加载中…
个人资料
SparkEnglish
SparkEnglish
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:23,938
  • 关注人气:41
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

备战2011届高考英语一轮复习专题7  主谓一致

(2010-11-20 09:33:31)
标签:

谓语动词

复数形式

主语

单数

主谓一致

杂谈

分类: 高中英语

备战2011届高考英语一轮复习

专题7  主谓一致

 

【考纲解读】

高考研究主谓一致是历年高考试题中的主要测试点之一,它主要以单项填空的形式来测试语法一致的原则,意义一致的原则,就近一致的原则,同时还涉及动词时态、语态和修饰等。由于汉语中没有主谓一致现象,所以有时很难把握这一语法现象。在注意掌握主谓一致的基本原则的同时,要特别注意语言内容上一致的原则。分数、百分数、不定式、动名词、主语从句等用作主语的主谓一致问题仍将会是今后高考命题的热点。

 

【知识要点】

一、主谓一致的种类

1.语法形式上的一致

主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。如:

The number of the students present is 200.目前的学生数是200。

Jane and Mary look alike.简和玛丽看起来很像。

2.意义上一致

1)主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。如:

The crowd were shouting.人们在喊叫。

单数形式代表复数内容的词有people,police,cattle等。

2)主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。如:

The news was so surprising.这则消息是那么得令人惊讶。

形复意单的单词有news和一些以ics结尾的学科名称,如physics,politics,economics等。

3.就近原则

即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如用连词or,either...or,neither...not,not only...but also等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。如:

Either your students or Mr.Wang knows this.

要么是你的学生,要么是王老师了解这件事。

二、主谓一致的应用

1.名词作主语

1) 某些集体名词,如family,team等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式,如果就其中一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

His family is a happy one.他的家庭是一个幸福的家庭。

The whole family are watching TV.全家人都在看电视。

这类名词有audience,class,club,company,crew,enemy,crowd,government,group,party,public,team等。名词population一词的使用情况类似。“a group(crowd) of+复数名词”等短语之后的谓语动词也同样可用单数或复数,前者强调整体,后者强调各个部分。

2) 某些集体名词,如people,police,cattle等,只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。如:The police are searching for the thief.警察正在搜捕那个贼。

3) 单、复数同形的名词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。如:

A sheep is over there.那边有只羊。

Some sheep are over there.那边有些羊。

4) 名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般只指商店、工厂、住宅等,作主语时,动词一般用单数。如:

The doctor’s is across the street.诊所在街道的对面。

My uncle’s is not far from here.我叔叔家离这儿不远。

常见的省略名词有the baker’s,the barber’s,the carpenter’s,the Zhang’s等。

表示店铺的名词,一般作集体名词看待,但用作主语时,谓语动词往往用复数。如:

Richardson’s have a lot of goods to sell.理查德店有很多货物要卖。

5) 当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间、书名等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语用单数形式。如:

Three years has passed since then.自从那时到现在,三年已经过去了。

6) 不定代词each,every,no所修饰的名词即使以and或逗号连接成多主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:

Each boy and each girl wants to go to the cinema.孩子们都想去看电影。

7) 如果主语有more than one...或many a...构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:

More than one student has read the book. 很多学生读过这本书。

但是,“more +复数名词+than one”结构之后,谓语动词一般多用复数形式。如:

More members than one are against your plan. 许多成员反对你的计划。

8) 一些有两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式。如:glasses,clothes,trousers,shoes,compasses,chopsticks,scissors等。但如果主语用“a kind of,a pair of ,a series of等加名词”构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。如:

A pair of shoes was on the desk.桌子上有一双鞋。

9) this kind of book=a book of this kind(这种书),其谓语动词用单数;短语this kind of men=men of this kind=these kind of men(口语)(这一类人),但this kind of men的谓语动词用单数,men of this kind和these kind of men的谓语动词用复数,all kinds of后跟复数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。如:This kind of men is dangerous.这一种人很危险。

