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小改变,大受益

(2006-03-11 15:55:29)
原创 2006-02-20 22:06:09 ]

错误的观念,即使出发点是好的,也会成为走上正路的障碍。

观念的改变,即使是很小的创新,也会带来无法预估的动力。

没有人不想要健康,但是锻炼的硬标准、死要求、僵冷的数据,总是让许许多多的望而却步。

动起来,这是最低的标准、最小的要求、最活的理念,没有人不可以做到,因而也没有人有理由再拒绝健康。

动起来,这就是健康。

Small Changes, Big Benefits

You don't have to break a sweat to improve your health, you just need to get moving.

你不必非得排出汗来增进你的健康,仅需要动起来。

 

 

 

By Harvey B. Simon, M.D.

Newsweek International

Feb. 20, 2006 issue - Sweat has always been the elixir of exercise and the mark of its success. The aerobics revolution of the 1970s added theory to the practice of vigorous exercise. To benefit from working out, scientists told us, you had to push your heart rate to 70 to 85 percent of its maximum, keep pouring out sweat for 20 to 60 minutes at a crack and do it all over again three to seven times a week. And for the next two decades, exercise physiologists kept cranking(crank: person with strange fixed ideas, esp on a particular subject; eccentric person; crank something out: to produce a lot of something very quickly) out fancy data that seemed to confirm what your high-school coach barked(bark at: say (sth) in a sharp harsh voice) at every practice: no pain, no gain.

汗水总是被当作锻炼的灵丹妙药和锻炼成功的标志。20世纪70年代的有氧运动革命,丰富了大强度锻炼的理论。科学家告诉我们,要想受益,做一次运动时必须将心率提升到最大数的70-85%,保持出汗20-60分钟,并且一周重复3-7次。而且从那之后的二十年,锻炼生理学家保持着数字崇拜的癖好,这似乎证实了你高中教练在每次练习时尖声咆哮“没有疼痛就没有收获”的正确性。

 

 

The aerobics doctrine inspired(fill sb with the ability or urge to do, feel, etc sth beyond his usual ability, esp to write, paint, compose, etc) the few but discouraged the many. I was one of the lucky ones who morphed(to develop a new appearance or change into something else, or to make something do this) from an overstuffed couch potato to a slim distance runner. Flush(to become red in the face, for example when you are angry or embarrassed –synonym blush) with my own transformation, armed with the best current data and the best of intentions, I preached(to talk about a religious subject in a public place, especially in a church during a service) the Gospel of Aerobics. I told people that prolonged(to deliberately make something such as a feeling or activity last longer –synonym lengthen), continuous exercise was essential. Among other things, I said that golf was the perfect way to ruin(to spoil or destroy something completely) a four-mile walk.

有氧运动原则激励了少数人,但阻止了大多数人。我是那些使自己从深度沙发土豆型变成苗条跑步型的幸运者之一。由于我自己的转变脸变红润了,并拥有最佳的通行数据和最好的愿望,我宣讲着“有氧运动的福音”。我告诉人们,延长、连续的锻炼是不可或缺的。在其他方面,我说高尔夫运动是毁掉一次四英里步行的最佳方法。

 

As it turns out(as was shown or proved by later events), however, perspiration isn't the only answer; the coach and I were both wrong. You can reap(to get something, especially something good, as a result of what you have done) enormous health benefits with no-sweat exercise—as long as you know what to do. In fact, everything that gets you moving—from gardening to sex—can and will contribute to your health.

然而,正如事实证明的那样,汗并不是唯一的答案。教练和我都错了。没有汗水的锻炼,你也能够获得巨大的健康好处――只要你知道怎么去做。事实上,使你动起来的每一件事――从收拾花园到做爱,都能够并将有助于你的健康。

 

I recently reviewed 22 studies that evaluated the impact of moderate exercise on cardiovascular disease and longevity. The research, collectively involving more than 320,000 male and female subjects from around the world, is eye-opening. Moderate exercise was credited with 18 to 84 percent reductions in the risk of heart disease and 18 to 50 percent reductions in the overall mortality rate.

