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女人和男人不同的4个方面

(2008-12-30 11:45:20)
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杂谈

Despite the obvious differences between men and women, we're only beginning to learn how the sexes differ in terms of health and disease. Until recently, most medical research focused on men and often didn't consider gender differences. We're learning more every year, but here are four important things that you and the women in your life need to know right now.

1. Your brain

The good news for women is that they live, on average, five years longer than men. The bad news is that with extra longevity comes increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. The majority of people living with Alzheimer's are women, and more than twice as many women die from it as men. We don't know all the causes of the disease, but there are steps you can take to keep your brain healthy.

Exercise your mind and your body. Studies show that physical and mental activity may improve brain health. Mental exercises that draw on memory and reasoning have even been shown to reverse some of the signs of aging in the brain.

Eat fish or take a fish-oil supplement. The omega-3 fats found in fish and fish oil are linked with better brain health. Choose oily fish such as salmon, sardines, anchovies, herring, and mackerel. Chunk-light tuna is preferable to albacore or sushi, because it usually contains fewer contaminants, such as mercury.

Manage your mood. Anxiety, worry, anger, and depression have been linked with higher rates of cognitive impairment. If you're feeling stressed or down, don't ignore the problem. Talk with a friend or get outdoors and move your body. If that doesn't help, talk with your doctor or a trained counselor.

2. Your lungs

Women tend to worry more about cancer of the breast than of the lung. But, according to the American Cancer Society, more than 70,000 women die annually from lung cancer, while about 40,000 will die of breast cancer this year. Even women who don't smoke can get lung cancer, and women who do smoke are more prone to chronic bronchitis than men. Here are some ways to protect your lungs.

If you smoke, talk to your doctor about quitting. Patches, gums, and new medications make it easier to break the nicotine addiction.

Avoid secondhand smoke. If you live with a smoker, ask that person not to smoke in the house, and ask if he or she would like help quitting.

Check your home for radon. Scientists believe that exposure to radon plays a major role in lung cancer in nonsmokers.

3. Your heart

Heart disease remains the number-one killer of women in the U.S., but you can control the most important risk factors—high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, high cholesterol, inactivity, and obesity.

Get moving. Just 30 minutes of aerobic exercise each day can help keep your heart healthy and your weight under control. Join a walking group, ride your bike, swim at your YMCA, use that treadmill in your bedroom, or go dancing!

Change your oil. Use olive oil instead of animal fats, and eat more nuts, seeds, avocados, and seafood. Try low-fat or nonfat dairy products, and skip the fried foods.

Pass on the salt. Sodium causes fluid retention and raises blood pressure, so don't use more than 2,300 mg per day. A quarter teaspoon of salt contains 600 mg, and sodium often is hidden in processed foods and condiments.

4. Your bones

Like the foundation of a house, our bones usually don't get our attention until something goes wrong. But new studies show that there's more to bone health than avoiding fractures. Toxic metals like lead can accumulate in our bones over the course of our lives and, if bone loss occurs, the toxins can be released into the bloodstream. Women, especially after menopause, are more vulnerable to bone loss than men. New research suggests that lead in the bloodstream might help explain the onset of high blood pressure in women in their 50s.

The good news is that we're also learning new ways to keep bones healthy. In the past, we've placed too much emphasis on calcium and not enough on vitamin D3. Calcium intake is most important in adolescence, when the skeleton is forming. After growth is complete, vitamin D3, "the sunshine vitamin," may be more important to maintain healthy bones. Here's what you can do.

Get more vitamin D. As we spend less time outdoors and use more sunblock to protect our skin, vitamin D3 deficiency is becoming endemic. Most people need at least 1,000 IU daily—more than you get from foods and most multivitamins. A simple blood test can tell if you are getting enough vitamin D3. If not, take a supplement. And don't be afraid to spend some time in the sun—just apply sunblock to your face and hands and be sure to cover up after about 20 minutes so you don't burn.

Avoid exposure to heavy metals like lead. Surprisingly, calcium supplements may be contaminated with lead, because the sources of calcium in supplements—like seashells or cow bones—are contaminated. Also be wary of paint and dust in homes built before 1978 and of water coming from old pipes. Some imported herbal remedies also contain lead.

Add weight-bearing exercise to your workouts. Working against resistance helps stabilize and strengthen bones, which is especially important after menopause. Jogging, lifting weights, hiking, and rowing can help improve your bone health.

