加载中…
个人资料
东方愚敏
东方愚敏
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:319,562
  • 关注人气:158
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

林肯的南方政策很快就面临考验

(2009-08-07 14:44:19)
标签:

美国

林肯

内战

萨姆特堡

文化

分类: 美国史话

参考译文:

林肯的南方政策很快就面临考验

在1861年3月一个阴冷的日子里,亚伯拉罕.林肯成为美国第十六任总统。在他的就职演说中,这位新总统阐述了他即将对那些已经脱离联邦的南方各个州所要采取的政策。

林肯说,任何一个州都无权脱离联邦,美利坚合众国不会分裂。他说,他将在任何一个州强制执行联邦法律,而且他保证不会交出任何位于已经脱离联邦的各州的联邦财产。林肯说,如果武力是保护合众国所需要的话,那么他将会使用武力。他的政策很快就面临考验。本周,我们向你介绍有关正在建设中的萨姆特堡这个联邦军事基地的争夺。

就在林肯就任的第二天,林肯收到了一些来自南卡罗莱纳州查尔斯顿港萨姆特堡的坏消息,萨姆特堡军事指挥官罗伯特.安德森少校报告说,他们的食品给养已经短缺,安德森说,他的给养至多只能维持四十天时间,除非他们能够得到更多的给养,否则他们将撤离萨姆特堡。

而林肯想在保留这座军事堡垒,这是联邦政府在南方所掌握的为数不多的军事堡垒中的一个,而且他曾答应不会放弃位于已经脱离联邦各州的联邦政府的任何财产。

但要向萨姆特堡运送给养却是一件非常困难的事。这座军事堡垒建在查尔斯顿港的一个岛屿上,它四面被南方的炮火所包围。南方的炮艇守卫着这座港口。要想给安德森他们运送给养,就必须打开通往萨姆特堡的航道,而这样一场战斗就意味着血腥的内战暴发,而且这也将导致其他仍然留在联邦的奴隶州脱离联邦加入到南方邦联中。

陆军总司令温菲尔德.斯科特将军提醒林肯说,现在要向萨姆特堡运送给养已经太晚了。他说,南方在萨姆特堡四周的防卫非常严,必须组织一次大规模的军事行动才可能实现,而这需要好几个月的时间来准备。但是,在萨姆特堡的安德森少校和他的士兵不可能等待这么长的时间。然而,另外一项计划有可能成功。这项计划是由海军部的古斯塔夫.福克斯上校(Captain Gustavus Fox)向林肯提出的。福克斯上校说,运送士兵和给养可以到达查尔斯顿港,但不要进港,在黑夜,再通过一些小船,用绳索将这些小船运送到萨姆特堡。福克斯说,可以派遣少数军舰前往,以阻止南方炮艇的干扰。

林肯同意这项计划,他召开内阁会议,征求大家的意见。他问大家,如果能够将给养运送到萨姆特堡,这么做是否明智?邮政总局局长蒙哥马利.布莱尔是唯一对此计划说“是”的内阁成员,财政部长萨尔门.蔡斯只是在林肯确信此举不会引起战争的情况下才同意此计划。而国务卿威廉.西沃德和其他内阁成员则反对此计划,他们说,还不如让安德森少校他们撤离,他们认为现在不是打内战的时候。由于内阁成员的反对导致林肯推迟了实施福克斯计划。但他先后派遣两人到查尔斯顿,去了解那里的情况。这两个人中,其中一个就是福克斯上校,另一个是林肯的好朋友沃德.拉蒙(Ward Lamon)。

在查尔斯顿,福克斯会见了南卡罗莱纳州州长弗朗西斯.平肯斯(Francis Pickens),他说,他希望能够与安德森少校会谈,不是去给他下达什么命令,而是去了解他目前所面临的真实情形。平肯斯同意了。一艘邦联的船只将福克斯运送到萨姆特堡。安德森告诉福克斯,他现有食品最多只能维持到4月15日。在福克斯返回华盛顿后,沃德.拉蒙也到了查尔斯顿,他也会见了平肯斯州长和安德森少校。南卡罗莱纳州州长要求拉蒙给林肯带回去这样的消息:“除非美国总统决定接受南方脱离联邦这一现实,否则没有什么可以阻止战争的暴发,如果试图向萨姆特堡增加兵力,那么内战的枪炮声将在南方各地响起。”

