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交易心理4

(2009-03-31 13:46:14)
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杂谈

When I was in college in the late 1960s, one of my favorite movies was Cool Hand Luke, starring Paul Newman. It was a very popular movie back then, so I’m sure some of you have seen it on late-night TV. Luke was in a Georgia chain gang. After he escaped and was caught for the second time, the warden and guards were determined not to let Luke make fools of them a third time. So while forcing him to do an inordinate amount of work with no rest and giving him intermittent beatings, they kept asking, “Have you got your mind right yet, Luke?” Eventually, after considerable suffering, Luke finally told the prison bosses that he had his mind right. They said that if he didn’t, and tried to escape again, they’d kill him for sure. Of course, Luke attempted another escape, and true to their word, the guards killed him.
60年代末我在读大学,我最喜欢的电影中有一部叫《铁窗喋血》,是保罗?纽曼主演的。这部电影在当时很流行,所以我相信有些人后来会在电视上面看见。卢克在乔治亚州服刑。他第二次越狱,被抓住以后,监狱长和守卫都觉得再也不能被卢克愚弄了。所以他们逼他做很多事,还会时不时地打他,他们一直在说:“卢克,你想清楚了没有?”卢克受了不少苦,最后告诉监狱长他想清楚了。他们说,如果他还没想清楚,如果还越狱,他们肯定会杀了他。当然了,卢克再次企图越狱,守卫们真的杀了他。
Like Luke, many traders, whether they realize it or not, are trying to have it their way by beating the market; as a result, they get financially and emotionally killed. There are easier, infinitely more satisfying ways of getting what you want from the market, but first you have to be willing to “get your mind right.”
就像卢克一样,不管是不是真的明白,很多交易者都想战胜市场,结果他们在金钱上和精神上都被杀了。其实有更轻松的,很多更好的方法从市场中得到你想要的东西,但首先你要“想清楚”。
CHAPTER 5 THE DYNAMICS OF PERCEPTION
第05章 认知的动力
One of the primary objectives of this book is to teach you how to take the threat of pain out of market information. The market doesn’t generate happy or painful information. From the markets perspective, it’s all simply information. It may seem as if the market is causing you to feel the way you do at any given moment, but that’s not the case. It’s your own mental framework that determines how you perceive the information, how you feel, and, as a result, whether or not you are in the most conducive state of mind to spontaneously enter the flow and take advantage of whatever the market is offering.
本书的一个最初目的就是教你如何从市场信息中去除痛苦的威胁。市场不会制造快乐的信息,也不会制造痛苦的信息。从市场的角度来说,它们仅仅是信息。看起来好像是市场让你做什么事,但不是的。不管你的感觉如何,不管你的思想是否有助于你进场抢优势以得到你想要的,其实是你的思想在解读信息。
Professionals don’t perceive anything about the markets as painful; therefore, no threat exists for them. If there’s no threat, there’s nothing to defend against. As a result, there isn’t any reason for their conscious or subconscious defense mechanisms to kick in. That’s why professionals can see and do things that mystify everyone else. They’re in the flow, because they’re perceiving an endless stream of opportunities, and when they’re not in the flow, the very best of the best can recognize that fact and then compensate by either scaling back or not trading at all.
专业交易者不会把市场的任何信息看成痛苦的,因此,就没有什么能威胁他们。如果没有威胁,就没有什么要防范的。结果就是他们的意识或潜意识方面的防范系统就不会自动起作用。这就是为什么专业交易者看见的事和做的事都让别人迷惑不解。他们顺势交易,因为他们看见了无限的机会;如果他们没有顺势交易,最优秀的人会发现这个事实,他们会通过剥头皮或观望的方式来弥补。
If your goal is to be able to trade like the professionals, you must be able to see the market from an objective perspective, without distortion. You must be able to act without resistance or hesitation, but with the appropriate amount of positive restraint to counteract the negative effects of overconfidence or euphoria. In essence, your objective is to be able to create a unique state of mind, a traders mentality. When you’ve accomplished this, everything else about your success as a trader will fall into place.
如果你的目标是像专业交易者那样交易,你必须用客观的态度来看待市场,不能对市场有曲解。你在交易时必须没有压力或不会犹豫,还必须用积极的态度克服过分自信或过分兴奋的消极效果。核心思想就是,你的目标就是形成交易者的思想。当你完成了这些,关于交易的任何方面都会各就各位。
To help you achieve that objective, I’m going to give you a way to redefine your relationship to market information so that there will be little or no potential to perceive any of it as threatening. By “redefine,” I mean to change your perspective and operate out of a mental framework that keeps you focused on the opportunities available instead of tapping you into emotional pain.
