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拖延或拖拉(Procrastinator)的辩析

(2006-02-22 16:54:35)
转自psychologytoday.com,我随便做了一下翻译,只供参考。

Are You a Procrastinator?
你是一个拖拉者吗?
When I mentioned to people that I was working on an article about procrastination, not a soul missed the opportunity to confide that he or she is truly a procrastinator. Could this be? Sure, this was a purely unscientific sample of people, but how did I come to dwell around so many procrastinators? And just how could it possibly square with the research finding that about 20% of people are procrastinators.
当我向人们提及我正在写一篇关于拖拉的文章,每个人都迫不及待的向我倾诉,说他/她实际上就是一个拖拉者。是这样的吗?当然,这是纯粹是一个非学术的行外人的例子,但我怎样开始仔细研究这么多的拖拉者呢?它又是怎么可能跟大概百分之二十的人是拖拉者的研究发现相符呢?
We have to start with the definition of procrastination. In general, procrastination is the gap between intention and action. You wake up with the intention to write a report. But for some reason it is aversive, and you keep putting it off. A key point -- procrastination involves actively putting something off, not just letting something slide in front of it from a too-long to-do list.
我们必须从拖拉的定义开始。总的来说,拖拉是意图和行动之间的差距,你从床上起来想要写一篇报告,但是因为某个原因,这是一件让人讨厌的事,你一直把它往后拖。关键的一点——拖拉意味着积极地把事情往后拖延,而不只是在太长的行程表中忽略某些事。
Only you can tell whether you are a procrastinator. It usually involves some negative feeling when you put off a task, like anxiety or guilt.
只有你自己才清楚你是否一个拖拉者。当你把一项任务压后,它通常伴随一些消极的情绪,如焦虑或内疚。
If you think of procrastination as a trait, then we all have a certain amount within us. It's related to conscientiousness, your sense of orderliness, of dutifulness. People who are low on the trait of conscientiousness also tend to be procrastinators. But for most of us, the "procrastinating" that we do is not problematic. Most likely, we are unduly beating ourselves up for being procrastinators when the real problem is that we live in a world that is loaded with deadlines. And we're just engaging an a kind of after-the-fact task management.
如果你认为拖拉是一种特点,那么我们所有人都有或多或少有那么一点。它关系到良心,你的纪律感,你的责任感。责任感不强的人也容易成为拖拉者。但对于我们大部分人来说,我们的拖拉并不是什么大问题。最可能的是,当真正的原因是我们生活在一个充满最后限期的世界,我们过度的责怪自己是拖拉者。我们只是在从事一项类似“犯罪以后”的任务管理。
College, for example, makes procrastinators of many people. Or, rather, it brings that trait out even in people who have low levels of it. There are constant deadlines, apprehension about evaluation comes with the territory, and and projects are constantly being foist upon students that compete for their time.
例如,大学使很多人成为拖拉者。或者更准确的说,它使即使是拖拉程度低的人这方面的特点也显现出来。不断有最后限期,对某领域成绩评估的恐惧伴,方案任务经常的强加在一直与时间竞争的学生身上。
The point is, not all deferring of tasks is procrastination. Dr. Pychyl insists that we make the distinction. There is such a thing as the planning fallacy. Most of us are overly optimistic, especially about what we are going to get done. We drag home bulging briefcases for the weekend, even if we know at some level that we can't possibly do all of it.
问题是,并非所有推迟任务都是拖拉行为。Pychyl博士坚持我们要加以区别。有这么一种计划谬论,我们大多数人都过分乐观,特别是对于我们将要做的事情。即使我们知道在某种程度上我们不可能做完所有的工作,我们还是把胀鼓鼓的公文包提回家过周末。
We live in a world with lots of deadlines. We put things off as a matter of good task management, but we wind up beating ourselves up and mistakenly attribute it to procrastination. When realistically we probably put too many things on our plate.
我们生活在一个充斥着最后限期的世界。我们把拖延作为一种好的任务管理方式,但是我们反过来又狠狠的责备自己,错误的把原因归咎于拖拉,而实际上,我们也许把太多的事情堆在我们跟前了。
But the waters get a bit muddy here because true procrastinators rationalize away their own self-injurious behavior by invoking the press of competing demands. Unlike the rest of us they are not de facto prioritizing their activities, they are actually actively expending mental energy to put something off.
但由于真正的拖拉者为使他们的自我损害行为合理化,把这归结为竞争所造成的压力,事情因而变得有点模糊不清。不像我们其他人,他们并不区分事情的优先顺序,他们实际上把精力耗费在如何拖延事情上。
Here's another way that not everything that looks like procrastination is procrastination. Like procrastination, depression involves a failure to act. It's one of the things that characterizes depression -- lack of energy and motivation. People who are depressed are likely to beat themselves up for procrastinating, when in fact in their case procrastination is the surface symptoms of mental illness. And it must be handled differently.
并非所有的看似拖拉行为的都是拖拉行为,有另一种情况。跟拖拉行为一样,抑郁也关系着行动失败。这是抑郁的其中一个特点——缺少精力和动力。抑郁的人更容易为拖拉狠狠的责备自己,而实际上,在他们的情况中,拖拉是精神病的表面症状。那就必须做不同的处理。
So before you beat yourself up for procrastinating, check to see whether you make a career out of it. If you don't do it in most of the areas of your life, then probably you are not a procrastinator. Now you really have no excuses... so get moving!!
因此,在你为拖拉狠狠的责备自己的时候,查看你是否可以从中成就事业。如果你不是在你生活中的大部分领域都是这样,那么你可能不是一个拖拉者。现在,你真的没有借口了……那么快行动吧!!
 

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