拉蒙向林肯报告说,即使是一艘装载粮食的船到达萨姆特堡也将引起战争。

到3月底,林肯再次举行内阁会议,讨论如何应对萨姆特堡危机。设法向安德森少校运送给养?这一次,在三名内阁成员说“是”,而另有三名内阁成员说“不”。就在内阁会议结束时,林肯向战争部长下达了一道命令,他告诉战争部长,准备从海上向萨姆特堡运送人员和给养,他说,他们应该在4月6日前做好出发的准备―――这只有一个星期的时间了。

在4月4日,林肯将福克斯上校请到白宫,他对福克斯说,政府已经准备向萨姆特堡运送给养。林肯说,福克斯将领导这次行动。林肯给福克斯看了一封他写给南卡罗莱纳州州长平肯斯的信。这封信是这么写的:“现在通知你,我们将向萨姆特堡运送给养,所送的东西完全只是粮食。如果你不反对的话,我们不会向萨姆特堡再运送士兵、武器或其他军火。”

平肯斯州长于4月8日收到了林肯的这封信,他立即将此信以电报的形式发给了位于阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利的美国南部邦联总统杰斐逊.戴维斯。戴维斯召集内阁会议讨论如何应对。他问到,能否在他们运送给养到达之前占领萨姆特堡。

前乔治亚州美国联邦参议员罗伯特.图姆斯(Robert Toombs)现在是美国南部邦联的国务卿,他对戴维斯说:“向萨姆特堡开火,就将引发迄今以来世界上最大的一场内战,为此,我不能给你任何的建议。”在这次内阁会议后,图姆斯劝戴维斯不要进攻萨姆特堡,他说:“尊敬的总统先生,现在你向萨姆特堡发动进攻,这就是自杀,是谋杀,而且将失去我们所有在北方的朋友。你将捅破一个从崇山峻岭到汪洋大海的巨大的马蜂窝,数百万沉寂的马蜂将扑向我们,将我们叮死。发动内战并非必要,发动内战将使我们陷入错误的境地,它将消灭我们。”

在4月10日,杰斐逊.戴维斯将他的决定下达给了美国南部邦联驻守在查尔斯顿的指挥官皮埃尔.包瑞德(Pierre Beauregard)将军,他告诉包瑞德将军,让萨姆特堡投降,如果安德森少校拒绝的话,那么将军你就摧毁这座堡垒。第二天,要求萨姆特堡投降的命令由一伙南部邦联的官员送到了萨姆特堡,他们说:安德森和他的士兵必须撤离萨姆特堡,但可以带走他们的武器和财物,而且还将把安德森及其士兵运送到他们想要到的任何一个美国港口。

安德森拒绝了南方的要求,当他和南方的官员一起回到船上,他问,包瑞德将军是否会立即向萨姆特堡开火。他们说:不会,当开火之后,他就会知道了。安德森随后对南方人说:“即使你们不把我们撕成碎片,几天之后,饥饿也会迫使我们离开萨姆特堡。”包瑞德将军向位于蒙哥马利的美国南部邦联政府报告说,安德森少校拒绝投降,他还报告说,萨姆特堡的粮食只够维持几天了。

包瑞德将军得到了新的命令,杰斐逊.戴维斯说,如果饥饿能够迫使美国士兵离开萨姆特堡的话,那就没有必要向萨姆特堡发动攻击了,但他又说,安德森必须给出撤离的确切时间,而且,安德森还必须承诺不向邦联军开火。如果安德森同意的话,那么邦联军也不会向他开火。这个建议于4月11日午夜前的几分钟送到了萨姆特堡。安德森与他的士兵们讨论了这项建议,并作出了他的回复:如果邦联军不对萨姆特堡或美国国旗采取敌对行动的话,他将于4月15日撤离萨姆特堡,然而,如果在此以前他得到了新的命令或给养的话,那么他将不会撤离。

这一答复并不能让给包瑞德将军送信的邦联官员们满意,他们交给安德森一张简短的纸条,上面写到:“我们很荣幸地通知你,包瑞德将军将在一个小时内,即1861年4月12日早晨4点20分后,下令向萨姆特堡开火。”安德森少校与包瑞德将军的代表握了握手后,他们离开了萨姆特堡。安德森和他的军官们叫醒了士兵,并告诉他们准备战斗。在查尔斯顿港对面的约翰逊堡,邦联军队的大炮也做好了准备,这些人将向萨姆特堡开第一枪。这一炮声将是其他包围萨姆特堡的大炮开火的信号。

 

Lincoln's Policy on South Is Soon Tested

 

On a cold and cloudy day in March of eighteen sixty-one, Abraham Lincoln became the sixteenth president of the United States. In his inaugural speech, the new president announced the policy that he would follow toward the southern states that had left the Union.

