加载中…
个人资料
东方愚敏
东方愚敏
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:314,392
  • 关注人气:157
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

美国开国元勋亚历山大.汉密尔顿的设想

(2008-04-21 09:03:01)
标签:

历史

分类: 美国史话

参考译文:

亚历山大.汉密尔顿的设想

 

  今天,我们向你讲述亚历山大.汉密尔顿的故事,他是美国初创时期最重要的政策制定者。美国的第一届政府非常虚弱,它有很多债务,而国库却是空空如也,人民对它的支持并不那么坚定。有些问题事关国家的未来。许多人担心这个政府能否维持下去。然而,仅仅几年时间,这一切都变了。这种变化绝大部分源于一个人的力量和设想,他就是亚历山大.汉密尔顿。汉密尔顿想建立一个强大的国家和一个重要的国家,他希望美国能够成为和欧洲大国平起平坐的国家。

  亚历山大.汉密尔顿坚定地认为,如果没有工业化就不可能成为现代化国家。所以,他详细制定了美国工业化的计划,他还组织起国家的财政体系,这个国家财政体系是通过建立国家信用和成立一家国家银行组织起来的。这家银行为投资而不断加快资金的流动,它满足了商贸业的需要,对资金的渴求已经导致许多工业企业的停滞。最后,汉密尔顿采取措施保护美国的制造业免于外国同行的竞争,他建立起了进口税收制度――关税,这是针对进口到美国的商品征税的制度。这些进口关税迫使外国制造商不得不提高他们的价格,因而,美国的制造商在销售他们产品时就面临更少的竞争压力。

  汉密尔顿希望这样一个进口关税体系能够壮大美国的工业,他认为美国国内的所需不必依赖外国,他认为,这样一个体系将为所有劳动者创造一种需求,它将增加移民,由此,将给美国的农产品带来新的更大的需求。汉密尔顿的财政政策是帮助制造业的,但这种政策对农民似乎没有益处。许多美国人对此政策表示抗议,特别是在南方的农场中,他们说,他所做的一切都是在帮助北方的工业和银行业,农民为购买所必需的工业品不得不多付钱,而与此同时,农民却不得不以较低的价格出售他们的农产品。

  汉密尔顿成功地获得了国会对他的财政政策的支持,尽管如此,他在政治上的胜利为他带来了许多政敌,而且,这些政敌展开了一场有关宪法的争论,针对美国宪法的争论贯穿整个美国历史。这些争论涉及到:根据宪法,政府和国会的确切的权力是什么?

  亚历山大.汉密尔顿认为,宪法除了在宪法中所写入的权力以外还赋予政府大量的权力(即法无禁止即可为),否则,他说,政府就无法运行。例如,他认为,根据宪法,政府有权开办一家国家银行,政府还有权征收进口关税。而汉密尔顿的反对者则坚决反对,他们认为宪法中所没有写入的文字并没有这样广泛的含义,他们说,政府只有宪法已经清楚写明的权力,否则什么也没有(即法未授权不可为),他们说,如果不是这样的话,那么政府将拥有非常危险的权力。

  正是这些争论,以及还有其他的争论,使得这个新美国逐步得以成型。在以后的节目里,我们还将向你介绍更多有关汉密尔顿对美国政治的影响,但现在,我们要向你简单地介绍一下他的个人生活:他是一个什么样的人呢?他是从哪里来的?他的政治和经济信仰是从何而来的呢?对于亚历山大.汉密尔顿早期生活,有着许多神秘的色彩,有些有关他儿童及青少年时期的传说是真实的,而有些却不是。

  他的母亲是已经迁移到西印度群岛的法国雨格诺教徒的女儿,她的名字叫雷切尔.莱温。历史学家不能确定他的父亲是谁,有一个传说,说的是,他的父亲也许是来自英格兰的贫穷的商人――詹姆士.汉密尔顿。雷切尔.莱温离开丈夫后,带着亚历山大.汉密尔顿一起生活。有一件事是确定的,那就是他在十一岁的时候,他的母亲去逝。当她去逝时,家里的朋友们为他在英属维尔京群岛中的圣克鲁科斯岛(后来叫圣克鲁兹岛)找到了一份工作,他是一名会计的助手,他将学习如何记帐。

  人们认为年轻的亚历山大.汉密尔顿是个与众不同的孩子,其他一些孩子都在玩,而他却在谈论将来要成为北美殖民地的一位领导者。他阅读所有所能得到的书籍,有英文的,有拉丁文的,还有希腊文的。作为一个年轻人,他了解了大量的有关商业和经济方面的知识,而且,他学会了用语言清晰而有力地表达他的想法的能力,这种写作能力开创了他的新生活。

