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来自Google的猫关节疾患英文翻译资料

(2010-10-11 20:55:38)
标签:

关节炎

十字韧带

软骨

髋关节置换

e6

杂谈

分类: 猫皮肤关节

-髋关节脱位

It can take quite a while for the muscles to develop around the joint and for the injuries to heal before the kitty is feeling able to bear much weight on it.这可能需要相当长一段时间的肌肉,关节周围发展,为受伤的小鹰痊愈之前感觉能承受它的重量。  Any impact on the leg can set the healing process back, so if he uses the leg too much or lands on it when he jumps, this can cause his pain to worsen for several days.小腿上的任何影响,可以设置愈合过程后,所以如果他使用太多或腿落地时,他的跳跃,这可能会导致他的痛苦,恶化了好几天。  It's really important to keep his activity to a minimum during this time so the area can heal.这真的很重要,在这段时间,以便保持该地区能治愈他的活动到最低限度。  He should be completely prevented from climbing and jumping, and running should be strongly discouraged.他应该被完全阻止攀爬,跳跃,奔跑应坚决劝阻。  Be sure to keep him away from areas where he would have access to heights he could climb or jump from.一定要阻止他去的地区,他将有机会获得他的高度可以爬或跳的。  In fact, when I had a stray come to my home with a similar injury, the vets advised 16 weeks' cage rest.事实上,当我有一个流浪拿出一个类似伤害到我家,兽医建议16周笼休息。  With strictly limited activity for a few months, the cat did eventually recover and bears full weight on the affected leg today, although I think his hip is still a little sensitive.由于严格限制了几个月的活动,猫和熊也最终恢复对受影响的腿部的全部重量的今天,虽然我认为他的臀部还是有点敏感。

At times, the cat may not compensate for the injury, and a corrective surgery must be considered.有时,猫可能无法弥补的伤害,并矫正手术必须加以考虑。  I think once you've given the kitty a few months to heal, if there has been no progress, this needs to be given some thought.我认为,一旦你给了小猫几个月的治疗,如果一直没有进展,这需要得到一些思考。

An anti-inflammatory medication may still be in order for the time being.消炎药物仍可能以暂时。  You should call your vet and ask about a pain reliever.你应该打电话询问你的兽医和缓解疼痛。  Medications like Metacam, and sometimes Rimadyl, are used to reduce swelling and pain in cats.如药物的metacam,有时Rimadyl,用于减少肿胀和疼痛猫。

In any case, it would probably be wise to start your cat on a glucosamine/chondtoitin supplement.在任何情况下,它很可能是明智的开始,你是一个葡萄糖/ chondtoitin补充猫。  This can help prevent arthritis that might become a problem if his bones are wearing on one another abnormally due to the dislocation.这有助于防止关节炎可能成为一个问题,如果他的骨头上,由于彼此的错位异常磨损。  Zuke's Hip Action treats for cats are my cats' favorite supplement, but there is also a powder called Cosequin for cats that gets mixed into food, and a liquid called Arthrimaxx which is given directly by mouth. Zuke的臀部动作把猫的猫是我最喜爱的补充,但也有粉末的要求得到食物混合成猫Cosequin,和液体称为Arthrimaxx这是考虑直接经口。  All of these products are available at pet stores and online.所有这些产品可在宠物商店和网上。

 

 

诊断及缓解关节炎疼痛猫
Last review: 08/12/10  Administrator最后修改:08/12/10管理员
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What is arthritis in cats? 什么是猫关节炎?

Arthritis in cats is the progressive deterioration of joint (articular) cartilage.猫关节炎是关节(关节),软骨逐渐恶化。 One or more joints can be afflicted with the condition.一个或多个关节可患的条件。 Another term commonly used to describe this condition is degenerative joint disease.另一种常用的术语来形容这种情况是退行性关节疾病。 When the term osteoarthritis is used, it usually refers to an extension of the changes into the bone underlying the cartilage layer.当骨关节炎的长期使用,它通常指的是变化已经到了骨头,软骨层的延伸。

What causes arthritis in cats? 什么原因导致关节炎的猫?