 

Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln said no state had a legal right to secede -- the Union could not be broken. He said he would enforce federal laws in every state. And he promised not to surrender any federal property in the states that seceded. Lincoln said if force was necessary to protect the Union, then force would be used. His policy was soon tested.  This week in our series, we discuss the dispute over the federal base that was being built at Fort Sumter. 

On his second day as president, Lincoln received some bad news from Fort Sumter at Charleston, South Carolina. Major Robert Anderson, the commander of the small United States force at Sumter, wrote that his food supplies were low. At most, said Anderson, there was enough food for forty days. Unless he and his men received more supplies, they would have to leave the fort.

 

Fort Sumter before the first shot

Lincoln wanted to keep Fort Sumter. It was one of the few United States forts in the south still held by federal forces. And he had promised not to give up any federal property in the states that seceded.  

But getting food to Fort Sumter would be a very difficult job. The fort was built on an island in Charleston Harbor. It was surrounded by southern artillery. Southern gunboats guarded the port.  To get supplies to Anderson and his men, a ship would have to fight its way to Sumter. Such a battle was sure to begin a bitter civil war. There also was the danger that fighting would cause slave states still in the Union to secede and join the southern Confederacy.  

The Army chief, General [Winfield] Scott, warned Lincoln that it was too late to get supplies to Fort Sumter. He said southern defenses around the fort were so strong that a major military effort would be necessary. He said it would take months to prepare the warships and soldiers for such an effort. Major Anderson and his men at Sumter, he said, could not wait that long. There was another plan, however, that might work. It was proposed to Lincoln by Captain Gustavus Fox of the Navy Department. Captain Fox said soldiers and supplies could be sent down to Charleston in ships. Outside the entrance to the harbor, on a dark night, they could be put into small boats and pulled by tugs to the fort. Fox said a few warships could be sent to prevent southern gunboats from interfering.

Lincoln liked this plan. He asked his cabinet for advice. If it were possible to send supplies to Sumter, he asked, would it be wise to do so? Postmaster General [Montgomery] Blair was the only member of the cabinet to answer 'yes'. Treasury Secretary [Salmon] Chase was for the plan only if Lincoln was sure it would not mean war. Secretary of State [William] Seward and the others opposed it. They said it would be better to withdraw Major Anderson and his men. They felt that now was not the time to start a civil war. This opposition in the cabinet caused Lincoln to postpone action on the Fox plan. But he sent two men separately to Charleston to get him information on the situation there. One was Captain Fox. The other was a close friend, Ward Lamon.

 

Union Major Robert Anderson

In Charleston, Fox met with Governor [Francis] Pickens. He explained that he wished to talk with Major Anderson, not to give him orders, but to find out what the situation really was. Governor Pickens agreed. A Confederate boat carried Fox to Sumter. Anderson told Fox that the last of the food would be gone on April fifteenth. Ward Lamon went to Charleston after Fox returned to Washington. He, too, met with Governor Pickens and Major Anderson. The South Carolina Governor asked Lamon to give Lincoln this message: "Nothing can prevent war except a decision by the President of the United States to accept the secession of the South. If an attempt is made to put more men in Fort Sumter, a war cry will be sounded from every hilltop and valley in the South."  

Lamon reported to Lincoln that the arrival of even a boat load of food at Sumter would lead to fighting.  

At the end of March, Lincoln held another cabinet meeting and again asked what should be done about Fort Sumter. Should an attempt be made to get supplies to Major Anderson? This time, three members of the cabinet voted 'yes' and three voted 'no'.  When the meeting ended, Lincoln wrote an order for the Secretary of War. He told him to prepare to move men and supplies by sea to Fort Sumter. He said they should be ready to sail as early as April sixth -- only one week away.

On April fourth, Lincoln called Captain Fox to the White House. He told him that the government was ready to take supplies to Fort Sumter. He said Fox would lead the attempt. Lincoln showed Fox a message he was sending to Governor Pickens in South Carolina. It read: "This is to inform you that an attempt will be made to supply Fort Sumter with food only. If this attempt is not opposed, no effort will be made to throw in men, arms or ammunition."  

