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Heating 供热

(2009-08-13 11:17:26)
标签:

供热

强制送风

散热器

杂谈

分类: 工程翻译

 

There are different types of standard heating systems. Central heating is often used in cold climates to heat private houses and public buildings. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air, all in a central location such as a furnace room in a home or a mechanical room in a large building. The system also contains either ductwork, for forced air systems, or piping to distribute a heated fluid and radiators to transfer this heat to the air. The term radiator in this context is misleading since most heat transfer from the heat exchanger is by convection, not radiation. The radiators may be mounted on walls or buried in the floor to give under-floor heat.

供热系统有几种典型形式。集中供热常用于寒冷地区的住宅和公用建筑。这个系统包含锅炉,熔炉和热泵来加热水,蒸汽或空气,所有设备集中于家里的锅炉房和大型建筑的机房。系统包括强制送风的风路系统或加热流体的管路系统,通过散热器传给空气。这里散热器有可能引起误解,因为换热器的传热是对流过程,而不是辐射,散热器必须安装在墙下或地板内地暖供热。

In boiler fed or radiant heating systems, all but the simplest systems have a pump to circulate the water and ensure an equal supply of heat to all the radiators. The heated water can also be fed through another (secondary) heat exchanger inside a storage cylinder to provide hot running water.

在锅炉供热和辐射供热系统,几乎最简单的系统要有一个泵进行水循环,保证各个散热器供热平衡,可以通过储水箱的二次交换器进行热循环水补水。

Forced air systems send heated air through ductwork. During warm weather the same ductwork can be used for air conditioning. The forced air can also be filtered or put through air cleaners.

强制送风系统通过风管送热风,热天风管也可用于空调强制送风也可过滤或连接空气净化器。

Heating can also be provided from electric, or resistance heating using a filament that becomes hot when electricity is caused to pass through it. This type of heat can be found in electric baseboard heaters, portable electric heaters, and as backup or supplemental heating for heat pump (or reverse heating) system.

同样可通过电加热或电阻加热,通电时,电阻丝可供热。有壁式电暖气,便携式电暖气,同样可作为热泵加热系统的补充。

The heating elements (radiators or vents) should be located in the coldest part of the room, typically next to the windows to minimize condensation and offset the convective air current formed in the room due to the air next to the window becoming negatively buoyant due to the cold glass. Devices that direct vents away from windows to prevent "wasted" heat defeat this design intent. Cold air drafts can contribute significantly to subjectively feeling colder than the average room temperature. Therefore, it is important to control the air leaks from outside in addition to proper design of the heating system.

加热元件应置于屋内最冷部位。一般位于床下,这样可减少冷凝和抵消屋内空气对流,因为玻璃下冷空气会下降。远离窗户的设备耗热增加违背了设计意图。冷气流会主观的感到比室内温度要低。因此除了合理设计采暖系统,控制外面冷空气渗透也很重要。

The invention of central heating is often credited to the ancient Romans, who installed a system of air ducts called "hypocaust" in the walls and floors of public baths and private villas.

集中供热的发明要归功于古罗马。他们在公共浴池和私人别墅的墙内和地板内安装所谓火炕的风道系统。(胡扯,中国古代早就发明了)

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