Men of this kind are dangerous.这种类型的人很危险。

10) 复数形式的单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致原则,用作单数意义时,谓语用单数,反之,谓语用复数。这类名词有means(方法),works(工厂),species(种类),Chinese,Japanese等。如:

The (This) glass works was set up in 1980. 这家玻璃厂建于1980年。

The(These)glass works are near the railway station.这些玻璃厂在火车站附近。

当它们前面有a,such a ,this,that修饰时,谓语用单数;有all,such,these,those修饰时,谓语用复数;但means,no means,the means等词前没有以上修饰词时,可用作单数,也可用作复数。

11) 如果名词词组中心词是all,most,half,rest等词语,所指的复数意义,谓语动词用复数形式;反之,用单数。如:

All of my classmates like music.我的同学都喜欢音乐。

All of the water is gone.所有的水都没了。

12) 在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:

Between the two windows hangs a picture.两窗户间挂着一幅画。

2.由连接词连接的名词作主语

1) 用and或both...and连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。如:

Plastics and rubber never rot.橡胶和塑料永不腐烂。

Walking and riding are good exercises.散步和骑车是很好的运动。

但是,并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时and后面的名词没有冠词。如:

To love and to be loved is great happiness.爱与被爱是种幸福。

Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.早睡早起是种好习惯。

A knife and fork is on the table.桌子上有副刀叉。

2) 当主语后面跟有as well as,as much as,no less than,along with,with,like,rather than,together with,but,except,besides,including,in addition to等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单、复数据这些词前面的主语而定。如:

The teacher as well as the students was reading in the library.

老师和学生都在图书馆里看书。

3) 以or,either...or,neither...nor,not only...but also等连接的名词(代词)作主语时,谓语动词的单复数应根据就近一致的原则。如:

Tom or his brothers are waiting in the room.汤姆和哥哥们在房间里等着。

3.代词作主语

1) 名词性物主代词作主语时,既可以用作单数,也可以用作复数,这取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。如:

Ours (Our Party) is a great party.我们的党是个伟大的党。

2) such,the same起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。如:

Such is our plan.Such are his words.那就是我们的计划。那就是他的话。

3) 关系代词who,that,which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如:

Those who want to go please put up your hands.想去的请举手。

Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun.

人类使用的一些能源来自太阳。

4) 疑问代词who,what,which作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、复数。如:

Who lives next door? It is Xiao Liu.谁住在隔壁?是小刘。

What produce(s) heat? 什么产生热量?

5) 不定代词any,either,neither,none,all,some,more等作主语时,有以下两种情况:

单独作主语时,视其在文中的意义,动词用单数或复数形式,例如:

Now all has been changed.现在一切都改变了。

All are present.所有人都到场了。

either,neither单独作主语时,谓语通常用单数。但后接of时,若of的宾语为不可数名词,动词当然用单数形式,若of的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数,在正式文体中,单数形式的动词更常用。如:

Do(es) any of you know his address? 你们当中有谁知道他的地址吗?

None of them has (have) seen the film.他们当中没人看过这部电影。

4.分数、量词作主语

1) “分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语以及由“a lot of,lots of,plenty of,a large quantity of,a heap of,heaps of,half of+名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致,这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词,而短语中前面的量词是修饰语,如:

About threefourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water.

地球的四分之三被水覆盖。

Threefifths of the workers here are women.这个地方五分之三的工人是妇女。

和这种情况类似的还有“a number of+名词复数”,但是“the number of+名词”的中心词却是number,试比较:

A number of students have gone home.许多学生都回家了。

The number of pages in this book is two hundred.这本书中的页码是二百。

注意:(large)quantities of修饰可数或不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数,如:

Quantities of food (nuts) were on the table.大量的食物在桌子上。

短语in quantity,in large quantities意为“大量”;in small quantities意为“少量”。

2) a great deal of ,a large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;large amounts of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数,如:

Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.大量的钱花在了这座桥上。

3) 表示数量的one and a half后,名词要用复数形式,但是其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,如:

One and a half bananas is left on the table.桌子上有一个半香蕉。

4) half of,(a) part of修饰可数名词单数及不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数,修饰可数名词复数时,谓语动词用复数。