我最近看了22项评估适度锻炼对心脏病和长寿影响的研究报告。这些研究,涉及全世界超过320,000名男性和女性,真是大开眼界。适度锻炼被认为有助于减少18-84%的心脏病危险,降低18-50%的整体死亡率。

 

I know what you're thinking: the catch is "moderate." But this time you're wrong. A few examples: in a Seattle study, gardening for just an hour a week appeared to lower the risk of sudden cardiac death by 66 percent, and walking an hour a week reduced it by 73 percent. In the Netherlands, men who walked or biked for at least one hour a week enjoyed a 29 percent lower mortality rate than sedentary men, and in the United States, walking at least a mile a day reduced the risk of heart disease by 82 percent over a 10-year period.

我知道你正在想:问题是“适度”怎么把握。但这次你错了。一些例子:在西雅图的一项研究中,一周仅一小时从事园艺活动,就显示降低了66%的突然心脏病的死亡,一周步行一小时则减少73%。在Netherlands,一周步行或骑自行车一小时的男人,享有比久坐不动者低29%的死亡率。而在美国,一天最少步行一英里的人,在十年期间减少82%的心脏病危险。

 

Moderate exercise can also help fight hypertension, lowering blood pressure as much as 20 points. It's an essential partner with diet for people who need to lose weight. And no-sweat exercise can help reduce the risk of stroke (by 21 to 34 percent), diabetes (16 to 50 percent), dementia (15 to 50 percent), fractures (40 percent), breast cancer (20 to 30 percent) and colon cancer (30 to 40 percent). If that's not enough to get you moving, consider that it is also the only known way to slow the aging process.

适度锻炼还有助于战胜高血压病,降低血压20点之多。对那些需要减肥的人来说,它与饮食是一个关键的伙伴。无汗锻炼有助于降低脑溢血(21-34%)、糖尿病(16-50%)、老年性痴呆(15-50%)、骨折(40%)、乳腺癌(20-30%)和结肠癌(30-40%)的危险。如果这些还不足以使你动起来,那就想想,这是唯一已知的延缓衰老的方法。

     

And you don't have to do your sweat-free exercise all at one time. A study of young female college students in Wisconsin found that daily exercise was equally beneficial whether it occurred in a single 30-minute session, two 15-minute sessions or three 10-minute sessions. And the benefits were substantial: in just 12 weeks the women shed nearly 10 pounds each. Scientists in the U.K. reported similar results, finding that three 10-minute walks a day had the same good effects on cholesterol and stress as a 30-minute daily walk.

你不必非得一次就做完你的不在乎汗水的锻炼。一项威斯康新的年轻女大学生的研究发现,每天锻炼一次30分钟,与两次各15分钟,或者三次各10分钟,具有同等的好处。并且好处是可观的:仅在12周里每个妇女就关掉近10磅。英国科学家报道了类似的结果,他们发现一天三次10分钟的步行,在降低胆固醇和压力方面与每天步行一次30分钟具有相同的效果。

 

As for golf, the sport I once maligned(to say unpleasant things about someone that are untrue –synonym slander), some Finnish scientists showed me the error of my ways. Their subjects were 110 healthy but sedentary middle-aged men. During the trial, half the men played 18 holes of golf two to three times a week, always walking the course; the others didn't golf. All the men went through a series of tests before and after the 20-week experiment. In just that short period, the golfers pulled ahead(pull ahead:move in front), losing weight, reducing their girth(waist measurement of a person) and abdominal(in, of or for the abdomen) fat, increasing muscular strength and boosting their levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol.

至于高尔夫球,我曾经诋毁过的运动,一些芬兰科学家指出了我的错误。他们的研究对象是110个健康但久坐不动的中年男人。在评判之中,一半的男人一周玩两到三次18洞高尔夫球,过程中总是步行;另一半去不玩。所有的人在20周的实验之前和之后都通过了一系列检查。在那短时间内,玩高尔夫球一组领先了,减掉了体重,减短了腰带和腹部的赘肉,增加了肌肉的力量,并提高了他们的HDL(“好的”)胆固醇指标。

 

What explains this seismic(very great, serious, or important) shift in our approach to exercise? Human biology has not changed between 1976 and 2006, but science has. The aerobics doctrine is based on experiments that measured how exercise affects aerobic fitness, on how much oxygen your body can suck in while you're going all out on a treadmill. It's still true that to attain maximal fitness you have to work out aerobically. But in figuring out how to build exercise into your busy life, don't make an artificial distinction between "exercise" and "physical activity." Intensity is great, but what matters most is that you simply get moving.