Two broad classes of arthritis are recognized: primary (idiopathic or unknown) and secondary.两个班的关节炎广泛认可:初级(特发性或未知)和次要的。

In cats, Primary Arthritis is the least common of the two, and is generally associated with long-term overuse and aging.在猫,小学关节炎是两个最常见,一般是长期过度使用和老化有关。 Secondary Arthritis is more common in cats and develops as a result of unstable joints (for example, hip dysplasia), bone and/or cartilage defects, and damage caused by trauma such as joint fractures and chronic sprains.中学关节炎是更为常见,在猫作为一种不稳定的关节(例如,髋关节发育不良),骨和/或软骨缺损,外伤等引起的慢性关节骨折和扭伤造成的损坏发展。

What are signs of arthritis in cats? 什么是关节炎的迹象猫?

Your veterinarian may suspect arthritis after obtaining a thorough history from you and examining the animal.您的兽医可能会怀疑你在获得彻底从历史和研究动物关节炎。 Lameness and/or stiffness are hallmark signs.跛行和/或僵硬的标志迹象。 Sometimes your cat may seem to warm out of the stiffness after being out for a walk, and sometimes cold and/or damp weather may appear to make symptoms worse.有时候你的猫可能似乎出热烈的刚度后出去散步,有时寒冷和/或潮湿的天气可能会出现,使症状加重。


How is arthritis in cats diagnosed? 猫是如何关节炎诊断?

Radiographs (x-rays) are generally required to confirm the presence of arthritis and to identify any underlying causes for the condition. X光片(X射线),一般都要确认关节炎的存在,并确定在任何条件的根本原因。 Analysis of the joint fluid to determine the type(s) and number of cells can also be helpful in classifying the type of arthritis.关节液的分析,以确定型(s)和细胞的数量也可以划分类型的关节炎有帮助的。 Concentrations in the blood (titers) for certain infectious diseases (Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia) and specific blood tests (Coombs, ANA, and rheumatoid factor) may be requested by your veterinarian.在某些传染性疾病(伯,埃立克体和立克次氏体)和专门的血液测试(库姆斯,全日空,和类风湿因子)血(效价)的浓度可能会要求您的兽医。 Occasionally bacterial cultures of the joint fluid and joint capsule biopsies are indicated.在关节囊和关节液细菌培养的活组织切片检查有时表示。

How is arthritis in cats treated? 如何治疗关节炎的猫?

Your veterinarian has many drugs, and in some instances, surgical options to choose from.您的兽医有许多药物,而且在某些情况下,手术方式可供选择。 The treatment method chosen depends upon the underlying cause of the arthritis and the joint(s) affected.该治疗方法的选择取决于关节炎和关节(六)标识的根本原因。

  • Medication considerations for arthritis in cats在猫关节炎药物的考虑因素
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These agents work by inhibiting prostaglandins (mediators of pain and inflammation).非甾体抗炎药(NSAIDs):这些药物通过抑制前列腺素的工作(疼痛和炎症介质)。

  • Cartilage Protective Agents: These agents are thought to work by inhibiting various destructive enzymes and prostaglandins found in arthritic joints.软骨保护剂:这些药物被认为是通过抑制酶和各种破坏性关节炎关节发现前列腺素。 These drugs may also help by increasing the production of normal compounds within the joint such as proteoglycan, hyaluronate, and collagen.这些药物可能还有助于增加在联合等蛋白多糖,透明质酸和胶原正常化合物的生产。 These compounds act as lubricants and protectants/strengtheners for the cartilage surface.这些化合物作为润滑油和防护剂/为软骨表面strengtheners。