  一次大台风袭击了西印度群岛,汉密尔顿为一家名叫《丹麦皇家美洲报》撰写了一篇有关此次台风的报道,他这篇文章写的非常好,因此,他的朋友决定帮助他得到更好的教育,他们给他钱,这样他就能到纽约市的一所大学上学。他的计划是学习医学,以便以后回到圣克鲁兹岛当一名医生。

当汉密尔顿来到纽约时,他想到国王大学上学,这所学校后来成为著名的哥伦比亚大学,但,他由于还没有受到足够的教育,因而无法进入国王大学上学。所以,他来到了新泽西伊丽莎白镇的一所较低级的学校上学,他是学校里学习最认真的学生之一。他读书通常至深夜,而早晨却起来的很早,并到一个墓地继续读书,因为那里非常安静。他写了许多文章,每一次,他都试图改进他的写作方式。在伊丽莎白镇一年后,他终于如愿以偿能够到国王大学上学了。

  在国王大学,无论是老师还是学生,对汉密尔顿的丰富知识及他那清晰的写作和说话方式而感到惊讶。有关美国殖民地的问题占据着这个年轻人的大脑,汉密尔顿抗议英国的统治。当波士顿市的市民抢夺一艘英国的船只,并把船上的茶叶扔到了大海时,汉密尔顿撰写了一篇文章来声援他们。到了1776年,十三个殖民地宣布从英国的统治下独立,这一宣言也就意味着战争。

  当汉密尔顿还是小孩时,他就曾写道:“我要成功,我将把我的生命置于危险的境地以获得成功,但那不是我的性格,我希望有一场战争,在这场战争中,我能够显示我的力量。”现在,战争暴发了。美国革命给了汉密尔顿一个展示他能力的机会,他想成为一名伟大的军队指挥官。然而,他没有成为伟大的军队指控官,而是成为乔治.华盛顿将军的一名非常重要的助手。在这个岗位上,他必须使用他所有的政治和交际才能来为独立军队获得军费和补给。汉密尔顿还是一位有影响力的思想家、作家和记者。多年来,他一直为他自己所创办的《纽约晚邮报》写稿。他还与詹姆士.麦迪逊和约翰.杰伊一起为联邦制拥护者报写稿。这些联邦制拥护者报对宪法进行了迄今以来最好的阐述。

  除了一名优秀的作家之外,汉密尔顿还是一位优秀的演讲家,他不仅仅只对一小群人发表演讲,他演讲的方式和他的写作方式一样:清晰、有力和博学。他正是通过他的这种能力使得纽约州议会批准了宪法,正是亚历山大.汉密尔顿,这位州议会的议员,他改变了各位议员的想法,最终接受了美国宪法,对此,无人能比。在美国新政府在根据宪法成立之后,汉密尔顿在这个国家的政治上继续扮演重要的角色。

  欲知后事如何,请看下周分解。

 

  简评:

  汉密尔顿是一位杰出的人物,他的杰出,源于他的志向、源于他的勤奋。

  他自小就想获得成功,就想成为北美殖民地的领导人,就想在危险的环境中取得成功。他渴望有机会能够展现他的能力。

  他的能力完全是从他的勤奋中而来。他每天晚上学习到深夜,他看一切他所能得到的书籍,而早晨却仍然很早就起来,自己一个人来到墓地看书,为的是安静,没有人能够打扰。他不断地改进他的写作方式和说话方式,他要尽可能地以清晰而有力的语言来表达自己的思想,来影响别人。

  正是他的远大志向和勤奋学习,使他抓住了难得的历史机遇,正是这样的历史机遇,成全了他,也成全了美国。

  任何一个人,无论他想做什么,如果想取得成功,必须明确自己的目标,并为这个目标而进行不懈的努力,得机而动,方能成功。否则,任你有什么样的目标,都将只是目标而已。

 

 

The Imagination of Alexander Hamilton  

 

Today we begin the story of Alexander Hamilton, one of the nation's most important early policy makers.  The first government of the United States was weak.  It had many debts and an empty treasury. Its support from the people was not firm. There was some question about its future. Many wondered if it would last. In a few years, however, there was a change. This change was produced in large part by the energy and imagination of one man, Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton wanted to make the United States a strong and important nation. He wanted it to become the equal of the powerful nations of Europe. 

美国开国元勋亚历山大.汉密尔顿的设想

Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton firmly believed that no country could become a modern nation without industry. So, he carefully developed a program that would make the United States an industrial nation. He also organized the nation's finances.  This was done by establishing government credit and a national bank. The bank increased the flow of money needed for investment. It fed the needs of business and commercial activity. The need for money had brought much of this activity to a stop. Finally, Hamilton took steps to protect American manufacturers from foreign competition. He did this by establishing a system of import taxes -- tariffs -- on some foreign goods brought into American ports. These import taxes forced foreign manufacturers to raise their prices. As a result, American manufacturers had much less competition in selling their products. 