为了帮助你实现这个目标,我将告诉你重新定义你和市场信息的关系,这样就你不会或很少会把市场看成威胁。我说“重新定义”,意思是说改变你的认知和思想框架,让你专注于机会,而不涉及精神痛苦。
DEBUGGING YOUR MENTAL SOFTWARE
为你的思想软件找茬
In other words, we want to get the bugs out of our mental software code and get our minds right. Doing this effectively will require an understanding of the nature of mental energy and how you can use that energy to change a perspective that is generating an unwanted, negative, emotional response to market information. There’s much to learn, but I think you will be amazed at how some simple changes can make a huge difference in your trading results.
换句话说,我们想把思想软件里面的错误找出来,让自己的思想是正确的。要想有效地做到这点,需要知道思想能量,还要知道如何改变这个能量,如何改变你从市场得到的不喜欢的、消极的、情绪的反应。要学的东西很多,但你会吃惊地发现简单的改变就能产生巨大的不同的交易结果。
The process of trading starts with perceiving an opportunity. Without the perception of an opportunity, we wouldn’t have a reason to trade. So I think it is only fitting that we start our examination of mental energy by breaking down the process of perception. What are the underlying dynamics of perception? What factors determine how we perceive information or what we perceive in relationship to what is available? How is perception connected with what we experience at any given moment?
交易是从看到机会开始的。如果没有看到机会,我们没有理由去交易。所以我想通过解剖认知的过程,我们就可以检查思想能量,让一开始就是对的。认知下面的动力是什么?是什么因素决定我们对信息的认知,或我们是如何认知事物的?我们在任何时刻的认知是如何联系起来的?
Probably the easiest way to understand the dynamics of perception and answer these questions is to think of everything (and I do… tion of forces - forces that generate information about the properties, characteristics, and traits that make them uniquely what they are.
可能最简单的理解认知的动力的答案是把任何事想(张轶注:英语影印件在这里有缺失,无法翻译完整)——力量产生了信息,是关于性质、特点和特色的信息,这些信息用独特的方式表明它们是什么。
Everything that exists outside of our bodies - all plants and all categories of life; all planetary phenomena in the form of weather conditions, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions; all active and inert physical matter; and all non-corporeal phenomena such as light, sound waves, microwaves, and radiation - generates information about the nature of its existence. That information has the potential to act as a force on one of our five physical senses.
我们身体之外的任何东西——所有的星球和所有的生命;所有的天气现象、地震和火山爆发;活跃的和不活跃的物体;所有的非肉体现象,比如光、声波、微波和辐射——产生了自然存在的信息。这些信息有可能对我们的某个物理感官产生作用力。
Before we go any further, notice that I use the verb “generate” in an all-inclusive way implying that everything is in an active state of expression, including inanimate objects. To illustrate why I do that, let’s look at something as simple as a rock. It’s an inanimate object, composed of unique atoms and molecules expressing themselves as a rock. I can use the active verb “expressing” because the atoms and molecules that make up the rock are in constant motion. So, even though the rock doesn’t appear active except in the most abstract sense, it has characteristics and properties that will act as forces on our senses, causing us to experience and make distinctions about the nature of its existence. For example, a rock has texture, and that texture acts as a force on our sense of touch if we run our fingers across the rock’s surface. A rock has shape and color, which act as a force on our vision; the rock takes up space that no other object can occupy, so that we see it instead of an empty space or some other object. A rock can also have an odor that acts as a force on our sense of smell, or taste like something, although I haven’t licked any rocks lately to find out.
