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论文---音乐教学改革初探----yinge

(2009-11-16 15:44:57)
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杂谈

            音乐教学改革初探--音格ying

               发表国家一级教育评论            

 近几年来,随着音乐教学的不断深入发展,在专业音乐教师的努力下,他们对音乐教学规范化做了一些有效的尝试,基本上结速了长期以来“音乐课就是唱歌课”的历史。从实用性出发,使业余爱好者对音乐有了进一步的认识,弥补了业余爱好者对音乐毫无认识的空白。在具体的叫法上,我们注意了以下几点。-
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           基本理论与识谱视唱想结合:在教学中,我们发现,乐理与视谱教学的现状不容乐观,特别是业余爱好者,他们觉得枯燥,不感兴趣。有些学生认为学无所用  C ,D,E,F,G,A,B,七个音名无法与唱名对上号。因此,教学者在讲述基本乐理的过程中,不仅要学者理解音乐的艺术特点及音乐的表现手段,更重要的是举一些他们喜欢听,喜欢的歌为实例帮助谈们理解,培养谈们的兴趣。例如音乐的特殊划分、三连音在音乐中起的作用和特殊的效果等。教学时可将有三连音的乐曲与歌曲和不用三连音的音响效果示范给学生听,使让学生留下深刻的印象。又如在讲解节奏与节拍时,可将一些典型意义的节奏型,由易到难地组合起来,再通过节拍的强弱规律让学生动口、动手地练习,这样在一定的程度上,,消除了学生对乐理的枯燥感。应在学习基本乐理的基础上,有机地将视唱融合一体,运用科学的方法,精心设计每一教学环节,在教学中尽量做到由易到难,打消学生对识谱的畏惧情绪,把握住学生的生理与心理特点,摆脱过去反复练习几首单调的音阶的状况。领略七个基本音符的感染力和即兴演唱旋律,使七个音符在一度、二度,或五度、六度的练习,不象他们想象的难以上口。在掌握好七个音符的基础上,选择有代表性的歌曲[乐曲]让学生自己视唱,增加他们学好的信心。音乐是声音的艺术,“听”也是教学的基本特点,要唱准唱好,就必须多听。听可以从现代音响中来,更直观的是从音乐教师的歌喉中来。在识谱视唱的过程中,以乐理知识为基础,变抽象枯燥的概念为生动有趣的形象,将熟悉的歌曲、乐曲做为乐理分析和视唱来练习,只有这样才能取得事半功倍的效果。-
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          在音乐欣赏,完成曲式知识与乐曲体裁的教学:音乐教学中的一个重要组成部分是音乐欣赏课,其教学目的是培养业余爱好者了解和接触国内外的优秀作品,扩大视野,提高音乐审美能力。近几年,流行音乐占有主要地位,家家户户到处听到的是各时期的流行歌曲。初学者多数不知什么是严肃音乐,什么是交响曲等,甚至连民族乐器和西洋乐器部分不清。如何引导学生进入音乐天地,必须从实际出发。选择欣赏教材,把基本音乐常识融化在听音乐之中,变理性认识为感性认识。初学音乐[声乐、器乐]的爱好者都具备了一定的文化修养,虽然音乐基础薄弱,缺少音乐素养,但他们有丰富的想象力,音乐欣赏就是引导欣赏者在欣赏作品时产生一定程度的联想,领悟音乐的内涵,但音乐与文学、美术不同,它是通过直接的音响和多彩的旋律反映现实生活,从而引起听者的情感共鸣。要使初学者理解音乐语言,必须在学者掌握好音乐知识的基础上,通过听音乐作品举出实例,完成曲式与乐曲体裁的教学。例如:小提琴协奏曲〈梁山伯与祝英台〉就是用奏鸣曲写成,学生们对这古老而优美的传说非常熟悉,通过对乐曲的理性读解,初学者们加深对共鸣曲式的理解。又如;通过抓好学者的正确发声方法的“高位置”演唱和进一步统一指挥训练,使初学者们发出自然放松的带有头声腔共鸣的声音和做出优美的指挥动作。通过科学的歌唱教学,提高初学者的能力,使之懂得如何组成一支合唱对,无论是独唱、重唱、合唱,内容都更加丰富,表演得更加娴熟。这样,理论和实践相结合更激发了初学者对音乐的热情和信心,使之感到学有所用。只有这样,才能真正提高音乐爱好者的素质。-
 
