加载中…
个人资料
juney
juney
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:46,845
  • 关注人气:94
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

Process of Communication :A Basic Linear Model

(2007-11-06 09:39:15)
标签:

教育杂谈

分类: 英语教学与学习
 

Process of Communication :A Basic Linear Model

传播的过程:一个简单的直线模型

    To gain a more complete overview of what take place when people engage in an cat of communication, let us first analyze the process in terms of six specific stages that take place in the following order:

      为了明确当人们参与到传播行为的时候究竟发生了什么,我们首先依据按照以下顺序发生的六个具体阶段,来分析一下传播的过程

      1.the act of human communication begins with a sender, who decides to initiate a message with a specific set of intended meanings

     传播的行为开始与传者,他决定传送一个由一组具体所指意义构成的消息

      2.the sender then encodes the intended meanings by selecting specific words and gestures that receiver will presumably understand.

     传者选择接受者可能理解的特定的句子或姿势,来对所指意义进行编码。

      3.The message is then transmitted—spoken or written—so as to cross the space between sender and receiver.

       信息然后被传输出去,以口头或者书面的形式,从而跨越传者和受者之间的空间距离。

      4.The receiver, the individual to whom the message is directed, attends to and perceives the incoming message as a specific pattern of symbols.

       受者,信息传递的对象,注意并以具体的符号类型感知信息。

       5.The receiver then decodes the message by constructing his or her own interpretations of meanings of the symbols

       然后受者通过建构自己对符号所表达意义的解释来对信息进行解码

       6.As a result of interpreting the message, the receiver is influenced in some way. That is, the meaning of the communication has some effect.

        解释信息的结果是,受着以某种方式受到了影响。这就是说传播起到了一定的作用。

      This is a basic linear model of human communication. It is obvious that such a model greatly oversimplifies the process.

      这就是人类传播的直线模型。很显然,这种模型大大简化了传播的过程。

      However, its value is that it permits us to understand each of the stages represented.

      然而它的价值在于它可以使我们理解每个阶段所代表的传播过程。

      Look at in this somewhat artificial way, the communicative act begins, goes through the stages and then stops, like a tape recorder being turned on and off.

      传播行为开始,经过各个阶段,然后停止,这个有点人造的方式,象是磁带录音机的播放和停止。

       In reality, the conversations that we engage in with people around us are much more complex.

       现实中我们参与的和我们周围的人们的对话却复杂的多。

       Most face-to-face human conversations are transactional(相互影响) in that each person encodes and decodes messages at the some time and is alert to all kinds of cues from the other person.

       大多面对面的人际交流在人们对信息编码和解码的同时互相影响,并且从其它人的各种各样的暗示中得到启发。

        Many factors influence the process. What has already been said plays a key part in what comes next. 许多因素可以影响传播的过程。已经说过的话可能对将要说的内容有重要的影响。

        In addition, the meanings constructed by each party are influenced by the relationship between sender and receiver.

        另外,每一方所建构的意义还受传者和受者的的关系的影响。(朋友、老板-员工、父母-孩子)

         Moreover, the sociocultural situation and even the physical surroundings can influence the meanings constructed by both parties.

         而且,社会文化环境,甚至是周围的物理环境也可能会对双方的意义建构产生影响。

       In spite of its simplicity and obvious limitations, the basic linear model is useful for analyzing the communication process, breaking it down into its distinct stages so as to understand what happens at each.

       尽管简单和有明显的局限,简单直线模型还是很有用的。因为它分析了传播的过程,并把传播过程分为不同的阶段,使我们便于理解在每个阶段发生了什么。

        Also, those stages are at the heart of the complex transactions of any conversation. 同时,这些阶段也是所有复杂对话的核心。That is, even if both parties are simultaneously encoding, transmitting, and decoding, they are still serving as senders and receivers, initiating and receiving message.也就是说,传播双方既是传者也是受者,他们同时编码,传送,解码;同时发送和接收信息。 In other words, the six stages listed above are embedded within the complexities of transactional communication.换句话说,以上所列六个阶段扎根于相互传播的复杂性。 Thus , the basic linear model simplifies the task of looking carefully at each stage of the process separately so as to see exactly how people use symbols and conventions of meaning to accomplish the act of human communication.这样,简单直线模型简化了任务,使我们通过分别对各个阶段的仔细观察就可以精确地知道人们如何使用符号和意义约定来完成人类传播的行为的。

       We can illustrate the six stages of our linear model with a simple act of communication in which one person says “Hello” and another says “Hi” in reply. People seldom transmit messages of a single word, as in this example, but the principles do not change whether communicators use only one symbol or a complex pattern of verbal and nonverbal symbols linked by rules of syntax and grammar. Therefore, we can use a one-word exchange to keep things at the simplest possible level.

       我们可以使用一个简单的传播行为来阐释直线模型的六个阶段,比如一个人说“hello”,另一个人回答说“hi”。人们很少只用一个词来传送信息(但这个例子中却只使用了一个),但是不管是用一个符号还是由句法规则和语法规则连接起来的复杂的模型,原则是不变的。因此我们可以使用一个词的对话来使事情保持在最简单的层级(简单)。

      以上翻译属作者(杭州师范大学教育科学学院杨俊锋)原创,请各位批评指正。如需引用请注明出处。

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有