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顾老师CATTI,2级口译,教材教案:第二单元,文化教育,英译汉

(2011-09-20 15:02:05)
标签:

词汇学家

顾新辉老师

二级口译教案

口语

演讲

英式英语

美式英语的差别

1. Ladies and Gentlemen,

女士们,先生们,

2. My topic today is “We don’t’ speak the same language as the Americans”.

今天我要演讲的题目是《我们与美国人的语言不同》。

3. It was said by Sir George Bernard Shaw that “ England and America are two countries separated by the same language”.

肖伯纳爵士曾经说过:“英国和美国是被同一种语言分开的两个国家。”

4. My first personal experience of this was when I worked as a camp counselor for two months in 2000 in a Summer Camp run by the Boy Scouts(童子军) of America, as part of an international leader exchange scheme.

我对此话的第一次亲身感受是在2000年,当时我参加了国际领导人交换项目,其中一项内容是在美国童子军办的夏令营中担任两个月的营地顾问。

5. Before I went, all the participants in the scheme were given a short list of words that are in common use in the UK which Americans would either be confused by(被……迷惑) or would even offend them.

在我动身之前,我们这个项目所有的参与者都得到一份单词表,上面列出(顺译法中的焊接)某些在英国通用而在美国则可能引起误解甚至冒犯的词汇。

6. I memorized the words and thought “I’ll copevi.成功地应付; 对付)”.

我把这些单词记了下来,认为自己能够应付。

7. When I finally arrived in the States three months later, I realized that perhaps a lifetime of watching American television was not adequate preparation for[ˌprepəˈreiʃən] 为……做好准备)appreciating and coping with the differences(不同之处)between American and British speech(口语).

3个月后我终于来到美国,我意识到,即使一辈子看美国电视,也不一定能充分了解和应付英美两国语言的差异。

8. In the first hour of arriving at the camp I was exposed to(遭受, 暴露于...... High School American English, Black American English and the American English spoken by Joe Public, all very different to each other.

在到达营地后的第一个小时里,我就感受到了美国中学生英语、美国黑人英语及美国普通老百姓所说的英语之间的巨大差别

9. Needless to say, I did cope in the end.

毋须说,我最终都应付过去了。

10. The Americans I met were very welcoming and helpful, and I found they were patient with(对……耐心) me when I made a social

faux pas[fəu’pɑ:] n.失礼,失言)(失礼) when I used an inappropriate([,inə'prəupriit]) word or phrase.

因为我所遇到的美国人都十分热心且乐于助人;当我不恰当地使用了某个单词或短语而失礼时,他们总是耐心帮我。

11. Upon my return I began to wonder whether anyone had documented the differences between American and British English.

回国后,我便开始琢磨,对于英美两国语言间的差异,是否有人曾做过记载

12. I found several books on the subject(问题)but often these were written in a dry and academic(学究的)way(方法,方式).

关于这方面的书,我找到了几本,但这些书多半写得枯燥无味,而且充满了学究气

13. So today I’d like to take this chance to share with(与……分享)you some of my personal experiences(亲身经历)which may help you understand better how both sides of Atlantic speak differently.

今天,我想借此机会与大家分享我的一些经历,也许可以帮助大家更好地把握大西洋两岸的人们在语言上的不同之处。

14My research into(就……研究)the subject led me to several conclusions.

通过对这个问题的研究,我得出了几条结论。

15. Firstly, American English and British English are converging thanks to increased transatlantic travel and the media.

首先,由于大西洋两岸交往的增加和新闻媒体的作用,美式英语和英式英语正在相互融合

16. The movement of slang words is mostly eastwards, though a few words from the UK have been adopted by the Ivy League fraternities.

虽然,一些源自英国的词汇已被常春藤院校所接受,但俚语词的流向主要是向东的。

17. This convergent(融合的)trend is a recent one dating from(始于) the emergence of Hollywood as the predominant(占主导地位的)film making center in the world and also from the Second World War when large numbers of American GIs were stationed(派驻)in the UK.