Such a tariff system, Hamilton hoped, would strengthen American industry. He thought the United States should not have to depend on other nations for the things it needed. Such a system, he believed, would create a demand for all kinds of workers. It would increase immigration from other countries. And it would bring a new and greater demand for American farm products. Hamilton's financial program helped manufacturers. But it did not seem to do much for farmers. There was a loud protest, especially among farmers in the south. Everything he did, they said, helped the industrial and banking interests of the north. Yet the farmers had to pay more for the manufactured goods they needed. At the same time, they had to sell their crops at lower prices. 

Hamilton succeeded in getting Congress to approve his financial proposals. Yet his political victories brought him many enemies. And they started a Constitutional debate that continued throughout American history. The dispute involved this question: What exact powers do the government and the Congress have under the Constitution? 

Alexander Hamilton believed the Constitution gave the government a number of powers besides those written down. Otherwise, he said, the government could not work. For example, he believed that under the Constitution, the government had the right to start a national bank. It also had the right to put a tax on imported goods. Hamilton's opponents disagreed sharply. They did not give the words of the Constitution such a wide meaning. They said the government had just those powers that were clearly spelled out in the Constitution, and nothing more. If not, they said, the government could become dangerously powerful.  

These disputes, and others, helped shape the new United States. In future programs, we will tell more about Alexander Hamilton's influence on political developments. Now, however, we will tell a little about his private life. What kind of man was he? Where did he come from? How did his political and economic beliefs develop? There is much mystery about the early days of Alexander Hamilton. Some facts about his childhood and youth have been clearly established. Others have not. 

His mother was the daughter of French Huguenots who had settled in the West Indies. Her name was Rachel Lavien. Historians are not sure who his father was. One story says he may have been James Hamilton, a poor businessman from Scotland. Rachel Lavien lived with him after she left her husband. One thing is certain. His mother died when he was eleven years old. When she died, friends of the family found work for the boy on the island of Saint Croix -- then called Santa Cruz -- in the Virgin Islands. He was to be an assistant bookkeeper. He would learn how to keep financial records. 

Young Alexander was considered an unusual child. Other children played games. He talked about becoming a political leader in the North American colonies. He read every book that was given to him -- in English, Latin and Greek. At a young age, he learned a great deal about business and economics. And he developed an ability to use words to communicate ideas clearly and powerfully. This ability to write started him on the path to a new life.

A severe ocean storm hit the West Indies. Hamilton wrote a report about the storm for a newspaper called the Royal Danish American Gazette. His story was so good that some of his friends decided to help him get a good education. They gave him money so he could attend a college in New York City. The boy's plan was to study medicine and return to Saint Croix as a doctor. 

When Hamilton arrived in New York, he tried to enter King's College, which would later be known as Columbia University. However, he did not have enough education to enter King's College. So he went to a lower school at Elizabethtown, in New Jersey. He was one of the most serious students at the school. He read his books until midnight. Then he got up early and went to a cemetery to continue reading where it was quiet. He wrote many papers. Each time, he tried to improve his style. After a year at Elizabethtown, he was accepted at King's College.

At King's College, both teachers and students were surprised by Hamilton's intelligence and his clear way of writing and speaking. The problems of the American colonies were very much on the young man's mind. Hamilton protested against British rule. When colonists in the city of Boston seized a British ship and threw its cargo of tea into the water, Hamilton wrote a paper defending them. Then came the year seventeen seventy-six. The thirteen American colonies declared their independence from Britain. The declaration meant war. 

In this letter, George Washington thanks Alexander Hamilton for sending a copy of the pamphlet written by 'Publius'

As a boy, Alexander Hamilton had written, "I want success. I would put my life in danger to win success, but not my character. I wish there were a war where I could show my strength." Now, war had come. The American Revolution gave Hamilton the chance to show his abilities. He wanted to be a great military leader. Instead, he became a valuable assistant to the commanding general, George Washington. In this job, he had to use all his political and communication skills to get money and supplies for the Revolutionary Army. Hamilton also would become an influential thinker, writer, and journalist. For many years, he wrote editorials for the newspaper he established, the New York Evening Post. He also helped write the Federalist Papers with James Madison and John Jay. The Federalist Papers are considered the greatest explanation of the United States Constitution ever written. 

In addition to being a fine writer, Hamilton was a fine speaker, but only to small groups. He spoke the same way that he wrote: clearly, forcefully, and with knowledge. It was this ability that he used so well in the New York state convention that approved the Constitution. More than any other man, it was Alexander Hamilton who made the delegates to that convention change their minds and accept the document. After the new government was formed under the Constitution, Hamilton continued to play an important part in national politics. That will be our story next week.  

http://www.wwenglish.com/m06/voa/spec/2008/04/wwenglish.com_nation080410.mp3

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有