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## 传播理论全文翻译（2）

(2008-10-23 16:58:32)

### 杂谈

Section D Models of Communication 第四节 传播模型

The Shannon-weaver model香农-韦弗模式

Information theory developed from investigation in physics, engineering, and mathematics. Claude Shannon, a telecommunications engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories, synthesized the early work in information theory. His book with Warren Weaver, The mathematical Theory of Communication, is now a classic. The following Figure is a representation of Shannon-Weaver’ model.

信息论从物理、工程学和数学的研究中发展而来。克劳德·香农，贝尔实验室的通信工程师，综合了信息论早期的研究工作。他与沃伦·韦弗合著的《通讯的数学理论》一书现在已经成为经典。

The basic model of transmission is one in which a source formulates or selects a message, consisting of signs to be transmitted.

基本的传输模型是信源规定或选择一个由符号构成的信息，准备传输。

The transmitter converts the message into a set of signals that are sent over a channel to a receiver.

传者把信息转化为一系列的符号，然后通过信道传给受者。

The receiver converts the signals into a message.

受者把符号转化给信息。

This model can be applied to a variety of situation.

这个模型可以应用于多种情景。

A television message is a good example in the electronic arena: the producers, directors and announcers are the source; the massage is transmitted by airwaves(channel) to the TV set(receiver), which converts electromagnetic waves back into a visual impression for the viewer.

在电子时代的电视机信息就是一个很好的例子：制片人、导演和播音员是传者（信源），信息通过无线电（频道）传给电视机（受者），电视机把电磁波转化为视觉画面供观众收看。

In interpersonal communication, the speaker’s brain is the source, the vocal system is the transmitter, and the air medium is the channel. The listener’s ear is the receiver, and the listener’s brain is the destination. The final element in this model, noise, is any disturbance in the channel that distorts or otherwise masks the signal.

在人际传播中，说话者的大脑是信源，声音系统是传输者，空气介质是信道，听者的耳朵是受者，听者的大脑是目的地。这个模型中的最后一个要素，噪声，是信道中对信号的歪曲或屏蔽的干扰。

In communication technology and the design of communications system, information theory has been enormously successful.

在通信技术和传播系统的设计中，信息论取得了巨大的成功。

Technology based on this theory is providing the building blocks (积木)for constructing the Information Superhighway.

基于信息论的技术为信息高速公路的构建提供了条件。

Designers of this super-communications system promised that it would provide us with vast quantities of information at low cost in convenient, user-friendly formats, and that promise seems to have been fulfilled.

这个超级通信系统的设计者承诺这个系统会以低成本、以用户界面友好的格式、方便地，为我们提供大量优质的信息。而这个承诺看起来似乎已经实现。

But efficient, accurate transmission of information isn’t enough.    但是有效准确的信息传递还不够。

Entry into the information age has been accompanied by a troubling escalation in social problems.

进入信息时代伴随了一些社会问题的升级。

Ideally, systems notions could also provide a powerful way of conceptualizing complex, social systems and analyzing the role played by communication in them.

从理想上来说，系统观为我们把复杂的社会系统概念化和分析传播在社会系统中所起的作用，提供了一个强大的方法，

Important social problem might be solved.

重要的社会问题可能会得到解决。

The Osgood-Schramm Circular Model奥斯古德－施拉姆的循环模式

The prior discussion reflects the circular process of communication inherent to the Osgood-Schramm Model, 前面的讨论反映了施拉姆模型的本质，即传播的循环过程。originated with U.S.psychologist, Charls Egerton Osgood and presented by Schramm in 1954.施拉姆模型由美国心理学家查尔斯·埃杰顿·奥斯古德发起，由施拉姆于1954年正式提出。

In this model, the return message might take the form of feedback or a formal reply.

在这种模式中，返回的信息可能会是反馈或正式的回答。

According to Schramm, feedback is an invaluable tool to the communicator since it serves as a window to the receiver’s thoughts and reactions.

施拉姆认为反馈对于传者是非常重要的工具，因为它好像是受者的思想和反应的一扇窗口。

Feedback to the communicator’s message exists in a variety of forms: verbal responses, applause, body movements, tone of voice, facial expressions, written responses, ect.

对于传者信息的反馈以各种形式存在：口头回答，鼓掌，身体运动，声调，面部表情，书面回答等。

If the sender is sensitive to these cues, he can adjust the message accordingly.

