄草、浇水是成本;
" it is namely virtuous to get the term of the " benefit" with 功 all, for example the land, seed is a cost, hoe grass, water is a cost;
对于企业来说,人们总是以为投资的成本就是投入资金的数额,其实这是片面的。
Cost that think business enterprise to say, people very much the investment is a quantity to throw in the funds, in fact this is unilateral.
投资成本除了钱以外,更重要的还有投资者接下来要做的工作,于是产生了机会成本。
Investment cost besides money excluding, more important still there is investor connecting the work that come down to do, hence produced the opportunity cost.
机会成本的大小,取决于投资者是否遵守“游戏规则”。
The size of the opportunity cost, be decided by the investor whether to obey" rules of the game" or not.
现实中,一切“德”“功”皆无亦有所获者,便是破坏了“游戏规则”,凯觎得到“梦”里不符合实际的东西,就是无知,而无知亦为成本。

Actuality inside, the whole" virtuous"s" 功 " all has no to also have to get, just broke the " rules of the game", the 凯觎 gets to not agree with to match the actual thing in" dream", ising stupid, but stupid as well for cost.
 
  “无德以表俗,无功以及物。
  " have no virtuous with watch 俗 , have no 功 and things.
”,这是“成本学”的千古警句。
", this is" the cost learns" of historic the sentence of .

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