在更深入的讲解之前,请注意我用了“产生”这个动词,这表明任何事物都在表达自己,包括非生物。为了说明我为什么这么做,让我们看看简单的石头。它是非生物,独特的原子和分子表明它们是石头。我可以用动词“表达”,因为组成石头的原子和分子在不停地运动。所以,即使石头看起来没有动,它们的特点和性质对我们的感觉有作用力,让我们的经验可以区别它们,并知道他们的存在。比如,石头有纹路,如果我们用手指摸石头,我们能感觉到纹路。石头有形状和颜色,对我们的视觉有作用力。石头占据的位置,其它东西就不能占据了,所以我们能在空间上感觉到石头的存在,而不是空的或是其它东西。石头还有味道,对我们的嗅觉和味觉有作用力,虽然我自己并没有舔过石头。
When we encounter anything in the environment that expresses its properties and characteristics, an exchange of energy takes place. Energy from the outside, in the form of whatever is expressing itself, gets transformed by our nervous system into electrical impulses and then gets stored in our inner, mental environment. To be more specific, whatever we are seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, or feeling through our senses gets transformed into electrical impulses of energy and stored in our mental environment as a memory and/or dis-
不管在什么环境下遇到了什么,如果它在表达自己的性质和特点,那么就有能量交换。外部的能量,不管它在表达什么,通过我们的神经系统变成电脉冲,然后储存在思想环境里。更具体地说,不管是什么,我们看见的、听见的、尝到的、闻到的或感觉到的,都变成了电脉冲的能量,存储在思想环境里,作为记忆和……(张轶注:英语影印件在这里有缺失,无法翻译完整)
I think all of this is fairly self-evident to most people, but there are some profound implications here that aren’t self-evident, and we typically take them completely for granted. First of all, there’s a cause-and-effect relationship that exists between ourselves and everything else that exists in the external environment. As a result, our encounters with external forces create what I am going to call “energy structures” inside our minds. The memories, distinctions, and, ultimately, the beliefs we acquire throughout our lives exist in our mental environment in the form of structured energy. Structured energy is an abstract concept. You might be asking yourself, “How does energy take shape or form?” Before I answer this question, an even more fundamental question needs to be addressed. How do we know that memories, distinctions, and beliefs exist in the form of energy in the first place?
我相信对大部分人来说,这些都是不言而喻的,但是有一些深刻的含义就没有这么明显,我们则想当然地接受了。首先,在外部环境中,我们和任何事物之间都有一个因果关系。
I don’t know if it’s been scientifically proven or completely accepted by the scientific community, but ask yourself in what other form could these mental components exist? Here’s what we know for sure: Anything composed of atoms and molecules takes up space and, therefore, can be observed. If memories, distinctions, and beliefs existed in some physical form, then we should be able to observe them. To my knowledge, no such observations have been made. The scientific community has dissected brain tissue (both living and dead) examined it at the level of the individual atom, mapped various regions of the brain in terms of their functions, but nobody, as yet, has observed a memory, distinction, or belief in its natural form. By “in its natural form” I mean that although a scientist can observe the individual brain cells that contain certain memories, he can’t experience those memories first hand. He can only experience them if the person to whom the memories belong is alive and chooses to express them in some way.
我不知道这个观点是不是被科学地证明了,也不知道是不是被科学界接受了,但是你可以问自己,这些精神因素会以什么形式存在?我们可以确定这些:任何由原子和分子组成的东西都有空间,因此能被看见。如果记忆、辨别和信念有物理形态,那么我们就能看见它们。就我所知,目前没有这样的观察方法。科学上已经可以对脑组织进行解剖(无论是死体还是活体),可以在原子层次分析它,并画出不同功能的脑结构。但是至今无人能观察到记忆、辨别和信念的自然状态。我说的“自然状态”是指,即使科学家可以观察脑细胞,但是他不能体验脑细胞的记忆。如果一个人愿意分享他的记忆,科学家才能体会到他的记忆。
If memories, distinctions, and beliefs don’t exist as physical matter, then there really isn’t any alternative way for them to exist except as some form of energy. If this is in fact the case, can this energy take on a specific shape? Can it be structured in a way that reflects the external forces that caused it to come into existence? Most definitely! Is there anything in the environment that is analogous to energy having shape
如果记忆、辨别和信念没有物理形态,那么它们就没有存在的方式,除非以能量的形式存在。如果事实就是如此,那么这个能量有具体的形状吗?外部的力量会改变它们的结构吗?更重要的!自然界有什么东西和能量的形态相似(张轶注:英语影印件在这里有缺失,无法翻译完整)
Thoughts are energy. Because you think in a language, your thoughts are structured by the limitations and rules that govern the particular language in which you think. When you express those thoughts aloud, you create sound waves, which are a form of energy. The sound waves created by the interaction of your vocal cords and tongue are structured by the content of your message. Microwaves are energy. Many phone calls are relayed by microwaves, which means that the microwave energy has to be structured in a way that reflects the message it is carrying. Laser light is energy, and if you’ve ever witnessed a demonstration of a laser light show, or laser art, what you’ve seen is pure energy taking a shape that reflects the creative desires of the artists.
