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(2008-10-23 16:58:32)



分类: 英语教学与学习
Section D Models of Communication 第四节 传播模型

The Shannon-weaver model香农-韦弗模式

     Information theory developed from investigation in physics, engineering, and mathematics. Claude Shannon, a telecommunications engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories, synthesized the early work in information theory. His book with Warren Weaver, The mathematical Theory of Communication, is now a classic. The following Figure is a representation of Shannon-Weaver’ model.


    The basic model of transmission is one in which a source formulates or selects a message, consisting of signs to be transmitted.


    The transmitter converts the message into a set of signals that are sent over a channel to a receiver.


    The receiver converts the signals into a message.


    This model can be applied to a variety of situation.


    A television message is a good example in the electronic arena: the producers, directors and announcers are the source; the massage is transmitted by airwaves(channel) to the TV set(receiver), which converts electromagnetic waves back into a visual impression for the viewer.


    In interpersonal communication, the speaker’s brain is the source, the vocal system is the transmitter, and the air medium is the channel. The listener’s ear is the receiver, and the listener’s brain is the destination. The final element in this model, noise, is any disturbance in the channel that distorts or otherwise masks the signal.


    In communication technology and the design of communications system, information theory has been enormously successful.


    Technology based on this theory is providing the building blocks (积木)for constructing the Information Superhighway.


    Designers of this super-communications system promised that it would provide us with vast quantities of information at low cost in convenient, user-friendly formats, and that promise seems to have been fulfilled.


     But efficient, accurate transmission of information isn’t enough.    但是有效准确的信息传递还不够。

     Entry into the information age has been accompanied by a troubling escalation in social problems.


    Ideally, systems notions could also provide a powerful way of conceptualizing complex, social systems and analyzing the role played by communication in them.


    Important social problem might be solved.


The Osgood-Schramm Circular Model奥斯古德-施拉姆的循环模式

    The prior discussion reflects the circular process of communication inherent to the Osgood-Schramm Model, 前面的讨论反映了施拉姆模型的本质,即传播的循环过程。originated with U.S.psychologist, Charls Egerton Osgood and presented by Schramm in 1954.施拉姆模型由美国心理学家查尔斯·埃杰顿·奥斯古德发起,由施拉姆于1954年正式提出。

    In this model, the return message might take the form of feedback or a formal reply.


    According to Schramm, feedback is an invaluable tool to the communicator since it serves as a window to the receiver’s thoughts and reactions.


    Feedback to the communicator’s message exists in a variety of forms: verbal responses, applause, body movements, tone of voice, facial expressions, written responses, ect.


    If the sender is sensitive to these cues, he can adjust the message accordingly.


   On a personal level, we continually provide ourselves with feedback when we evaluate such things as our verbal and written language. This feedback can precipitate corresponding changes in self-expression and behavior.


   Messages are not typically sent utilizing only one channel.


   For instance, in a conversation between two individuals, perhaps the voice sound waves form the primary message. However, the attendant expressions and gestures, foe example, constitute a multiple channel situation.


    Likewise, multiple channels occur in mass communication.


    For example, a newspaper not only contains words, but also imparts meaning through different fonts, headline sizes, photographs, etc.


     Thus, the channel of communication consists of many parallel signals emitted from the source to the destination.


    The communication can summarily introduce fewer or additional channels, or a channel that is not parallel, to emphasize his desired message.


    Despite the adjustments made to clearly convey the desired message, the credibility and trustworthiness of the message’s originator contribute substantially(充分的) to the way the message is received.


Berlo’s SMCR Model贝罗的SMCR模型

  In Berlo’s model you will find the commonly used Source-Message-Channel-Receiver.在贝罗的模型中你会发现经常使用的信源、信息、通道、信宿。 David Berlo’s SMCR Model(1960)proposed that there are five elements within both the source/encoder and the receiver/decoder which will affect fidelity. 贝罗的SMCR模型提出在信源/编码者和信宿/解码者中,有五个要素会影响传播的精度。He enumerates what are the factors to be taken into account at each “end” of  the communication. 他列举了在传播结束的时候,我们应该考虑什么因素。Thus, for example, in principle, the more highly developed the communication skills of the source and the receiver, the more effectively the message will be encoded and decoded. 原则上说,信源和信宿的传播机能越高,信息被编码和解码的效率就越高。In fact, however, the relationship between skill level of receiver and source needs to be taken into account, since, as Berlo points out:” A given source may have a high level of skill not shared by one receiver, but shared by another. We can not predict the success of the source from his skill level alone”(Berlo, 1960)其实,信源和信宿之间的能力关系也应该考虑,正如贝罗指出的那样:“一个特定的信源可能能力较高,但是信宿的能力可能并不高。我们并不能仅仅根据信源的能力水平来预测传播的成功与否”

    For practical work in communication and media studies, Berlo’s model is a very useful point of departure.


     It may transpire as you progress in(进行) communication studies that there are many points, various assumptions which you could challenge Berlo on,


    but his model does have the merit of drawing our attention to the unpredictability of communication and does draw our attention to at least some of the factors which make it unpredictable.


    As such, it can serve as an excellent broad framework for your audience research.


    The teacher may have a seductive tone of voice, may be considered by the students to be “one of them”, may have expert and wide –ranging knowledge of some theory, may have great enthusiasm for the subject; the student may be highly intelligent , articulate, literate and diligent.


    However, if the student finds messages pointless, boring and a load of hot air(吹牛), then, clearly, fidelity will be far less than desirable.



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