5.名词化的形容词作主语

如果主语由“the+形容词(或过去分词)”结构担任时,谓语通常用复数,这类词有the brave,the poor,the rich,the blind,the young,the old,the sick,the dead,the deaf and dumb,the oppressed,the injured,the wounded,the unemployed等;但也有少数的过去分词与定冠词连用时指个别,则用单数。如:The blind study in special schools.盲人在特殊的学校学习。

这类形容词或分词如果要表示个体时,就要与名词man,person或表示人的单数名词连用,如:an old man,a rich person,the(a)wounded soldier。

6.从句作主语

1) 由what引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数,但所指的具体内容是复数意义时,谓语动词一般用复数形式,如:

What we need is more time.我们所需要的是更多的时间。

What we need are doctors.我们所需要的是医生。

2) 在“one of+复数名词+who/that/which”引导的从句结构中,关系代词who/that/which的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是one,因此,从句中的动词应该是复数形式。如:

This is one of the most interesting stories that have been told.

这是讲过的最有趣的故事之一。

但是当one之前有the only等修饰语时,关系代词的先行词是one,而不是靠近它的复数名词,因此从句的动词应是单数形式。如:

She was the only one of the girls who was late.她是惟一一位迟到的女生。

 

 

【考点诠释】

主谓一致

主谓一致就是指谓语动词在人称和数上必须和主语保持一致。中学生在主谓一致问题的理解上与汉语的思维存在偏差,容易被忽略。高考中的单项填空题与短文改错题经常对主谓一致问题进行考查。

考点 名词作主语时的主谓一致

名词作主语时的主谓一致主要是把握好名词作主语时,谓语动词与主语的单复数须保持一致。

1.单复数同形的名词作主语,其谓语动词应根据具体内容决定单复数。如:

①Every means has been tried.每种方法都试过了。

②These means are out of date.这些方法是过时的。

2.具体的距离、时间、金钱、度量、温度、书名等作主语,其内容可作整体概念,故谓语动词用单数。如:

Three days is not enough to finish the work.要完成那项工作三天的时间是不够的。

3.不定代词each,every,no所修饰的名词作主语,其内容是整体概念,故谓语动词仍用单数。如:

Each boy and each girl wants to serve the people in the future.每个男孩和女孩都想在未来为人民服务。   

4.由两个相同部分组成的一个整体名词作主语,其内容是复数的,谓语动词用复数,此类词有glasses,trousers,shoes,scissors,clothes,compasses,chopsticks等。但若此类词被“a kind/pair of”修饰,则其内容是单数的,谓语动词用单

数。如:

①Look!The shoes are under the bed.看!鞋子在床底下。

②Look I This pair of shoes is under the bed.看!这双鞋在床底下。

5.含all,most,half,rest等的名词词组作主语,所指的内容是复数意义时,谓语动词用复数;反之,用单数。如:

①All of my classmates work hard.我所有的同学学习都很努力。

②All of the water is up now.现在所有的水都用光了。

6.在主谓倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:

Between the two windows hangs a picture.在两扇窗子之间挂着一幅画。

归纳拓展

(1)不定式、动名词以及从句作主语时应看做单数,谓语动词用单数。如:

①Reading often means learning.读书常意味着学习。

②To read Enghsh aloud every morning does you a lot of good.每天早晨大声朗读英语对你有许多好处。

③What he said has been recorded.他说的话已被录音了。

(2)某些集体名词(如family,team等)作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式;如果就其中一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

①The whole family are watching TV.一家人都在看电视。

②His family was very poor when he was a child.他小时候家里很穷。

③The population in China is very large,and eighty percent of the population in China are farmers.中国人口众多,并且80%的人口都是农民。

考点2含有连接词的主谓一致

含有连接词的主谓一致是指对主语起连接作用的词会影响主语与谓语动词的一致关系。

1.用and或both…and连接并列主语,其内容是复数的,谓语动词用复数。若and连接的两个单数主语指同一个人、同一物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数。如:

①The teacher and writer has already come to the meeting.这位教师兼作家已来开会了。

②Both my brother and my sister are workers.我的哥哥和姐姐都是工人。

2.主语后面接连接性短语时,这种结构并不影响主语和谓语的关系,即谓语动词的数与主语的数保持一致。此类连接性短语有as well as,as much as,along with,with,like,rather than,

together with,but,except,besides,including,in addition to等。如:

①Your sister as well as your parents is very kind to me.你姐姐和你父母一样,对我很好。

②She,like you and Betty,is very clever.像你和Betty一样,她也很聪明。

3.以or,either.一or,neither…nor,not only…but also…等连接的名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词的数应与就近的名词或代词一致。如:

①was he or you in the next room just now?刚才是他还是你在隔壁房间?

②Are not only you but also he wrong?不仅你错了,而且他也错了吗?

考点 不定量词修饰名词作主语时的主谓一致

不定量词修饰名词作主语时的主谓一致主要是指不同的不定量词修饰名词作主语时,其谓语动词也将随之变化,与主语保持一致。

1.a(great)number of,many,a few修饰可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如:

①A number of students like English very much.许多学生都非常喜欢英语。

②Many bananas are in the basket.这个篮子里有许多香蕉。

2.a little,much,a great deal of,a large amount of修饰不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。如:

Much information has been written down.大量的信息已被写下了。

3.(1arge)quantities of修饰可数名词或不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数。如:

There are large quantities of food in the shop.商店里有大量的食物。

4.the number of+复数名词,the amount of+不可数名词,the quantity of+可数名词复数/不可数名词等构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数。如:

The amount of money is great.钱很多。

5.this kind of+名词单数,名词单数+ofthis kind,this kind of+名词复数等结构作主语时,其内容是单数的,谓语动词也用单数。如:

This kind of animals is dangerous.这种动物很危险。

6.these kinds of+名词复数,名词复数+of this kind等结构作主语时,其内容是复数的,谓语动词用复数。如:   

These kinds of things are produced and sold by many different companies in the U.S.美国许多不同的公司生产和出售这些产品。

7.基数词单纯表示数字作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数,但当基数词表示的不是数字而是数量时,谓语动词可用复数。由此可推断出,分数或百分数作主语时,其谓语动词的形式取决于分数或百分数所指的具体含义。如:

①A billion is a large number.十亿是个大数目。

②There are 23 students,but only one.third aye boys.有23个学生,但只有1/3是男生。

8.many a+名词单数,more than one+名词单数,a/an+名词单数+or two/and a half等作主语时,尽管是复数意义,但谓语动词多用单数。如:

①Many a student has passed the exam.许多学生都通过了考试。

②More than one question was raised.不止一个问题被提出来。

9.one and a half+名词复数,one or two+名词复数,more+名词复数+than one等结构作主语时,谓语动词多用复数。如:

①One and a half apples aye left on the table.一个半苹果剩在桌上。

②One or two reasons were suggested.有人提出了一两个理由。

 

【高考链接】

1.(2010高考英语四川卷,15)Such poets as Shakespeare                   widely read,of whose works,however,some             difficult to understand.

A.are;are    B.is;is    C.are;is   D.is:are

2.(2010高考英语陕西卷,24)It is reported that many a new house      at present in the disaster area.         

A. are being built      B. were being built

C. was being built     D. is being built

【答案】D

【解析】考查时态和主谓一致。从时间状语at present可判断出用现在时,“many a+单数可数名词”虽然表示复数意思,但要用单数谓语。

3.(2010高考英语江苏卷,33)---Is everyone here?

---Not yet……Look , there_______ the rest of our guests!

A. come     B. comes     C. is coming     D. are coming

【答案】A

【解析】考查动词的时态和主谓一致。空处所在句子为倒装句,the rest of our guests作主语,谓语动词要用复数形式;此处叙述的又是现在的事实,所以用一般现在时。come用于进行时通常用来表示按照计划或安排将要发生的动作,因此D项不恰当

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有