思想就是能量。因为当你用一个语言去思考时,这个语言的限制和原则就会对你的思想形成一定的架构。当你大声表达这些思想时,你就制造了声波,声波就是一种能量。根据你要传达信息的不同,你的声带和舌头产生的声波也不同。微波是能量。很多电话需要微波传送,这意味着微波的能量必须有一定的结构,这样才能传送信息。激光是能量,如果你见过激光表达或激光艺术,它们的表达形式就是艺术家创造的。
All of these are good examples of how energy can take shape, form, and structure. Of course, there are many more, but there is one more example that illustrates the point in the most graphic way. At the most fundamental level, what are dreams? I am not asking you what dreams mean or what you think their purpose is, but rather, what are they? What are their properties? If we assume that dreams take place within the confines of our skulls, then they can’t be composed of atoms and molecules, because there wouldn’t be enough space for all of the things that exist and take place in our dreams. Dream experiences seem to have the same proportions and dimensions as the things we perceive when we are awake and experiencing life through our five senses. The only way this could be possible is if dreams were a form of structured energy, because energy can take on any size or dimension, but, in doing so, doesn’t actually take up any space.
这些都说明了能量是如何形成、组成和构成形状的。当然了,还有很多例子,但是还有一个例子用最形象的方式说明了要点。从最基本的角度来说,什么是梦?我不是问你梦的寓意或预示什么,我是问你梦的定义是什么?性质是什么?如果我们认为梦产生在头骨以内,那么它们不是由原子和分子组成的,因为不可能有这么多的空间让梦中的事一一发生。梦中的体验和我们在现实中体验的空间大小是一样的。梦能产生的唯一原因是梦是一种能量结构,因为能量可以以任何大小或空间形式存在,这样也不占空间。
Now, if it hasn’t already occurred to you, there’s something here that’s really profound. If the memories, distinctions, and beliefs we’ve acquired as a result of our encounters with the external environment represent what we’ve learned about that environment and how it works; and if these memories, distinctions, and beliefs exist in our mental environment as energy; and if energy doesn’t take up any space; then it also could be said that we have an unlimited capacity for learning. Well, not only do I think it could be said, I’m saying it.
如果你不明白,那么还有其它有深刻含义的事来说明。如果记忆、特征和信念代表了我们对外部环境的认知,并在我们的思想环境中以能量的形式存在;如果能量不占有空间,那么可以说我们的学习能力是无穷的。嗯,我这么想,也这么说。
Consider the development of human consciousness and what to know to function effectively compared to just 100 years ago. There is absolutely nothing to indicate that we don’t have an unlimited capacity to learn. The difference between what we are aware of now and what we can do as a result of this expanded awareness would boggle the mind of anyone living 100 years ago.
和100年前相比,考虑一下人类意识的发展和学习效率的发展。事实说明我们的学习能力是无穷的。我们现在的认知和能力会让100年前的人吃惊的。
PERCEPTION AND LEARNING
认知和学习
However, we must be careful not to equate storage capacity with learning capacity. Learning, and becoming aware of what is available to be learned, is not just a function of storage capacity. If it were, then what would stop us from knowing everything? And if we knew everything, then what would stop us from perceiving every possible characteristic, property, or trait of everything that is expressing itself in any given moment? What stops us now?
然而,不能把储存能力和学习能力等同起来。学习,并知道要学什么不仅仅是储存能力的一部分。如果是的,那么是什么在阻止我们学习所有的知识?如果我们知道所有的知识,那么是什么阻止我们认知到所有可能的特点、性质或特色?是什么在阻止我们?
These questions get to the very heart of why you have to understand that mental components like memories, distinctions, and beliefs exist as energy. Anything that is energy has the potential to act as a force expressing its form, and that is exactly what our memories, distinctions and beliefs do. They act as a force on our senses from the inside, expressing their form and content, and, in the process of doing so, they have a profoundly limiting effect on the information we perceive in any given moment, making much of the information that is available from the environment’s perspective, and the possibilities inherent within that information, literally invisible.
这些问题很深入地说明了为什么你要把记忆、辨别和信念等思想构成开成是能量的存在。任何是能量的东西都有可能通过力量的形式表达自己,就像记忆、特征和信念一样。我们在内部思考,通过行动来表达,在任何时刻,它们会对我们的认知产生影响,让很多信息和概率变得渺茫。
I am saying here that, in any given moment the environment is generating an enormous amount of information about its properties, characteristics, and traits. Some of that information is beyond the physiological range of our senses. For example, our eyes can’t see every wavelength of light nor can our ears hear every frequency of sound the environment produces, so there’s definitely a range of information that is beyond the physiological capabilities of our senses.
我是说,不管什么时候,环境都会产生大量关于性质、特征和特点的信息。有些信息是我们无法感觉到的。比如,我们的眼睛不能看见所有波段的光线,我们的二段不能听见所有频率的声音,所以有些信息是我们肯定无法感觉到的。

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