 

尽管男人和女人之间的差异是非常明显的,我们今天却要讨论在健康和疾病方面的性别差异。直到最近,大部分的药物研究都是针对男性并没有考虑到性别上的差异。我们在这方面的进展每年都有很多,这4个重要的知识是你或你身边的女性必须立刻知道的。

1.你的大脑

长寿对于女性来说无疑是个好消息,女性的平均寿命比男性高5年。但是不好的是随着寿命的增长患上阿尔茨海默和痴呆的概率增加。大部分阿尔茨海默病患者都是女性,并且死亡率也是男性患者的两倍多。我们并不知道导致这种疾病的所有原因,但下面有几个措施可以使你的大脑保持健康。

锻炼你的大脑和身体。研究发现身体和智力上的锻炼都能使我们大脑更加健康。通过记忆和推理来进行智力锻炼显示可以使大脑中的一些年龄信号回复到健康水平。

吃鱼或者含鱼油的食品。鱼中和鱼油中含有ω-3脂肪酸,它可以使你的大脑更加健康。选择那些油滑的鱼类如:鲑鱼、沙丁鱼、凤尾鱼、青鱼和鲭鱼。吞拿鱼比青花海产鱼更好,更加适合做生鱼片,因为它所含的污染物比如汞比较少。

控制你的情绪:焦急、忧虑、愤怒和消沉都会对你的认知能力造成损伤。如果你感到压力或者情绪低落,不要忽视这个问题。找个朋友聊聊或者到户外去走走做做运动也能减轻压力。但是如果还不能起作用,就得向医生或者训练顾问寻求帮助。

2.你的肺

女人趋向于担心患上乳腺癌而不是肺癌。但是在按照美国肿瘤协会的数据,每年有至少有7万了因为肺癌而死亡,然而因患乳腺癌死亡的只有4万人。即使女人不抽烟也会患肺癌,而吸烟的女人就比男人更容易患支气管炎。下面是保护你的肺的几种方法。

如果你吸烟,则应向你的医生寻求戒烟的方法。药贴、口香糖和新的药物让你更容易戒掉这种尼古丁上瘾。

避免吸二手烟。如果你和一个吸烟的人一起住,告诉他不要在房间内吸烟,并问他或者是她是否愿意戒烟。

检查你家中是否含有氡。科学家发现暴露在氡气中是不吸烟者患肺癌的重大原因。

3.你的心脏

心脏病是美国女性的第一杀手。但是你可以通过控制以下重大的风险因素如高血压、吸烟、高胆固醇、不活动和肥胖。

运动。每天只要30分钟的有氧运动就能让你的心脏保持健康,让你的体重得到控制。加入一个散步小组,骑上你的自行车、在基督青年会游泳、在卧室骑脚踏车或者跳舞都是不错的选择。

更换食用油。用橄榄油替代动物脂肪,多吃干果、种子、鳄梨和海产品。吃低脂或者没有脂肪的乳制品,不吃油炸食品。

注意食盐的用量。钠可以使体液流动变缓和升高血压,因此一天摄入的钠不要超过2300毫克。四分之一茶匙的食盐大约有600毫克钠,并且通常在加工食品和调味剂中也含有钠。

4.你个骨骼

骨骼就好比房子的地基在没有发现问题的时候很少引起我们的注意。但新的研究发现骨骼的健康不仅限于防止骨折。在我们的生活中,像重金属铅都是沉积在我们的骨骼中,一旦发生骨质流失,这种毒素释放到血液中去。女人特别是在绝经后,受骨质流失的侵害的可能性多于男性。新的研究暗示了血液中的铅含量可以用来解释为什么50多岁的女性易受高血压的攻击。

好消息是我们发现了几种方式可以让我们的骨骼更健康。在以前,我们过多的关注于钙而忽视了维生素D3。在青春期,钙的摄入量是至关重要的,因为那时是线圈架(?)形成的时候。在生长完成后,维生素D3这种“阳光维生素”对于骨骼健康是非常重要的。这些是你应该做的。

得到更多的维生素D。随着我们户外时间的减少,以及用防晒霜来保护皮肤,维生素D3缺乏缺陷已经发展成为一种地方病了。大部分人每天所需维生素为1000个IU(国际单位),这比你食物和维生素剂所得到的要多。一种简单的血液测试可以知道你是否获得了足够的维生素D3。如果摄入不足,需要补充。不要害怕晒太阳,就只在脸上和手臂涂上防晒霜并保证掩盖住这样的话晒20分钟并不会灼伤你的皮肤。

避免与重金属铅接触。令人惊讶的是,钙的补充品中可能受到铅的污染,因为主要的钙补充品像海贝和牛骨都可能被污染。同样也要警惕家中1978年以前的油漆品和灰尘,还有要注意老旧水管中的流出的水。一些进口的草药也含有铅。

在锻炼身体中加强重量承受练习。抗击阻力的工作可以帮助我们稳定和增强骨骼,这对于更年期后的女性非常重要。慢跑、举重、徒步新走和划船可以使骨骼更加健康。


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