怎么解释我们的锻炼方法发生的巨大变化?在1976到2006年间人类生理学没变化,但是科学发生了变化。有氧锻炼原则是基于测量锻炼强度影响有氧运动健康的实验,就是测量在你进行跑步机锻炼时你的身体能够吸进多少氧气。但是提及到如何在你繁忙的生活中保持锻炼时,不要在“锻炼”和“体力活动”之间做一个人为的区分。剧烈活动很棒,但最重要的只是你得活动起来。

 

To help explain that, I've coined the term cardiometabolic exercise (CME) to emphasize the many health benefits of everything from moderate activity to aerobic training, from washing the car to hitting the elliptical. But how much CME do you need? The accompanying graphic assigns CME points to selected daily and recreational activities. For general health and gradual weight loss, aim for 150 points a day or about 1,000 points a week; for faster weight loss, build up to twice as many points. And many of us will get extra benefit by adding exercises for strength, flexibility or balance—not at a gym under the watchful eye of a trainer, but at home in just a few minutes a day.

为有助于解释,我已经制作了一项心脏代谢训练,以强调许多健康益处来自于从适度锻炼到有氧锻炼,从洗车到击中“省略器”。但是你需要多大强度的心脏代谢训练?附带图表确定心脏代谢训练的点数以供选择日常的和消遣的运动。对普通健康程度和需要逐渐减轻体重的,目标是一天150点,或者大约一周1000点;对要快速减轻体重的,增大为两倍。而且我们中的许多人将获得额外的好处,通过锻炼增强了力量、灵活和平衡――-不是在教练眼睛盯着的一个健身房,而是在家中仅仅一天几分钟。

 

Suppose you weigh 150 pounds but need to lose 15 of them. That may not seem like much, but a 10 percent weight loss is really quite hard to achieve. So you begin by walking 10 minutes twice a day—not huffing and puffing on a treadmill, but just getting off the bus a few stops early or circling the mall a couple of times, aiming to cover about a mile a day. The scale won't budge for the first few weeks, but don't give up. If you keep your caloric intake constant, you'll lose 10 pounds in the first year and you'll reach your target in 18 months, without ever breaking a sweat. And if that seems slow, remember that a study of the expensive diet pill orlistat (Xenical) showed that people who took three pills a day lost an average of 12 pounds after two years. Orlistat gives many people diarrhea, but the only side effect of walking is good health.

假如你重150磅,但需要减轻15%。这似乎不算太多,但减轻10%的体重真是相当难达到的。因此,你开始一天步行10分钟两次――不是气喘吁吁地在跑步机上,仅仅是乘公共汽车时提前几站下车,或是在商业街多转几圈,争取是一天走大约一英里。这个程度在开始的几周不要变动,不要放弃。如果你保持你的热量摄入为常量,你将在第一年减轻10磅,并在18个中达到目标,从来没有排出一滴汗。如果认为这样似乎慢了,记住一种昂贵的食物药片orlistat(Xenical)的研究表明,一天吃三片人平均两年后减轻12磅。Orlistat让许多人腹泄,但步行的唯一负作用是良好的健康。

 

Want to lose more or lose faster? You can double your losses by eliminating a 100-calorie cookie from your daily fare or by walking for 40 minutes a day. And if you do both, you'll really win at the losing game. Economists tell us it's hard to get rich quick, but easy to get rich slowly. Scientists tell us the same about getting thin: small changes add up.

想减掉更多或者减得更快吗?你能够加倍减轻,通过去掉你日常食谱中100卡的饼干,或者一天步行40分钟。如果你两样都做了,你将真正赢得减肥的胜利。经济学家告诉我们,快速致富是困难的,但是慢慢地富起来却是容易的。对于变瘦,科学家告诉我们相同的道理:积水成渊。

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