如果传者对这些暗示比较敏感，他就能相应地调整信息的传递。

On a personal level, we continually provide ourselves with feedback when we evaluate such things as our verbal and written language. This feedback can precipitate corresponding changes in self-expression and behavior.

在人际传播中，当我们评价诸如口头或书面语言的时候，我们不停地给自己提供反馈。反馈可以加速我们自我表现和行为的相应改变。

Messages are not typically sent utilizing only one channel.

信息不总是用一个通道来发送的。

For instance, in a conversation between two individuals, perhaps the voice sound waves form the primary message. However, the attendant expressions and gestures, foe example, constitute a multiple channel situation.

例如两个人在谈话的时候，可能声波是首要的信息，然而，两人的表情和姿势构成了多通道传播的情景。

Likewise, multiple channels occur in mass communication.

同样地，多通道传播业发生于大众传播当中。

For example, a newspaper not only contains words, but also imparts meaning through different fonts, headline sizes, photographs, etc.

比如报纸不仅包含文字，还通过不同的字体，大字标题字号，图片等来传递信息。

Thus, the channel of communication consists of many parallel signals emitted from the source to the destination.

这样，传播的通道包括从信源至信宿的发出的多个平行信号。

The communication can summarily introduce fewer or additional channels, or a channel that is not parallel, to emphasize his desired message.

在传播中可以引入或多或少的通道，或者不平行的通道来强调传者所要传递的信息。

Despite the adjustments made to clearly convey the desired message, the credibility and trustworthiness of the message’s originator contribute substantially（充分的） to the way the message is received.

尽管在传递信息时可以通过调节使信息更明确地传递，但信息的可信性和可靠性对于信息的接收方式更为重要。

Berlo’s SMCR Model贝罗的SMCR模型

In Berlo’s model you will find the commonly used Source-Message-Channel-Receiver.在贝罗的模型中你会发现经常使用的信源、信息、通道、信宿。 David Berlo’s SMCR Model(1960)proposed that there are five elements within both the source/encoder and the receiver/decoder which will affect fidelity. 贝罗的SMCR模型提出在信源/编码者和信宿/解码者中，有五个要素会影响传播的精度。He enumerates what are the factors to be taken into account at each “end” of  the communication. 他列举了在传播结束的时候，我们应该考虑什么因素。Thus, for example, in principle, the more highly developed the communication skills of the source and the receiver, the more effectively the message will be encoded and decoded. 原则上说，信源和信宿的传播机能越高，信息被编码和解码的效率就越高。In fact, however, the relationship between skill level of receiver and source needs to be taken into account, since, as Berlo points out:” A given source may have a high level of skill not shared by one receiver, but shared by another. We can not predict the success of the source from his skill level alone”(Berlo, 1960)其实，信源和信宿之间的能力关系也应该考虑，正如贝罗指出的那样：“一个特定的信源可能能力较高，但是信宿的能力可能并不高。我们并不能仅仅根据信源的能力水平来预测传播的成功与否”

For practical work in communication and media studies, Berlo’s model is a very useful point of departure.

对于传播和媒体研究的实际工作，贝罗的模型是一个很有用的出发点

It may transpire as you progress in（进行） communication studies that there are many points, various assumptions which you could challenge Berlo on,

当你进行传播研究的时候，你可能会发现在传播研究中有很多观点、很多假设可能对贝罗的观点提出挑战。

but his model does have the merit of drawing our attention to the unpredictability of communication and does draw our attention to at least some of the factors which make it unpredictable.

但这种模型确实具有优点，它使我们注意传播的不可预测性；它也确实使我们至少注意到了一些不可预测的因素。

As such, it can serve as an excellent broad framework for your audience research.

基于此，它可以作为一个优秀的广泛的受众研究框架。

The teacher may have a seductive tone of voice, may be considered by the students to be “one of them”, may have expert and wide –ranging knowledge of some theory, may have great enthusiasm for the subject; the student may be highly intelligent , articulate, literate and diligent.

教师可能会有诱人的语调，可能会被学生认为是他们中的一员，可能会对某些理论具有专业的和广播的知识，可能会对这门课很有激情；学生可能很聪明，口齿伶俐，有一定的文学修养，很勤奋。

However, if the student finds messages pointless, boring and a load of hot air（吹牛）, then, clearly, fidelity will be far less than desirable.

然而，如果学生发现信息毫无意义、无聊且都是吹牛，那么很显然，传播的精度会比预计的差很多。

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