  • Corticosteroids: The ""steroids"" are sometimes used for treatment of inflammation in certain types of arthritis.糖皮质激素:在“”类固醇“,”有时用于治疗炎症某些类型的关节炎。
  • Glucosamine: Treatment that is able to aid in the rehabilitation of cartilage and restore health to damaged joints.葡萄糖胺:治疗,能够帮助的软骨修复,恢复健康的关节损伤。 We recommend a high quality product such as Syn-flex.我们建议例如SYN - flex的一个高品质的产品。

Surgical Considerations for Arthritis in Cats 在猫关节炎手术的注意事项


  • Arthrotomy or arthroscopy is often used to treat underlying causes of arthritis such as shoulder osteochondritis dissicans or elbow dysplasia.关节切开或关节镜检查通常用于治疗诸如肩肘骨软骨发育不良dissicans或关节炎的根本原因。

  • Reconstructive procedures are used to eliminate joint instability or correct anatomic defects.修复程序是用来消除或纠正解剖关节不稳定的缺陷。

  • Arthroplasty procedures are commonly performed for arthritis of the hip joint.关节置换术是常用的程序进行髋关节的关节炎。 Total hip replacement can give excellent results and is recommended in medium to large breed dogs that can accommodate the implants.全髋关节置换可以给优秀成果,在中建议大型犬,可容纳的植入物。 Removal of the femoral head and neck is performed in smaller dogs and cats, or select patients that can not afford total hip replacement.在股骨头颈部去除在执行小型犬和猫,或选择病人无法负担全髋关节置换。

  • Arthrodesis or permanently ""freezing"" a joint is used in some cases of chronic, severe arthritis and joint instability.关节固定术或永久“,”冻结“,”联合是治疗慢性,严重的关节炎和关节不稳定某些情况下使用。 Arthrodesis of the wrist joint generally yields excellent results, while arthrodesis of the shoulder, elbow, knee or ankle provides less predictable results.腕关节的关节固定术,一般产量优异成绩,而肩,肘,膝或踝关节融合提供了难以预料的结果。

What is the prognosis for cats with arthritis? 什么是关节炎的预后与猫吗?



The prognosis varies with the underlying cause of the arthritis, and the specific joint(s) affected.不同的预后与关节炎的根本原因,以及具体的联合(六)标识。 In most situations, slow progression of arthritis is expected.在大多数情况下,关节炎进展缓慢的预期。 In many instances, medical and surgical treatments can dramatically improve the function of the affected joint(s) and the animal's quality of life.在许多情况下,医疗和手术治疗可以显着提高受影响的关节(s)函数和动物的生活质量。 

 

The author's statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not provided to diagnose any disease or to suggest that liquid glucosamine and chondroitin will treat, cure, or prevent any disease. 提交人的陈述没有经过美国食品和药物管理局并没有提供任何疾病诊断或建议,液体葡萄糖胺和软骨素会治疗,治愈或预防任何疾病。

 

十字韧带断裂的猫

 

The knee joint of the cat is one of the weakest joints of the body. 膝盖关节的猫是身体一关节最弱。   Just as football players frequently suffer knee injuries, the cat also has knee injuries. 就像足球运动员经常受到膝盖受伤,猫也有膝盖受伤。   Fortunately, cruciate ligament injuries are relatively uncommon in the cat. 幸运的是,十字韧带受伤是比较少见的猫。

 

The knee joint is relatively unstable because there is no interlocking of bones in the joint. 膝关节是相对不稳定的,因为没有共同联锁骨骼的研究。   Instead, the two main bones, the femur and tibia, are joined with several ligaments. 相反,两个主要骨,股骨和胫骨,是同几个韧带。   When severe twisting of the joint occurs, the most common injury is a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. 当联合严重扭曲的发生,最常见的伤害是韧带断裂的前十字。   When it is torn, instability occurs that allows the bones to move in an abnormal fashion in relation to each other. 当它被撕裂,不稳定的发生,使骨头移动的关系处于不正常的方式向对方。   It is difficult for the cat to bear weight on the leg without it collapsing. 这是很难承受的猫没有它折叠腿重量的。