 Music reform in education preliminarystudy--yinge
 
      Announce a nation a class education comment on-
        
Several near in the last years, along with music teaching continuously thorough development, at profession music teacher of effort bottom, they turned to do to the music teaching norm some valid of try, basically knot soon for long time the history of "the music lesson is to sing a song lesson".Set out from the function, make the amateur fancier have to music further of understanding, make up amateur the fancier have no understanding to music of blank.At concrete of call method up, we attention the following what time.-
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           Basic theories with know a table to see to sing to want to combine:In the teaching, our detection, theory of music with see table teaching of the present condition allow of no optimism, especially amateur fancier, they feel lifeless, uninterested.Some student think that learning to have no use C, D, E, F, G, A, B, seven sound can't with roll call to top number.Therefore, the teaching not only want scholar the art characteristics of comprehension music in the process of relating basic theory of music and music of performance means, more important raise some they like to listen to, like of song for solid example help talk comprehension, development talk of interest.For example music of special divide the line, three connect the sound have in music of function and special effect etc..Teaching will have three connect sound of melody and song with need not three connect sound of sound effect demonstration let student listen to, make to let the student leave a deep impression.Again such as while explain in detail rhythm and rhythm, can some rhythm type of typical model meaning, from easy arrive a set to difficultly put together, again let the student speak up, begin ground practice through the strong or weak regulation of rhythm, so at certain of degree up, , cancellation the student's lifeless feeling to the theory of music.Should at study basic theory of music of foundation up, organically will see to sing fusion integral whole, usage science of method, with meticulous care design each teaching link, as far as possible attain in the teaching from easy arrive difficult, cancel a student to be afraid motion towards know table of, the confidence live the student's physiology and mental state characteristics, get away from past again and again practice several head monotonous of the condition of scale.Grasp seven atmosphere of basic note with impromptu sing on stage melody, make seven note at once, two degree, or five degree, six degree practice, not elephant they imagination of hard fluently.In control like seven note of foundation, the choice contain the representative's song[melody]let the student see to sing by himself[herself], increment they learn good confidence.Music is the art of voice, "listen to" be also the basic characteristics of teaching, sing quasi- sing good, have to much listen to.Listen to can from the modern stereo set, keep a view more of from the music teacher's song larynx.Take theory of music knowledge as foundation in the process of knowing table to see to sing, become abstract the lifeless concept be used as the song, melody for acquaint with theory of music analysis for the vivid and interesting image with see to sing practice, only have so then can obtain the effect of half effort and double results.-
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          At the music listening, the teaching of the completion song type knowledge and melody form:In music teaching of an importance constitute part is a music listening lesson, its teaching purpose be a development amateur fancier understanding and contact domestic and international of excellent work, extension visual field, exaltation music appreciate beauty ability.The last few years, the pop music occupy a main position, all families what to hear be each everywhere period of pop song.The raw recruit most doesn't know what is serious music, what is a symphony etc., even connect race musical instrument and western musical instrument department can not distinguish.How leading is the student get into music world, have to from actual set out.The choice appreciate teaching material, melt basic music common sense in listen to music and change reasonableness understanding is sensitive faculty understanding.Beginner music[vocal music, instrumental music]of the fancier all had certain of culture accomplishment, although music foundation be weak, want for music cultivated manners, they have abundant of imagination dint, music listening be leading appreciate while appreciate work creation certain degree of association of thought, comprehend music of content, music and literature, art dissimilarity, it is to pass direct of stereo set and colorful melody reflection reality life, cause the emotion of hearer thus total Ming.Want to make music language of the raw recruit comprehension, have to at the scholar control good the foundation of music knowledge up, pass to listen to music a work to enumerate a solid example, completion song type and melody form of teaching.For example:Violin concerto<beam mountain elder brother of one's father with wish an English set>be use to move a Ming song to write, the students to this thou old but beautiful of legend acquaint with very much, the reasonableness which pass to the melody read solution, the raw recruits deepen a rightness total Ming song type of comprehension.Again such as;Pass to grasp good the scholar's exactitude give out sound method of"Gao position" sing on stage with further unify conductor train, make the raw recruits send out nature relax of take to have a voice chamber total Ming of voice with do beautiful of conductor action.Pass sing of science teaching, exaltation the ability of the raw recruit, make it know how to constitute a chorus rightness, regardless solo, heavy sing, chorus, contents all more abundant, perform have to be familiar with more.So, theories and practiced to combine together to stir up raw recruit more to music of enthusiasm and confidence, make it feel learn to have to use.Only so, then can the character of real exaltation music fancier.-
 

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