这两种语言融合的历史并不长,它开始于好莱坞崛起成为世界主要电影生产中心、以及大量美国士兵驻扎在英国的二战时期。

18. This trend was consolidated by the advent[ædvənt] of television.

这种趋势随着电视的出现得到了增强

19. Before then, it was thought that American English and British English would diverge[dɪvɜ:dʒ, daɪ-]vi.分开as the two languages evolved.

在此之前,人们认为,随着两种语言的演化发展,英式英语和美式英语间的差异会增大。

20. Very few people in Britain realize how many of the words they use are of(属于)American origin.

很少有英国人能弄清,在他们所使用的词汇中,有多少是源自美国的。

21. Often this importation of American words has encountered a linguistic snobbery by the British, which was a manifestation of the cultural snobbery that bedeviled(折磨)Anglo-American(英美的) relationships for a long time.

这种美国词语的输入常常会遭到英国人语言上的鄙视,这是文化鄙视的一种表现,正是它长期以来给英美关系添了不少麻烦。

22. This is not, thankfully(用以表示高兴或宽慰)幸亏), the case now.

还好,现在情况已不是这样。

23. Secondly, there are some generalizations that can be made about American and British English which can reveal the nature of the two nations and their peoples.

第二,人们可以就英式英语和美式英语做出一些概括,这些概括(重复英语中的先行词,将断开的句子连接起来)能够揭示两国及两国人民的特性。

24. British speech tends to be less general, and directed more, in nuances of meaning, at a sub-group[sʌbɡr u:p]of the population.

英国人讲话较为具体,意义间的细微差别多为针对人口中的某一个亚群体

25. This has become a kind of code, in which few words are spoken because each, along with its attendant murmurings and pauses, carries a wealth of shared assumptions(假定,假设)and attitudes.

这已经成为了一种社会规范,人们说的话不多,因为每一个词,加上与其相伴的嘀咕([dí gu]停顿,都表达了很多彼此认定的事情和态度。

26. In other words, the British are preoccupied with their social status within society and speak and act accordingly(照着) to fit into the social class they aspire to(渴望).

换句话说,英国人念念不忘其社会地位,一言一行都是为了适应他们心仪中社会阶层的需求。

27. This is particularly evident when talking to someone from “the middle class” he points out that he is “upper middle class” rather thanmiddle middle class” or “lower middle class”.

这一点最为突出的表现就是:你同一个“中产阶级”人士交谈时,他会指出他是“中产阶级的上层”,而不是“中产阶级的中层”或“中产阶级的下层”。

28. John Major (the former UK Prime Minister) may have said(可能已经说过;本可以说)that we are now living in a “classless society” but the class system still prevailsvi.占优势).

约翰-梅杰(英国前首相)曾说过我们现在生活在一个“无阶级社会”,但是阶级体系依旧存在。

29. At that moment both he and the Leader of the Opposition, Tony Blair, were talking about capturing the “middle England, middle class vote” as the key to winning the next general election.

当时,他和反对党领袖托尼-布莱尔都在谈论要抓住“英国的中间力量,英国中产阶级的选票”,认为这是争取下次大选胜利的关键。

30. American speech tends to be influenced by the over-heated language of much of the media, which is designed to attach an impression of exciting activity to passive, if(置于形容词之前,引出对比)虽然,尽管 sometimes insignificant events.

而美国人讲话往往受大部分新闻媒体极富夸张的话语影响,这类语言旨在使那些并不活跃、有时甚至没有意义的事情看起来热热闹闹

31. Yet, curiously, really violent activity and life changing events are hidden in bland antiseptic tones that serveserve to do sth ……作用)to disguise(假扮)the reality.

然而,奇怪的是,真正的暴力行为和改变命运的事件却隐藏平淡无奇客观冷静的语调之下,以此粉饰现实。

32. Two examples come readily(容易地)to mind----the US Military with their “friendly fire” and “collateral(次要的)damages” and the business world with their “downsizing”.