 

Contributing Factors 成因

 

Obesity or excessive weight can be a strong contributing factor in cruciate rupture. 肥胖或过重可以是一个强有力的促进因素十字破裂。   The ligament may become weakened due to carrying too much weight; this causes it to tear easily. 韧带可能削弱由于携带过多的重量,这使它很容易撕裂。   Obesity will make the recovery time much longer, and it will make the other knee very susceptible to cruciate rupture. 肥胖会使恢复时间更长,并且它将使另一个膝盖十字很容易破裂。   If your cat has a weight problem, there are prescription diets that can be used to assist weight reduction. 如果您的猫有体重问题,有减肥饮食配方,可用于协助。

 

Prevalence 患病率

 

This type of injury is relatively uncommon in the cat, although it can and does occur. 这种伤害类型比较少见的猫,但它能够而且确实发生。   It is a much more common injury in the dog. 这是一个在犬伤更为常见。

 

Clinical Signs 临床症状

 

Most owners report the sudden onset of moderate to severe lameness in the cat. 大多数业主报告猫在突发严重跛足发病温和。    If the lameness is not addressed with medical attention, there is usually improvement after 4-5 weeks. 如果不重视解决跛足是医疗,通常有4-5周后改善。  

 

Causes 原因

 

Trauma can be responsible for cruciate injuries, although the trauma may not always be observed by the owner. 外伤可以伤害负责十字,虽然不一定是创伤业主观察到。   As noted above, obesity can predispose the cat to this type of injury, also. 如上所述,可以更容易导致肥胖猫这种损伤类型,也。

 

Diagnosis 诊断

 

The most reliable means of diagnosing this injury is to move the femur and tibia in a certain way to demonstrate the instability. 这种损伤的诊断最可靠的方法是将表现出不稳定的股骨和胫骨以某种方式。   This movement is called a "drawer sign." 这场运动被称为“抽屉的迹象。”   It can usually be demonstrated with the cat awake. 它通常被证明与猫醒了。   If the cat is in pain, has very strong leg muscles, or is uncooperative, it may be necessary to use sedation in order to examine the joint thoroughly. 如果猫的痛苦中,具有很强的腿部肌肉,或者是不合作的,它可能有必要使用镇静,以彻底的联合检查。

 

Treatment 治疗

 

Correction of this problem requires surgery. 的问题,这需要手术矫正。   A skilled surgeon can fashion a replacement ligament and stabilize the joint so it functions normally or near normally. 一个熟练的外科医生可以更换时尚韧带和稳定,因此在关节功能正常或接近正常。   If surgery is not performed within a few days to a week, arthritic changes will begin that cannot be reversed, even with surgery. 如果手术并非天至一周内完成几个,关节炎的变化将开始无法扭转,甚至手术治疗。

 

Occasionally the injury that causes a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament will also result in tearing of one or both of the menisci or "cartilages." 偶尔的伤害,导致前十字韧带破裂也会导致或半月板撕裂的一个或两个的“软骨”。   At the time of surgery, these are examined and removed if necessary. 在手术时,都要进行调查,并删除,如果必要的。

 

Occasionally, the cat that has a ruptured cruciate ligament will become sound (will no longer limp) even if surgery is not performed. 有时,猫,有一个十字韧带断裂的声音将成为(将不再跛行),即使不进行手术。   However, arthritis will usually begin and result in lameness a few months later. 然而,关节炎通常会开始和跛行导致数个月后。   That cause of lameness cannot be corrected. 这跛足造成无法纠正。

 

Prognosis 预后

 

The prognosis is dependent upon successful management, either surgical or medical. 预后取决于成功的管理,无论手术或药物。   As noted above, cats that do not receive surgery will often develop irreversible arthritis in the joint even though their lameness may go away for a few weeks or months. 如上所述,猫不接受手术往往会发展不可逆转性关节炎的联合即使他们跛足可能会离开几个月或几个星期。

