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Process of Communication :A Basic Linear Model

(2007-11-06 09:39:15)


分类: 英语教学与学习

Process of Communication :A Basic Linear Model


    To gain a more complete overview of what take place when people engage in an cat of communication, let us first analyze the process in terms of six specific stages that take place in the following order:


      1.the act of human communication begins with a sender, who decides to initiate a message with a specific set of intended meanings


      2.the sender then encodes the intended meanings by selecting specific words and gestures that receiver will presumably understand.


      3.The message is then transmitted—spoken or written—so as to cross the space between sender and receiver.


      4.The receiver, the individual to whom the message is directed, attends to and perceives the incoming message as a specific pattern of symbols.


       5.The receiver then decodes the message by constructing his or her own interpretations of meanings of the symbols


       6.As a result of interpreting the message, the receiver is influenced in some way. That is, the meaning of the communication has some effect.


      This is a basic linear model of human communication. It is obvious that such a model greatly oversimplifies the process.


      However, its value is that it permits us to understand each of the stages represented.


      Look at in this somewhat artificial way, the communicative act begins, goes through the stages and then stops, like a tape recorder being turned on and off.


       In reality, the conversations that we engage in with people around us are much more complex.


       Most face-to-face human conversations are transactional(相互影响) in that each person encodes and decodes messages at the some time and is alert to all kinds of cues from the other person.


        Many factors influence the process. What has already been said plays a key part in what comes next. 许多因素可以影响传播的过程。已经说过的话可能对将要说的内容有重要的影响。

        In addition, the meanings constructed by each party are influenced by the relationship between sender and receiver.


         Moreover, the sociocultural situation and even the physical surroundings can influence the meanings constructed by both parties.


       In spite of its simplicity and obvious limitations, the basic linear model is useful for analyzing the communication process, breaking it down into its distinct stages so as to understand what happens at each.


        Also, those stages are at the heart of the complex transactions of any conversation. 同时,这些阶段也是所有复杂对话的核心。That is, even if both parties are simultaneously encoding, transmitting, and decoding, they are still serving as senders and receivers, initiating and receiving message.也就是说,传播双方既是传者也是受者,他们同时编码,传送,解码;同时发送和接收信息。 In other words, the six stages listed above are embedded within the complexities of transactional communication.换句话说,以上所列六个阶段扎根于相互传播的复杂性。 Thus , the basic linear model simplifies the task of looking carefully at each stage of the process separately so as to see exactly how people use symbols and conventions of meaning to accomplish the act of human communication.这样,简单直线模型简化了任务,使我们通过分别对各个阶段的仔细观察就可以精确地知道人们如何使用符号和意义约定来完成人类传播的行为的。

       We can illustrate the six stages of our linear model with a simple act of communication in which one person says “Hello” and another says “Hi” in reply. People seldom transmit messages of a single word, as in this example, but the principles do not change whether communicators use only one symbol or a complex pattern of verbal and nonverbal symbols linked by rules of syntax and grammar. Therefore, we can use a one-word exchange to keep things at the simplest possible level.




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