可以举下面两个例子:一个是美国军方使用的“友好火力”和“无意损害”,另一个是商界使用的“精简”。

33. British people tend to understatement whereas Americans towards hyperbole.

英国人倾向于讲话低调美国人则倾向于言过其实

34. A Briton might respond to(对……作出反应)a suggestion with a word such as “Terrific” only if he is expressing rapturous(热烈的)enthusiasm, whereas an American might use the world merely to signify polite assent(同意).

对一条建议做出反应,英国人只有在极为热情洋溢时,才会说,“棒极了”;美国人使用这个词时,往往只是礼貌地表示同意。

35. Thirdly, the American language has less regard than the British for (较少注重(某事))grammatical form, and will happily bulldoze(以推土机清除)its waybulldoze one’s way: 强行通过)across(在……对面)distinctions(明显差别)rather than steer a path between them.

第三,美语没有英语那样注重语法形式。美语会毫不在乎,像推土机一样在语言差异间强行推出一条路而不会小心避开路上的障碍。

36. American English will casually use one form of a word for(表示结果)当做, 作为)another, for example turning nouns into verbs or verbs and nouns into adjectives.

美式英语会随意把一种词性用成另一种词性,例如把名词转换成动词,或把动词和名词转换成形容词。

37. In Britain, a disrespect for grammatical rules, particularly amongst the middle classes, would immediately reveal you to be “not one of us”.

在英国,不尊重语法规则会立即暴露你的身份,被英国中产阶级视为异己。

38. Listening to listener feedback programmers on Radio 4(a radio station run by the British Broadcasting Corporation of BBS) would reveal this.

只要听广播四台(英国广播公司的电台)播出的听众反馈节目便会明白这一点。

39. People actually write to complain about grammatical mistakes made by news presenters!

确有人写信指责过新闻节目主持人所犯的语法错误。

40. Amongst young British people, this is not necessarily the case.

在英国年轻人中,情况并不一定如此

41. British teenagers have long been accused of being poorly educated by politicians, parents and employers sincesince侧重主句,从句表示显然的或已为人所知的理由常译为因为既然,语气比because稍弱,通常置于句首,表示一种含有勉强语气的原因)(since 表示原因时,说话人并没有提供新的信息,而because提供的是新的信息)they have little regard for grammar in their speech.

由于说话很少注意语法,英国十几岁的年轻人长期以来被政客、父母及雇主称为没接受过良好的教育。

42. As a consequence of(由于,因为)American culture and speech patterns being(动词的ing形式作逻辑谓语,表示主动、进行) commonplace寻常的事物)on children’s television programs in the UK, I have noted that most young British children of my acquaintance now play with their toys in an American accent with(表示状态)具有, 带有)the attendant(随之而产生的)syntax(句法)and grammatical structure.

英国的儿童电视节目受美国文化及美国人说话方式的影响随处可见,由此,我注意到,我所认识的大多数英国孩子玩玩具时所说的话都是美国味的,而且使用相应的美式句法和语法结构。

43. American teenagers have taken(接受) this disregard蔑视)

for(对于) grammatical form one step further(进一步)and have almost abandoned syntax altogether(完全地,全部地).

美国十几岁的孩子忽视语法的现象愈演愈烈,几乎全盘抛弃句法。

44. For example, a teenage girl might describe the first time she met her new boyfriend by(通过)saying “I looked at him and I was, like, whoa!”

例如,一个少女在描述与新男朋友第一次见面时,会说:“I looked at him and I was, like, whoa!”

45. I do hope what I’ve said will be of(具有)some help for all to learn about the language difference in the United States and Britain. Thanks.

我真诚地希望,我以上讲的内容能够帮助各位更好地把握大西洋两岸的人在讲英语时的区别。谢谢大家。

 

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