 

如何对待猫的十字韧带损伤

十字韧带在俗称颅十字韧带或覆铜板。 This is a painful injury for a cat to sustain and requires the medical attention of a veterinarian.这是一只猫来维持痛苦的伤害,需要就医的一名兽医。

The cruciate ligament is located in the cat's strife joint, which is located in the knee.十字韧带位于猫的纷争的联合,这是在膝盖位置。 Although a cranial cruciate ligament injury is seen more often in dogs than in cats, a cat is not immune to this type of injury.虽然颅十字韧带损伤多见于狗比猫,猫也不能幸免于这种损伤类型。

 

如果不及时治疗伤猫不仅会遭受痛苦,但也不会愈合的韧带将收回。 This retraction can result in permanent damage to the surrounding connective tissue and may develop into a degenerative disease. Arthritis is also another possibility after this type of injury as well.这回缩,可能导致永久性损坏周围的结缔组织,并可能发展成为一种退化性疾病。 关节炎另一种可能性,以及这种类型的伤害后的。

The most common cause of this injury in cats is when they move their body quickly while their paws remain firmly in the same spot before the movement occurred.这种猫的损伤最常见的原因是当他们移动他们的身体迅速,而他们的爪子留在原地的运动发生之前,坚决。 This causes the cruciate ligament to twist and sometimes tear partially or completely.这将导致十字韧带撕裂扭曲,有时部分或全部。 This injury can also be acquired if the cat falls in a hole, although this scenario is more common in dogs than in cats.这种伤害也可以收购,如果猫在一个洞瀑布,虽然这种情况较为普遍在狗比猫。

The signs of an injured cruciate ligament will include limping or dragging of the leg that is injured, loud meowing or even howling sounds coming from your cat.十字韧带的受伤的迹象将包括一瘸一拐或者是受伤的腿,大声嚎叫meowing拖,甚至从你的猫的声音来。 If you attempt to touch the leg, your cat will most likely respond with a swat, hiss and even a growl.如果您尝试触摸腿,你的猫很可能会响应一个斯瓦特,嘘声,甚至咆哮。

If necessary surgery can repair the injury but this does not reduce the chance of the cat developing a degenerative disease.如果需要手术能修复损伤,但是这并没有减少了发展中国家一种退行性疾病的猫的机会。 Once the cruciate ligament is injured it will remain weak and vulnerable to another similar injury as well as degenerative disease.一旦十字韧带受伤,将继续疲弱,容易受到伤害以及其他类似的退行性疾病。 The recovery time is usually two months although the cat owner should notice daily improvements after the first few days.恢复时间通常是两个虽然猫主人应通知后的头几天每天改善个月。

The cat should be watched for signs of pain and infection at the site, a cat will usually bite at or even scratch at the incision site if it is infected.猫应为疼痛和感染症状在现场观看,猫通常会咬甚至在切口处的划痕,如果受感染。 Keeping the follow up appointment with the vet is crucial to the cat's complete recovery.保持跟进兽医任命是非常重要的猫的完全恢复。

If the cruciate ligament injury is mild or other reasons prevent surgery from being an option then physical therapy , inflammatory medications and pain medications along with stabilizers can be used during the healing process which depends on how severe the injury is and how old the cat is and the cats general overall health.如果十字韧带损伤是轻微或其他原因,防止再手术从一个选项是物理治疗 ,消炎药和止痛药物一起使用的稳定剂可以和在愈合过程是哪个取决于严重的伤害是多么老的猫猫一般的整体健康。

Cats that are obese, old, or outdoor cats (more chance of being hit by a car) are at a higher risk for a cruciate ligament injury.猫是肥胖,老年人,或室外猫(更被车撞了机会)正处于十字韧带受伤的风险较高。


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