Governor Pickens received the message on April Eight.  He immediately sent it by telegraph to Confederate President Jefferson Davis at Montgomery, Alabama. Davis called a meeting of his cabinet to discuss what should be done. He asked if Fort Sumter should be seized before supplies could arrive.  

 

Robert Toombs

Former United States Senator Robert Toombs of Georgia was the Confederate secretary of state. He told Davis, "Firing upon that fort will begin a civil war greater than any the world has ever seen. I cannot advise you."  Later in the meeting, Toombs urged Davis not to attack the fort.  "Mr. President," he said, "at this time it is suicide -- murder -- and will lose us every friend in the North. You will strike a hornets' nest which extends from mountains to oceans. Millions now quiet will swarm out and sting us to death. It is not necessary. It puts us in the wrong. It will kill us!"  

On April tenth, Jefferson Davis sent his decision to the Confederate commander at Charleston, General Pierre Beauregard. He told Beauregard to demand the surrender of Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson refused, then the general was to destroy the fort. The surrender demand was carried to Sumter the next day by a group of Confederate officers. They said Anderson and his men must leave the fort. But they could take with them their weapons and property. And they were offered transportation to any United States port they named.

Anderson rejected the demand. As he walked with the Confederate officers back to their boat, he asked if General Beauregard would open fire on Sumter immediately. No, they said, he would be told later when the shooting would start. Anderson then told the southerners, "If you do not shell us to pieces, hunger will force us out in a few days."  General Beauregard informed the Confederate government in Montgomery that Anderson refused to surrender. He also reported the major's statement that Sumter had only enough food for a few more days.   

New orders were sent to Beauregard. Jefferson Davis said there was no need to attack the fort if hunger would soon force the United States soldiers to leave. But he said Anderson must say exactly when he and his men would leave. And he said Anderson must promise not to fire on Confederate forces. If Anderson agreed to this, then Confederate guns would remain silent. This offer was carried to Fort Sumter a few minutes before midnight, April eleventh. Anderson discussed the offer with his officers and then wrote his answer. He would leave the fort on April fifteenth if the Confederates made no hostile act against Fort Sumter or against the United States flag. He would not leave, however, if before then he received new orders or supplies.  

 

Confederate General Pierre Beauregard

This did not satisfy the three Confederate officers who brought Beauregard's message. They handed Anderson a short note. It said: "We have the honor to inform you that General Beauregard will open fire on Fort Sumter in one hour -- at twenty minutes after four on the morning of April twelfth, eighteen sixty-one." The major shook hands with Beauregard's representatives, and they left the fort. Anderson and his officers woke their men and told them to prepare for battle. At Fort Johnson, across the harbor, Confederate gunners also were getting ready. These men would fire the first shot at Sumter. That explosion would signal the other guns surrounding the fort to open fire.  

简评:

当矛盾不可调和时,战争就出现了。

克劳塞维茨在《战争论》中说:战争是迫使敌人服从我们意志的一种暴力行为。

然而,由于战争所造成的结果往往带有毁灭性,因此,作战双方,尽管都在千方百计地为战争做好一切的准备,但是谁也不敢轻易地放第一枪。

美国的南北战争就是如此。南北方明知在奴隶制问题上的矛盾已经不可调和,明智战争是必然的选择,但真要开战,双方都还是有顾忌的。

首先,林肯所代表的北方,尽管已经表明,为了合众国的统一,如果需要武力的话,会不惜使用武力,但肯定不会开第一枪,而是想办法让南方先开第一枪。

而南方,尽管已经宣称脱离合众国,但对合众国在南方的财产,还是不敢轻易地没收,不敢随便使用武力。

双方都非常清楚,谁开第一枪,那么美国内战的责任就由谁来承担,而谁也不希望承担这个罪名。

但,战争就是战争,往往是通过偶然因素而引发必然的结果。这世界上没有偶然的战争,任何战争的出现都是必然的。这种必然就是长期以来双方矛盾不能得到有效解决的必然结果。

http://www.21voa.com/path.asp?url=/200908/se-nation-96-abraham-lincoln-part-two-06-aug-09_0.Mp3

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
前一篇:林肯组阁
后一篇:美国内战暴发
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

    < 前一篇林肯组阁
    后一篇 >美国内战暴发
      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有